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See detailOn Improving Slant Wet delays for Tracking Severe Weather Events: An evaluation During Two Storms in Europe
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Duman, Huseyin et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 14)

Climate change has led to an increase in the frequency and severity of weather events with intense precipitation and, subsequently, a greater susceptibility of communities around the world to flash ... [more ▼]

Climate change has led to an increase in the frequency and severity of weather events with intense precipitation and, subsequently, a greater susceptibility of communities around the world to flash flooding. Networks of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations enable the measurement of integrated water vapor along slant pathways, providing three-dimensional (3D) water vapor distributions at low-cost and in real-time. This makes these data a valuable complementary source of information for tracking storm events and predicting their paths. However, it is well established that residual modelling errors and multipath (MP) effects at GNSS stations do impact incoming signals, especially at low elevations and during storms when the atmospheric conditions change rapidly. Until now, the bulk of GNSS products for meteorology are estimates of the more conventional zenith total delays and horizontal gradients, but these products may not be most appropriate for determining 3D distributions of water vapor during convective storm events. In this study we investigate the impact of residual-phase-corrected and multipath-corrected slant wet delay (SWD) estimates on tracking extreme weather events using two events in Europe that led to flooding, damage to property and loss of life. We employed Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with integer ambiguity resolution to generate station-specific MP correction maps. The spatial stacking was carried out in congruent cells with an optimal resolution in elevation and azimuth at the local horizon but with decreasing azimuth resolution as the elevation angle increases. This permits an approximately equal number of observations allocated to each cell. In our analysis we recovered the one-way SWD by adding GNSS post-fit phase residuals, representing the non-isotropic component of the SWD, i.e., the higher-order inhomogeneity. Using the derived MP maps in a final step, the one-way SWD were improved to employ them for the analysis of the weather event. Moreover, we validated the SWD between ground-based water-vapor radiometry and GNSS-derived SWD for different elevation angles. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal fluctuations in the SWD as measured by GNSS closely mirrored the moisture field from the ERA5 re-analysis associated with this severe weather event [less ▲]

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See detailMiRNAs from serum-derived extracellular vesicles as biomarkers for uveal melanoma progression
Wroblewska, Joanna Patrycja UL; Lach, Michał Stefan; Rucinski, Marcin et al

in Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology (2022)

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare type of malignancy that originates from melanocytes located in the choroid, iris and the ciliary body of the eye. UM has a very high mortality upon metastatic spread to the ... [more ▼]

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare type of malignancy that originates from melanocytes located in the choroid, iris and the ciliary body of the eye. UM has a very high mortality upon metastatic spread to the liver, the prime target organ for UM metastasis. The lack of effective therapies for advanced stages of the disease aggravate the prognosis further. Moreover, biomarkers for early detection and progression of UM, especially the molecular traits governing the development of metastasis, are still not available in clinical practice. One extensively studied components of liquid biopsies are exosomes, a subtype of extracellular vesicle. Due to their unique molecular cargo, they could be used as carriers of early markers of cancer development and progression. For characterisation of the miRNA profiles present in circulating serum-derived exosomes of patients with diagnosed primary and metastatic UM, we have analysed the miRNA cargos using next-generation sequencing followed by RT-qPCR validation in a cohort of patients (control n=20; primary n=9; metastatic n=11). Nine miRNAs clearly differentiating these patient groups have been established. We show that hsa-miR-223 and hsa-miR-203a are the most promising biomarker candidates, allowing categorization of patients into local and advanced UM. Additionally, the comparison of miRNA expression levels in exosomes derived from UM patients with those derived from healthy donors, revealed that hsa-miR-144 has the potential to be used as an early marker for presence of UM. Taken together, this pilot study reveals that miRNAs extracted from circulating exosomes could be exploited as potential biomarkers in UM diagnosis and, more importantly, for indicating metastatic spread. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an Efficient and Coherent Regulatory Framework on Cybersecurity in the EU: The Proposals for a NIS 2.0 Directive and a Cyber Resilience Act
Cole, Mark David UL; Schmitz, Sandra UL

in Applied Cybersecurity & Internet Governance (2022), 1(1),

Cybersecurity regulation in the EU has long been implemented in a piece- meal fashion resulting in a fragmented regulatory landscape. Recent developments triggered the EU to review its approach which has ... [more ▼]

Cybersecurity regulation in the EU has long been implemented in a piece- meal fashion resulting in a fragmented regulatory landscape. Recent developments triggered the EU to review its approach which has not resulted in the envisaged high level of cyber resilience across the Union. The paper addresses the EU’s limited mandate to regulate cybersecurity and outlines how the internal market rationale serves as a basis to harmonise cybersecurity legislation in the EU Member States. In that regard, the recent Proposal for a NIS 2.0 Directive (adopted by the European Parliament in November 2022) and the Proposal for a Cyber Resilience Act (published in September 2022) highlight how the EU seeks to align legislation and reduce complexity between different, often sectoral regulatory approaches to cybersecurity, while at the same time extending regulation in a view to achieve a high level of cybersecurity across the EU. As regards the latter, the paper also outlines how the Cyber Resilience Act will complement the NIS 2.0 Directive in order to close existing regulatory gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailTREE WATER USE ACROSS LANDSCAPE AND TIME
Fabiani, Ginevra UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The interaction between topography and climate has a crucial role in shaping forest composition and structure. The understating of how the ecohydrological processes across the landscape affect tree ... [more ▼]

The interaction between topography and climate has a crucial role in shaping forest composition and structure. The understating of how the ecohydrological processes across the landscape affect tree performance becomes especially important with the expected reduction in water availability and increase in water demand, which could enhance the thermal and hydrologic gradient along the slope. Incorporating soil moisture variation and groundwater gradient across the landscape has been found to improve the capacity to predict forest vulnerability and water fluxes in complex terrains. However, most of the information that can be retrieved by remote sensing technique cannot capture small scale-processes. Therefore, hillslope-catchment scale studies can shed light on ecosystem responses to spatially and temporally variable growing conditions. In the present work, I investigated how hillslope position affects tree physiological response to environmental controls (i.e. soil moisture, vapor pressure deficit, groundwater proximity to the surface) and tree water use in two hillslope transects (Chapter 1 and 3). Sap velocity measurements and isotopic measurements have been applied along two hillslope transects, characterized by contrasting slopes angle, climate, and species composition. We found that the different hydrological processes occurring at the two sites lead to contrasting physiological responses and water uptake strategies. In the Weierbach catchment, the lack of shallow downslope water redistribution through interflow leads to no substantial differences in vadose zone water supply between hillslope positions and ultimately no spatial differences in the tree’s physiological response to environmental drivers. Furthermore, beech and oak trees displayed different stomatal control resulting from their water uptake strategies and physiology. In the Lecciona catchment, the greater soil moisture content at the footslope, promoted by the steep slope, led to more suitable growing conditions and a longer growing season in the piedmont zone. These results emphasize the strong interconnection between vegetation, climate, and hydrological processes in complex terrains, and the need to consider them as a whole to better understand future ecosystem responses to changing climate. Additionally, the present work sheds new light on the complex interaction between sapwood and heartwood. In Chapter 2, I provide experimental evidence about water isotopic exchange between the two compartments in four tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Picea abies) characterized by different xylem anatomy, and timing of physiological activity. While the two functional parts display a consistent difference in isotopic composition in conifers, they are characterized by more similar values in broadleaved species in broadleaved species, suggesting a higher degree of water exchange. These results highlight the value of accounting for radial isotopic variation, which might potentially lead to uncertainties concerning the origin of the extracted water for water uptake studies. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent and Secure Radio Environments for 6G Vehicular Aided HetNets: Key Opportunities and Challenges
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Javed, Muhammad Awais; Zeadally, Sherali et al

in IEEE Communications standards Magazine (2022)

Reconfigurable meta-surfaces are emerging as a novel and revolutionizing technology to enable intelligent wireless environments. Due to the low cost, improved efficiency, and passive nature of reflecting ... [more ▼]

Reconfigurable meta-surfaces are emerging as a novel and revolutionizing technology to enable intelligent wireless environments. Due to the low cost, improved efficiency, and passive nature of reflecting elements, it is becoming possible to program and control the wireless environment. Since wireless physical layer technologies can generally adapt to the wireless environment, their combination with reconfigurable surfaces and deep learning approaches can open new avenues for achieving secure 6G vehicular aided heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Motivated by these appealing advantages, this work provides an intelligent and secure radio environment (ISRE) paradigm for 6G vehicular aided HetNets. We present an overview of enabling technologies for ISRE-based 6G vehicular aided HetNets. We discuss features, design goals, and applications of such networks. Next, we outline new opportunities provided by ISRE-based 6G vehicular HetNets and we present a case study using the contextual bandit approach in terms of best IRS for secure communications. Finally, we discuss some future research opportunities. [less ▲]

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See detailAlterations of oral microbiota and impact on the gut microbiome in type 1 diabetes mellitus revealed by integrated multi-omic analyses
Kunath, Benoît UL; Hickl, Oskar UL; Teixeira Queiros, Pedro UL et al

in Microbiome (2022)

Background: Alterations to the gut microbiome have been linked to multiple chronic diseases. However, the drivers of such changes remain largely unknown. The oral cavity acts as a major route of exposure ... [more ▼]

Background: Alterations to the gut microbiome have been linked to multiple chronic diseases. However, the drivers of such changes remain largely unknown. The oral cavity acts as a major route of exposure to exogenous factors including pathogens, and processes therein may affect the communities in the subsequent compartments of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we perform strain‑resolved, integrated meta‑genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses of paired saliva and stool samples collected from 35 individuals from eight families with multiple cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Results: We identified distinct oral microbiota mostly reflecting competition between streptococcal species. More specifically, we found a decreased abundance of the commensal Streptococcus salivarius in the oral cavity of T1DM individuals, which is linked to its apparent competition with the pathobiont Streptococcus mutans. The decrease in S. salivarius in the oral cavity was also associated with its decrease in the gut as well as higher abundances in facultative anaerobes including Enterobacteria. In addition, we found evidence of gut inflammation in T1DM as reflected in the expression profiles of the Enterobacteria as well as in the human gut proteome. Finally, we were able to follow transmitted strain‑variants from the oral cavity to the gut at the individual omic levels, highlighting not only the transfer, but also the activity of the transmitted taxa along the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions: Alterations of the oral microbiome in the context of T1DM impact the microbial communities in the lower gut, in particular through the reduction of “mouth‑to‑gut” transfer of Streptococcus salivarius. Our results indicate that the observed oral‑cavity‑driven gut microbiome changes may contribute towards the inflammatory processes involved in T1DM. Through the integration of multi‑omic analyses, we resolve strain‑variant “mouth‑to‑gut” transfer in a disease context. [less ▲]

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See detailCrex: Predicting patch correctness in automated repair of C programs through transfer learning of execution semantics
Yan, Dapeng; Liu, Kui; Niu, Yuqing et al

in Information and Software Technology (2022), 152

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See detailDemystifying Hidden Sensitive Operations in Android apps
Sun, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xiao; Li, Li et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

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See detailLightweight Permutation-Based Cryptography for the Ultra-Low-Power Internet of Things
Alsahli, Malik; Borgognoni, Alex UL; Cheng, Hao UL et al

in Bella, Giampaolo; Doinea, Mihai; Janicke, Helge (Eds.) Innovative Security Solutions for Information Technology and Communications 15th International Conference, SECITC 2022, Virtual Event, December 8-9, 2022, Revised Selected Papers (2022, December)

The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology is currently undertaking a process to evaluate and eventually standardize one or more "lightweight" algorithms for authenticated encryption and ... [more ▼]

The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology is currently undertaking a process to evaluate and eventually standardize one or more "lightweight" algorithms for authenticated encryption and hashing that are suitable for resource-restricted devices. In addition to security, this process takes into account the efficiency of the candidate algorithms in various hardware environments (e.g. FPGAs, ASICs) and software platforms (e.g. 8, 16, 32-bit microcontrollers). However, while there exist numerous detailed benchmarking results for 8-bit AVR and 32-bit ARM/RISC-V/ESP32 microcontrollers, relatively little is known about the candidates' efficiency on 16-bit platforms. In order to fill this gap, we present a performance evaluation of the final-round candidates Ascon, Schwaemm, TinyJambu, and Xoodyak on the MSP430 series of ultra-low-power 16-bit microcontrollers from Texas Instruments. All four algorithms were explicitly designed to achieve high performance in software and have further in common that the underlying primitive is a permutation. We discuss how these permutations can be implemented efficiently in Assembly language and analyze how basic design decisions impact their execution time on the MSP430 architecture. Our results show that, overall, Schwaemm is the fastest algorithm across various lengths of data and associated data, respectively. Xoodyak has benefits when a large amount of associated data is to be authenticated, whereas TinyJambu is very efficient for the authentication of short messages. [less ▲]

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See detailA Learning Based Framework for Enhancing Physical Layer Security in Cooperative D2D Network
Ahmad, Noman; Sardar Sidhu, Guftaar Ahmad; Khan, Wali Ullah UL

in Electronics (2022)

Next-generation wireless communication networks demand high spectrum efficiency to serve the requirements of an enormous number of devices over a limited available frequency spectrum. Device-to-device ... [more ▼]

Next-generation wireless communication networks demand high spectrum efficiency to serve the requirements of an enormous number of devices over a limited available frequency spectrum. Device-to-device (D2D) communication with spectrum reuse offers a potential solution to spectrum scarcity. On the other hand, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) as a multiple-access approach has emerged as a key technology to re-use a spectrum among multiple users. A cellular users (CUs) can share their spectrum with D2D users (DUs) and in response, the D2D network can help relay the CU signal to achieve better secrecy from an eavesdropper. Power optimization is known to be a promising technique to enhance system performance in challenging communication environments. This work aimed to enhance the secrecy rate of the CUs where the D2D transmitter (DT) helps in relaying the CU’s message under the amplify and forward (AF) protocol. A power optimization problem is considered under the quality of service constraints in terms of minimum rate requirements at the receivers and maximum power budgets at the transmitters. The problem is a non-convex complex optimization. A deep learning-based solution is proposed and promising results are obtained in terms of the secrecy rate of CU and the rate of D2D users. [less ▲]

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See detailInternships in Times of Crisis: Collaborative production of instructional videos at a distance
Reuter, Robert UL; Reeff, Alain; Busana, Gilbert UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 24)

The Bachelor in Educational Sciences (BScE) at the University of Luxembourg offers a thorough and demanding teacher training program that combines academic and practical knowledge. As in many other ... [more ▼]

The Bachelor in Educational Sciences (BScE) at the University of Luxembourg offers a thorough and demanding teacher training program that combines academic and practical knowledge. As in many other initial teacher training programs, internships are a key part of each semester in the BScE. In the face of the COVID-19 health crisis, this essential part of our teacher training program could not be maintained. Indeed, the schools were closed, and the pupils were taught at a distance by their teachers. We therefore had to quickly innovate and set up alternative learning activities that best met the objectives of the internships. We thus asked our students to design and produce educational videos, in dyads, for the country's schools. The aim was to enable our students to develop the necessary skills to produce such learning resources and to make them available to schools via the Internet. We will describe, analyse and evaluate the scheme and the videos that were produced. We will also discuss possible lessons learned that might lead to adaptations in our training program. [less ▲]

See detailMULTI-OMICS ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIATING DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IDENTIFIES NOVEL FACTORS NECESSARY FOR LINEAGE SPECIFICATION
Gomez Ramos, Borja UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDANs) control voluntary movement, cognition, and reward behavior and are implicated in human diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Many transcription factors (TFs ... [more ▼]

Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDANs) control voluntary movement, cognition, and reward behavior and are implicated in human diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Many transcription factors (TFs) controlling human mDAN differentiation have been described but much of the regulatory landscape remains undefined. The location and the low number of these cells in the brain have limited the application of epigenomic assays, as they usually require a high number of cells. Thanks to the emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, differentiation protocols for the derivation of mDANs were developed, making access to this neuronal subtype easier, facilitating its study. However, current protocols for the differentiation of human iPSC towards mDANs produce a mixture of developmentally immature and incompletely specified cells together with more physiological cells. Differentiation protocols are based on the developmental knowledge generated from animal studies and the translation of this knowledge to humans appears not to be completely compatible. Therefore, a better understanding of human development is needed, encouraging the use of human-based models. A proper understanding of the epigenetic landscape of human mDAN differentiation will have direct implications for uncovering gene regulatory mechanisms, disease-associated variants (as most of them are in the non-coding regions of the genome), and cell identity. In this study, a human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) reporter line of iPSC was used for the generation of time series transcriptomic and epigenomic profiles from differentiating mDANs. TH is the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine production and therefore a specific marker for mDANs. In the reporter line, mCherry was expressed under the control of the TH promoter, which allowed to isolate mDANs from the cultures by FACS. Integration of time-point-specific chromatin accessibility and associated TF binding motifs with paired transcriptome profiles across 50 days of differentiation was performed using an adapted version of the EPIC-DREM pipeline. Time-point-specific gene regulatory interactions were obtained and served to identify putative key TFs controlling mDAN differentiation. Low-input ChIP-seq for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) was performed to identify and prioritize key TFs controlled by super-enhancer regions. LBX1, NHLH1, and NR2F1/2 were found to be necessary for mDAN differentiation. Overexpression of either LBX1 or NHLH1 was also able to increase mDAN numbers. LBX1 was found to regulate cholesterol biosynthesis and translation possibly via mTOR signaling. NHLH1 was found to be necessary for the induction of miR-124, a potent neurogenic microRNA. Interestingly, miR-124 and NHLH1 appear to be part of a positive feedback loop. Thus, the results from this study provide novel insights into the regulatory landscape of human mDAN differentiation. In addition, as the identified candidates from EPIC-DREM did not show selective expression in mDANs, the data produced was further explored for the identification of novel expression selective TFs in these cells. ZFHX4 was selected as a relevant TF for mDANs that was also downregulated in PD patients. It presented a high and specific expression during development and in adult mDANs from human brains. Depletion of ZFHX4 during differentiation affected mDAN neurogenesis. However, CRISPR-mediated overexpression of ZFHX4 during differentiation did not affect mDAN numbers. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a role of ZFHX4 in controlling cell cycle and cell division on mDANs. ZFHX4 seems to be regulating cell cycle control by interaction with E2F TFs and the NuRD complex, as these proteins have also been associated with this function and appeared in the analysis performed. Overall, the present study provides a novel profile of mDANs during differentiation that can be used for many other applications apart from the one presented here, like the identification of disease-associated variants affecting these neurons. Incorporating epigenetic information into the current transcriptomic knowledge increased the understanding of this neuronal subtype and uncovered important pathways involved in the biology of these cells and most probably with implications to disease. [less ▲]

See detailMigration and ageing: The sense of belonging of first-generation Portuguese migrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 15)

The need to belong is fundamental to human beings and constitutes a basis for subjective well-being. It is closely linked to further concepts, such as identification, connectedness, attachment, fitting in ... [more ▼]

The need to belong is fundamental to human beings and constitutes a basis for subjective well-being. It is closely linked to further concepts, such as identification, connectedness, attachment, fitting in and feeling “at home”. Migration is a life transition that entails changes in social and emotional belonging. Former social network members might be left behind in the country of origin, and an important developmental task for migrants is therefore the establishment of bonds in the receiving country. As first-generation immigrants of the past decades are now close to retirement age, the question of home and belonging has become particularly pertinent also with regard to their future plans and concerning their intergenerational relations. The present contribution will focus on the sense of belonging of first generation Portuguese immigrants living in Luxembourg by drawing on data from the FNR-funded IRMA study on “Intergenerational Relations in the light of Migration and Ageing”. Selected results with regard to future plans and intergenerational relations will be presented. Further, applying the lens of cultural psychology of semiotic mediation, the development of a sense of belonging will be traced by taking a life span perspective and drawing on concepts such as proculturation and the Trajectory Equifinality Approach. [less ▲]

See detailResilience and well-being of older people in times of crisis and beyond
Albert, Isabelle UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 11)

Recent times have been characterized by a number of crises which can challenge the quality of life of older people. The Covid-19 pandemic, in particular, has been disruptive for social participation and ... [more ▼]

Recent times have been characterized by a number of crises which can challenge the quality of life of older people. The Covid-19 pandemic, in particular, has been disruptive for social participation and integration. While at the beginning of the pandemic, the sanitary measures were at the foreground and most effort was focused on containing the virus, it became soon clear that secondary effects of social distancing were putting at risk the subjective well-being and mental health of people around the globe. Older people were particularly concerned by social distancing measures as they were regarded a vulnerable group, irrespective of their heterogeneity. Social engagement is a main pillar of successful ageing (Rowe & Kahn, 2015) but opportunities for social activities and connectedness with others have been undermined during the pandemic. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, initial studies have shown that older people fared on average better than feared in the early months of the pandemic as they could draw on resources and resilience built over a life time. However, prolonged times of inactivity and social isolation can take a toll on mental and physical health of those older people who find it difficult to reconnect with others and to participate in social activities. In my talk, I will present findings from the FNR-funded CRISIS project on older people during the pandemic regarding “Correlates of Resilience In the context of Social Isolation in Seniors” as well as from the PAN-VAL project on active ageing in the context of cultural diversity in Luxembourg which was funded by the Ministry of Family and Integration, and I will make reference to the importance of intergenerational relations for the subjective well-being of (older) family members. In light of present and future societal challenges, I will finally discuss how geropsychology can make a contribution to ensure the quality of life of older people. [less ▲]

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See detailSITE-SELECTIVE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA-ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION PROCESS FOR MICROMETRIC DEPOSITION – SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Acharya, Kishor UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma has been used to enhance and/or initiate the Chemical Vapour Deposition (AP-PECVD) to deposit thin films or functional layer coatings over a large surface area on a large range ... [more ▼]

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma has been used to enhance and/or initiate the Chemical Vapour Deposition (AP-PECVD) to deposit thin films or functional layer coatings over a large surface area on a large range of substrates. Now an ability to localise the AP-PECVD coating on an area of interest and control the deposition’s dimension showed its potential application as a viable technique to perform Additive Manufacturing (AM). Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a bottom-up approach in which 2-D patterning or 3-D structures are built using a layer-by-layer deposition. AM allowed easy design optimization and quickly provided the customized parts on demands, thus making itself a very popular technique in the mainstream manufacturing process. As such, it has a wide application in automotive, optics, electronics, aeronautics, medical and biotechnology fields. However, the existing AM printing techniques have some limitations regarding high-resolution printing deposition in a wide variety of substrates and very often get restricted to the types of precursors that could be printed. Whereas, due to the high energetic/reactive species in non-thermal plasma, the AP-PECVD deposition has been obtained using a wide range of precursors on a versatile surface. Thus, there has been a growing interest in performing an area selective localised AP-PECVD coating, mainly by adapting the design of the PECVD reactor. Hence, this thesis aims to design, optimize and study a one-step mask-free AP-PECVD plasma process that could locally deposit the material of interest with high precision to perform AM. In the thesis, the technical approach undertaken by the home-built prototype “plasma torch” is to decouple the plasma generator annular tube and the precursor injector central capillary. This approach has allowed a way to tune the diameter of the deposited dot by changing the dimension of the precursor injector, which has been demonstrated by the deposition of the micro-dot as small as 400µm in diameter. Further, the flexibility to move the capillary tube without significant changes in the plasma torch's overall geometry has also allowed for selectively injecting the precursor (Methylmethacrylate, MMA) in the spatial plasma post-discharge region. Thanks to this setting, the deposited dot has high retention of monomer's chemistry (functional group) and unprecedented molecular weights (oligomeric chain up to 18 MMA units). Hence, initially, a novel area selective AP-PECVD plasma torch design has been demonstrated, and its performance has been defined to obtain the micro resolution coating. During the research work, gas flow rates have been identified as a crucial parameter in obtaining the localised coating; three kinetic regimes with different coating morphology have been discovered. By performing a thorough computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of the torch phenomena, it has been possible to establish a parallel between the fluid behaviour and the deposition size. The deposition was found to be confined in a zone created by the dynamical behaviour of gas, i.e., re-circulating vortices between the torch and substrate. Hence, later the gas flow rate was used to tune the diameter of the confinement zone, which in return changed the diameter of the deposited dot. The gas flow dynamic impacts the involved species, i.e., reactive plasma species, precursor molecules, and the open-air interaction and distribution on the surface of the substrate. When organosilicon precursors with the presence or absence of vinyl bond and/or ethoxy groups are used, it results in different depositional chemical reactions and depositional patterns. The correlation between the depositional patterns and the mass fraction distribution of involved species has been obtained thanks to the performed CFD simulation done in parallel. Further, the likelihood of deposition mechanisms like "vinyl group opening by free radical" for vinyl containing precursor resulting in silicon oxycarbide-like (SiOxCyH) structural deposition, and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-induced "fragmentation and adsorption" deposition mechanism resulting in silica SiOx like structural deposition for siloxane containing precursor has been suggested and discussed. The understanding gained from this systematic case study implies the importance of reactive plasma species in the underlying deposition mechanisms; hence, it has been suggested that tuning/tailoring its distribution can alter the chemical nature of deposition and its pattens. Overall, this thesis work provides insight into area selective AP-PECVD coating (plasma printing) and demonstrates that plasma technology is a viable option for additive manufacturing. The findings would be helpful in both designing the AP-PECVD plasma torch and selecting precursors for the desired organic/inorganic deposition. Thanks to the insight gained during the thesis work, the home-designed prototype of the plasma torch has been upgraded to implement in a commercial 3-D printer. [less ▲]