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See detailGoal-Directed Decision Procedures for Input/Output Logics
Steen, Alexander UL

in Marra, Alessandra; Liu, Fenrong; Portner, Paul (Eds.) et al Deontic Logic and Normative Systems - 15th International Conference, DEON 2020/2021 (in press)

Input/Output (I/O) logics address the abstract study of conditional norms. Here, norms are represented as pairs of formulas instead of statements that themselves carry truth-values. I/O logics have been ... [more ▼]

Input/Output (I/O) logics address the abstract study of conditional norms. Here, norms are represented as pairs of formulas instead of statements that themselves carry truth-values. I/O logics have been studied thoroughly in the past, including further applications and refinements. In this paper, a class of automated reasoning procedures is presented that, given a set of norms and a concrete situation, decide whether a specific state of affairs is obligatory according to the output operations of I/O logics. The procedures are parametric in the underlying logical formalism and can be instantiated with different classical objects logics, such as propositional logic or first-order logic. The procedures are shown to be correct, and a proof-of-concept implementation for propositional I/O logics is surveyed. [less ▲]

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See detailGOING DEEPER WITH NEURAL NETWORKS WITHOUT SKIP CONNECTIONS
Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Shabayek, Abd El Rahman UL; Aouada, Djamila UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP 2020), Abu Dhabi, UAE, Oct 25–28, 2020 (2020, May 30)

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See detailI/O Logic Workbench
Steen, Alexander UL

Software (2020)

The I/O Logic Workbench is aimed at providing a browser-based automated reasoning system for various I/O logics. In short, the system allows you to input a set of norms and an input (the description of ... [more ▼]

The I/O Logic Workbench is aimed at providing a browser-based automated reasoning system for various I/O logics. In short, the system allows you to input a set of norms and an input (the description of the current situation), and provides automated means for inferring whether a certain formula can be derived as an obligation from this. [less ▲]

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See detailThe atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 is a broad-spectrum scavenger for opioid peptides.
Meyrath, Max; Szpakowska, Martyna; Zeiner, Julian et al

in Nature communications (2020), 11(1), 3033

Endogenous opioid peptides and prescription opioid drugs modulate pain, anxiety and stress by activating opioid receptors, currently classified into four subtypes. Here we demonstrate that ACKR3/CXCR7 ... [more ▼]

Endogenous opioid peptides and prescription opioid drugs modulate pain, anxiety and stress by activating opioid receptors, currently classified into four subtypes. Here we demonstrate that ACKR3/CXCR7, hitherto known as an atypical scavenger receptor for chemokines, is a broad-spectrum scavenger of opioid peptides. Phylogenetically, ACKR3 is intermediate between chemokine and opioid receptors and is present in various brain regions together with classical opioid receptors. Functionally, ACKR3 is a scavenger receptor for a wide variety of opioid peptides, especially enkephalins and dynorphins, reducing their availability for the classical opioid receptors. ACKR3 is not modulated by prescription opioids, but we show that an ACKR3-selective subnanomolar competitor peptide, LIH383, can restrain ACKR3's negative regulatory function on opioid peptides in rat brain and potentiate their activity towards classical receptors, which may open alternative therapeutic avenues for opioid-related disorders. Altogether, our results reveal that ACKR3 is an atypical opioid receptor with cross-family ligand selectivity. [less ▲]

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