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See detailEngagement féministe en sons et en images dans l’œuvre cinématographique d’Assia Djebar
Barthelmebs-Raguin, Hélène UL

in Guaaybess, Tourya; Di Cesare, Nurit; Levy, Jessica (Eds.) et al Femmes engagées au cœur de l’action. Mise en récit(s), mise en image(s) (in press)

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See detailAutomated Fault Tolerance Augmentation in Model-Driven Engineering for CPS
Hu, Tingting UL; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Navet, Nicolas UL et al

in Computer Standards & Interfaces (in press)

Cyber-Physical Systems are usually subject to dependability requirements such as safety and reliability constraints. Over the last 50 years, a body of efficient fault-tolerance mechanisms has been devised ... [more ▼]

Cyber-Physical Systems are usually subject to dependability requirements such as safety and reliability constraints. Over the last 50 years, a body of efficient fault-tolerance mechanisms has been devised to handle faults occurring at run-time. However, properly implementing those mechanisms is a time-consuming task that requires a great deal of know-how. In this paper, we propose a general framework which allows system designers to decouple functional and non-functional concerns, and express non- functional properties at design time using domain-specific languages. In the spirit of generative programming, functional models are then automatically “augmented” with dependability mechanisms. Importantly, the real-time behavior of the initial models in terms of sampling times and meeting deadlines is preserved. The practicality of the approach is demonstrated with the automated implementation of one prominent software fault-tolerance pattern, namely N-Version Programming, in the CPAL model-driven engineering workflow. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecification Patterns for Robotic Missions
Menghi, Claudio UL; Tsigkanos, Christos; Pelliccione, Pelliccione et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

Mobile and general-purpose robots increasingly support our everyday life, requiring dependable robotics control software. Creating such software mainly amounts to implementing their complex behaviors ... [more ▼]

Mobile and general-purpose robots increasingly support our everyday life, requiring dependable robotics control software. Creating such software mainly amounts to implementing their complex behaviors known as missions. Recognizing this need, a large number of domain-specific specification languages has been proposed. These, in addition to traditional logical languages, allow the use of formally specified missions for synthesis, verification, simulation or guiding implementation. For instance, the logical language LTL is commonly used by experts to specify missions as an input for planners, which synthesize the behavior a robot should have. Unfortunately, domain-specific languages are usually tied to specific robot models, while logical languages such as LTL are difficult to use by non-experts. We present a catalog of 22 mission specification patterns for mobile robots, together with tooling for instantiating, composing, and compiling the patterns to create mission specifications. The patterns provide solutions for recurrent specification problems, each of which detailing the usage intent, known uses, relationships to other patterns, and-most importantly-a template mission specification in temporal logic. Our tooling produces specifications expressed in the temporal logics LTL and CTL to be used by planners, simulators or model checkers. The patterns originate from 245 realistic textual mission requirements extracted from the robotics literature, and they are evaluated upon a total of 441 real-world mission requirements and 1251 mission specifications. Five of these reflect scenarios we defined with two well-known industrial partners developing human-size robots. We validated our patterns' correctness with simulators and two different types of real robots. [less ▲]

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See detailLes exceptions à la règle de l’Etat de droit: déroger aux droits fondamentaux en période de crise?Cahiers Jean Monnet, Actes des ateliers doctoraux « L’état de droit », Centre d'Excellence Europe Capitole
Mavrouli, Roila UL

in Cahiers Jean Monnet, Actes des ateliers doctoraux « L’état de droit », Centre d'Excellence Europe Capitole (2020)

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See detailAktuelle Entwicklungen im Steuerrecht in der Informationstechnologie 2018/2019 - Teil 2
Schmittmann, Jens; Sinnig, Julia UL

in Kommunikation und Recht (2020), 23(3), 183-189

Teil zwei des Beitrags knüpft an Teil eins in K&R 2020 xxx an und fasst die wesentlichen Entwicklungen in Legislative und Judikative im deutschen Steuerrecht zusammen, soweit sich Bezüge zur ... [more ▼]

Teil zwei des Beitrags knüpft an Teil eins in K&R 2020 xxx an und fasst die wesentlichen Entwicklungen in Legislative und Judikative im deutschen Steuerrecht zusammen, soweit sich Bezüge zur Informationstechnologie und dem Informationstechnologierecht ergeben. Er knüpft an die Beiträge des Verfassers Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann in den Vorjahren, sowie dem Beitrag beider Verfasser im vergangenen Jahr und den Vorträgen der Verfasser in Bremen anlässlich der DSRI Herbstakademie 2019 an. [less ▲]

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See detailComputers and Computing in Society
Schafer, Valerie UL

in NTM (2020)

This review essay aims to highlight some of these recent trends within the history of computing and information technology through the consideration of three recently published books : 1/ Frank Bösch (Ed ... [more ▼]

This review essay aims to highlight some of these recent trends within the history of computing and information technology through the consideration of three recently published books : 1/ Frank Bösch (Ed.) 2018. Wege in die Gesellschaft. Computernutzung in der Bundesrepublik (1955–1990). Geschichte der Gegenwart, Bd. 20. Göttingen: Wallstein, geb.; 2/ Marie Hicks 2017. Programmed Inequality. How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost Its Edge in Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 3/ Joy Lisi Rankin 2018. A People’s History of Computing in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. They are increasingly opening up to approaches that are oriented towards society and actors, whether the latter are producers, regulators, users, or even maintainers. This is achieved with historical rigour by the authors, who highlight the history of a field that is not only scientific, technical, industrial and economic, but also profoundly social, and which is marked by multiple debates, negotiations and power relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Landwirtschaft in der Provinz Gallia Narbonensis und die Frage nach dem Sozialstatus der Arbeitskräfte
Groff, Thierry UL

in Frankfurter elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde (2020), 39(2019), 1-12

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See detailApproximation-Refinement Testing of Compute-Intensive Cyber-Physical Models: An Approach Based on System Identification
Menghi, Claudio UL; Nejati, Shiva UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in Proceedings of the 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (2020)

Black-box testing has been extensively applied to test models of Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) since these models are not often amenable to static and symbolic testing and verification. Black-box testing ... [more ▼]

Black-box testing has been extensively applied to test models of Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) since these models are not often amenable to static and symbolic testing and verification. Black-box testing, however, requires to execute the model under test for a large number of candidate test inputs. This poses a challenge for a large and practically-important category of CPS models, known as compute-intensive CPS (CI-CPS) models, where a single simulation may take hours to complete. We propose a novel approach, namely ARIsTEO, to enable effective and efficient testing of CI-CPS models. Our approach embeds black-box testing into an iterative approximation-refinement loop. At the start, some sampled inputs and outputs of the CI-CPS model under test are used to generate a surrogate model that is faster to execute and can be subjected to black-box testing. Any failure-revealing test identified for the surrogate model is checked on the original model. If spurious, the test results are used to refine the surrogate model to be tested again. Otherwise, the test reveals a valid failure. We evaluated ARIsTEO by comparing it with S-Taliro, an open-source and industry-strength tool for testing CPS models. Our results, obtained based on five publicly-available CPS models, show that, on average, ARIsTEO is able to find 24% more requirements violations than S-Taliro and is 31% faster than S-Taliro in finding those violations. We further assessed the effectiveness and efficiency of ARIsTEO on a large industrial case study from the satellite domain. In contrast to S-Taliro, ARIsTEO successfully tested two different versions of this model and could identify three requirements violations, requiring four hours, on average, for each violation. [less ▲]

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See detailAktuelle Entwicklungen im Steuerrecht in der Informationstechnologie 2018/2019 - Teil 1
Schmittmann, Jens; Sinnig, Julia UL

in Kommunikation und Recht (2020), 23(2), 111-116

Teil eins des Beitrags fasst die wesentlichen Entwicklungen in Legislative und Judikative im internationalen und europäischen Steuerrecht sowie in Legislative im deutschen Steuerrecht zusammen, soweit ... [more ▼]

Teil eins des Beitrags fasst die wesentlichen Entwicklungen in Legislative und Judikative im internationalen und europäischen Steuerrecht sowie in Legislative im deutschen Steuerrecht zusammen, soweit sich Bezüge zur Informationstechnologie und dem Informationstechnologierecht ergeben. Er knüpft an die Beiträge des Verfassers Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann in den Vorjahren, sowie dem Beitrag beider Verfasser im vergangenen Jahr und den Vorträgen der Verfasser in Bremen anlässlich der DSRI Herbstakademie 2019 an. [less ▲]

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See detailNormal approximation for functions of hidden Markov models
Kerchev, George UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailNouvelles perspectives sur les maternités. Regards croisés des Sciences et de la littérature
Barthelmebs-Raguin, Hélène UL; Raguin, Marjolaine

Book published by Peter Lang (2020)

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See detailAttribute evaluation on attack trees with incomplete information
Buldas, Ahto; Gadyatskaya, Olga UL; Lenin, Aleksandr et al

in Computers and Security (2020), 88(101630),

Attack trees are considered a useful tool for security modelling because they support qualitative as well as quantitative analysis. The quantitative approach is based on values associated to each node in ... [more ▼]

Attack trees are considered a useful tool for security modelling because they support qualitative as well as quantitative analysis. The quantitative approach is based on values associated to each node in the tree, expressing, for instance, the minimal cost or probability of an attack. Current quantitative methods for attack trees allow the analyst to, based on an initial assignment of values to the leaf nodes, derive the values of the higher nodes in the tree. In practice, however, it shows to be very difficult to obtain reliable values for all leaf nodes. The main reasons are that data is only available for some of the nodes, that data is available for intermediate nodes rather than for the leaf nodes, or even that the available data is inconsistent. We address these problems by developing a generalisation of the standard bottom-up calculation method in three ways. First, we allow initial attributions of non-leaf nodes. Second, we admit additional relations between attack steps beyond those provided by the underlying attack tree semantics. Third, we support the calculation of an approximative solution in case of inconsistencies. We illustrate our method, which is based on constraint programming, by a comprehensive case study. [less ▲]

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See detailGraph-based Algorithms for Smart Mobility Planning and Large-scale Network Discovery
Changaival, Boonyarit UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Graph theory has become a hot topic in the past two decades as evidenced by the increasing number of citations in research. Its applications are found in many fields, e.g. database, clustering, routing ... [more ▼]

Graph theory has become a hot topic in the past two decades as evidenced by the increasing number of citations in research. Its applications are found in many fields, e.g. database, clustering, routing, etc. In this thesis, two novel graph-based algorithms are presented. The first algorithm finds itself in the thriving carsharing service, while the second algorithm is about large graph discovery to unearth the unknown graph before any analyses can be performed. In the first scenario, the automatisation of the fleet planning process in carsharing is proposed. The proposed work enhances the accuracy of the planning to the next level by taking an advantage of the open data movement such as street networks, building footprints, and demographic data. By using the street network (based on graph), it solves the questionable aspect in many previous works, feasibility as they tended to use rasterisation to simplify the map, but that comes with the price of accuracy and feasibility. A benchmark suite for further research in this problem is also provided. Along with it, two optimisation models with different sets of objectives and contexts are proposed. Through a series of experiment, a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is called NGAP, which is based on Reference Point based Non-dominated Sorting genetic Algorithm (NSGA-III) and Pareto Local Search (PLS) and a novel problem specific local search operator designed for the fleet placement problem in carsharing called Extensible Neighbourhood Search (ENS). The designed local search operator exploits the graph structure of the street network and utilises the local knowledge to improve the exploration capability. The results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms the original NSGA-III in convergence under the same execution time. The work in smart mobility is done on city scale graphs which are considered to be medium size. However, the scale of the graphs in other fields in the real-world can be much larger than that which is why the large graph discovery algorithm is proposed as the second algorithm. To elaborate on the definition of large, some examples are required. The internet graph has over 30 billion nodes. Another one is a human brain network contains around 1011 nodes. Apart of the size, there is another aspect in real-world graph and that is the unknown. With the dynamic nature of the real-world graphs, it is almost impossible to have a complete knowledge of the graph to perform an analysis that is why graph traversal is crucial as the preparation process. I propose a novel memoryless chaos-based graph traversal algorithm called Chaotic Traversal (CHAT). CHAT is the first graph traversal algorithm that utilises the chaotic attractor directly. An experiment with two well-known chaotic attractors, Lozi map and Rössler system is conducted. The proposed algorithm is compared against the memoryless state-of-the-art algorithm, Random Walk. The results demonstrate the superior performance in coverage rate over Random Walk on five tested topologies; ring, small world, random, grid and power-law. In summary, the contribution of this research is twofold. Firstly, it contributes to the research society by introducing new study problems and novel approaches to propel the advance of the current state-of-the-art. And Secondly, it demonstrates a strong case for the conversion of research to the industrial sector to solve a real-world problem. [less ▲]

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See detailAnsätze einer grenzüberschreitenden Sprachen- und Kulturdidaktik für die luxemburgische Grundschullehrerausbildung
Morys, Nancy UL

in Busch, Matthias; Frisch, Julia; Wegner, Anke (Eds.) Europa leben lernen - Apprendre à vivre l'Europe (2019)

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See detailInvestigating magnetic nanoparticles by small-angle neutron scattering
Bender, Philipp Florian UL

Presentation (2019, November)

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See detailEntropy Production in Open Systems: The Predominant Role of Intraenvironment Correlations
Ptaszyński, Krzysztof; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS (2019)

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See detailCrowdSenSim 2.0: a Stateful Simulation Platform for Mobile Crowdsensing in Smart Cities
Montori, Federico; Cortesi, Emanuele; Bedogni, Luca et al

in MSWIM '19: Proceedings of the 22nd International ACM Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Miami Beach, FL, USA, 2019. (2019, November)

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices ... [more ▼]

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices. Typically, a large number of participants is required to make a sensing campaign successful. For such a reason, it is often not practical for researchers to build and deploy large testbeds to assess the performance of frameworks and algorithms for data collection, user recruitment, and evaluating the quality of information. Simulations offer a valid alternative. In this paper, we present CrowdSenSim 2.0, a significant extension of the popular CrowdSenSim simulation platform. CrowdSenSim 2.0 features a stateful approach to support algorithms where the chronological order of events matters, extensions of the architectural modules, including an additional system to model urban environments, code refactoring, and parallel execution of algorithms. All these improvements boost the performances of the simulator and make the runtime execution and memory utilization significantly lower, also enabling the support for larger simulation scenarios. We demonstrate retro-compatibility with the older platform and evaluate as a case study a stateful data collection algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols in Urban VANETs
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volume 11803) (2019, September 25)

Infrastructure-less communications between moving vehicles present emblematic challenges because of high node mobility and link volatility, which may harm the performances of different categories of ... [more ▼]

Infrastructure-less communications between moving vehicles present emblematic challenges because of high node mobility and link volatility, which may harm the performances of different categories of emerging vehicular applications. In order to move data between vehicles that are not in direct communication range, several distributed routing protocols have been proposed and tested in vehicular networks, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Some previous works report disagreeing claims about routing protocol performances in similar vehicular scenarios. Therefore, in this work, we evaluate the performances in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), packet delay, frame collision rate, and signaling rate of three well-known routing protocols (AODV, DSDV, and GPSR), simulating them in a realistic Manhattan scenario. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of typical urban obstacles (e.g. buildings) on the considered performance metrics. We observed that, in the proposed urban scenario, AODV provided the best PDR, GPSR the best packet delay, and DSDV failed to provide satisfactory performances due to signaling-induced congestion. Simulations showed that considering the shadowing effects induced by the buildings in an urban scenario drastically changes the observed performances, i.e. reduces the frame collisions, decreases the PDR, and increases the packet delay. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-flow congestion-aware routing in software-defined vehicular networks
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 2019 IEEE 90th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2019-Fall) Proceedings (2019, September 22)

5G-enabled vehicular networks will soon allow their users to exchange safety and non-safety related information over heterogeneous communication interfaces. Routing vehicular data flows over multi-hop ... [more ▼]

5G-enabled vehicular networks will soon allow their users to exchange safety and non-safety related information over heterogeneous communication interfaces. Routing vehicular data flows over multi-hop Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications is one of the hardest challenges in vehicular networking, and it has been tackled in literature by using distributed algorithms. The distributed approach has shown significant inefficiencies in such dynamic vehicular scenarios, mainly due to poor network congestion control. To overcome the complexity of the envisioned architecture, and the inefficiency of distributed routing algorithms, we hereby propose to leverage the coordination capabilities of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to determine optimal V2V multi-hop paths and to offload traffic from the Vehicle-to-Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (V2I2V) to the V2V communications, using both cellular and Wi-Fi technologies. In order to achieve this goal, we propose Multi-Flow Congestion-Aware Routing (MFCAR), a centralized routing algorithm that relies on graph theory to choose short and uncongested V2V paths. Realistic simulations prove that MFCAR outperforms well- established centralized routing algorithms (e.g. Dijkstra's) in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), goodput and average packet delay, up to a five-fold performance gain. [less ▲]

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See detailHiring Processes in Male- and Female-Dominated Occupations: Evidence for Gendered Scarring due to Unemployment
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Presentation (2019, September 14)

Spells of unemployment have been shown to negatively affect the hiring chances of job applicants. These so-called "scarring effects" might be gender-specific due to gender bias in recruiters' hiring ... [more ▼]

Spells of unemployment have been shown to negatively affect the hiring chances of job applicants. These so-called "scarring effects" might be gender-specific due to gender bias in recruiters' hiring decisions. However, systematic analyses of the conditions under which scarring effects become gender-specific are missing. Against this background, we examine how gender and the duration of unemployment interactively shape recruiters' hiring decisions. We use data from a multinational factorial survey experiment among recruiters conducted in Switzerland and Norway. By focusing on a male-dominated (mechanics) and a female-dominated occupation (nursing), we test the hypothesis that gendered role expectations affect recruiters' hiring decisions towards unemployed men and women. We find, overall, evidence for heterogeneous scarring effects. By constituting new evidence on gender differences in scarring due to unemployment, this study contributes to our understanding of the demand-side barriers to successful and "gender-equal" transitions to employment. [less ▲]

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