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See detailQRNG Entropy as a Service(EaaS) Platform for Quantum-Safe Entropy and key Delivery
Chou, Hung-Pu UL; Hongfu, Chou

Report (2023)

Random numbers [1] are widely used in numerical computing, statistical simulation, random sampling, etc. The security of random numbers is getting more attention. In addition to random numbers ... [more ▼]

Random numbers [1] are widely used in numerical computing, statistical simulation, random sampling, etc. The security of random numbers is getting more attention. In addition to random numbers, information and network environment security [2] are also very important in real life, such as the generation of verification code for login, QR code for online payment, etc. All random numbers that involve important identity information must have extremely high security to protect personal privacy from being leaked or illegally stolen. At present, the mechanism for generating random numbers by computers is at risk of being attacked which is subject that the generated random numbers may be predicted in some cases. Random number generation (RNG) [3] has always been one of the biggest problems. The problem with classic random number generators, i.e., pseudorandom number generators, consists in the possibility to know the deterministic process of pseudorandom generation by unwanted persons. This may result, in the case of cryptography, in compromising a myth of security. Another problem may be the incorrect handling of the generated sequence—mostly in cryptographic uses, the generated random sequence is applied once. Its multiple usage may lead to a security breach (e.g., in the case of the OTP cipher, a sufficiently long key should be truly random and used once in that protocol, otherwise it will be possible to break the code). [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Limits of Consumer Law in Pursing Sustainability
Pflücke, Felix UL

in Nowag, Julian (Ed.) Research Handbook on Sustainability and Competition Law (2023)

This Chapter critically examines the limits of consumer law in pursuing sustainability. It uses the case of consumer sales of goods contracts, commercial communications and other marketing practices, and ... [more ▼]

This Chapter critically examines the limits of consumer law in pursuing sustainability. It uses the case of consumer sales of goods contracts, commercial communications and other marketing practices, and financial products and services to depict the potential and limitations of the current and proposed measures. The Chapter demonstrates that some consumer law provisions contradict consumer theories and scientific studies and provides targeted and actionable policy recommendations to address these deficiencies. [less ▲]

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See detailWater science must be Open Science
Schymanski, Emma UL; Schymanski, Stanislaus UL

in Nature Water (2023), 1(1), 4--6

Since water is a common good, the outcome of water-related research should be accessible to everyone. Since Open Science is more than just open access research articles, journals must work with the ... [more ▼]

Since water is a common good, the outcome of water-related research should be accessible to everyone. Since Open Science is more than just open access research articles, journals must work with the research community to enable fully open and FAIR science [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a harmonized identification scoring system in LC-HRMS/MS based non-target screening (NTS) of emerging contaminants
Alygizakis, Nikiforos; Lestremau, Francois; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo et al

in TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry (2023), 159

Non-target screening (NTS) methods are rapidly gaining in popularity, empowering researchers to search for an ever-increasing number of chemicals. Given this possibility, communicating the confidence of ... [more ▼]

Non-target screening (NTS) methods are rapidly gaining in popularity, empowering researchers to search for an ever-increasing number of chemicals. Given this possibility, communicating the confidence of identification in an automated, concise and unambiguous manner is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we compiled several pieces of evidence necessary for communicating NTS identification confidence and developed a machine learning approach for classification of the identifications as reliable and unreliable. The machine learning approach was trained using data generated by four laboratories equipped with different instrumentation. The model discarded substances with insufficient identification evidence efficiently, while revealing the relevance of different parameters for identification. Based on these results, a harmonized IP-based system is proposed. This new NTS-oriented system is compatible with the currently widely used five level system. It increases the precision in reporting and the reproducibility of current approaches via the inclusion of evidence scores, while being suitable for automation. [less ▲]

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See detailKindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality: The influence of puppet theatre on the topic of diversity in a group of kindergarten children
Maus, Johanna; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in Human Arenas (2023)

Homophobic stigmas and the discrimination of homosexual people are still worrying in today’s society. The current study seeks to investigate kindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality and how ... [more ▼]

Homophobic stigmas and the discrimination of homosexual people are still worrying in today’s society. The current study seeks to investigate kindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality and how they are influenced by their peer-groups and authorities. It does so by means of a puppet theatre presentation including ‘Kasperl’ and ‘Seppel’ puppets as the main protagonists in a German puppet theatre. The audience consisted of six German kindergarten children aged 4–6 years, randomly selected by the kindergarten director. A participant observation has been conducted with the first researcher as the presenter of the puppet show. The results of the recorded puppet theatre showed that several intragroup processes including the social identity theory with regard to group membership could be observed within the puppet theatre. Groups have been formed and children of the same ingroup showed equal attitudes towards homosexuality. However, the researcher’s influence as an authority figure could have as well impacted their attitudes through positive reinforcement. The present study contributed to the gap in research regarding kindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality. To have a better overview of the results, future studies should include additional variables like kindergarten’s cultural and geographical differences. [less ▲]

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See detailHistorian cultures – the epistemology and methodology of history in the digital age - CulturHist
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

E-print/Working paper (2023)

CulturHist has its sights particularly on the community of researchers, who have done little to make the results and suggestions offered by the digital humanities their own. We want to focus the ... [more ▼]

CulturHist has its sights particularly on the community of researchers, who have done little to make the results and suggestions offered by the digital humanities their own. We want to focus the discussion on a cross cutting issue: the link to archives, as the raw material for writing an account of the past. The habit of working digitally of those historians who do not nowadays verbalise their computer practices is now widespread and is bolstered by policies aimed at making many digitised document collections available online. For example, a search using the Internet Archive wayback machine developed by a not-for-profit company which archives the Web, shows that, in January 2002, Gallica, the digital library of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (National Library of France), reported having 80 000 documents online, as compared to a little over 5.8 million on 4 September 2019. These days, it is possible to carry out international historical investigations without being in physical contact with a document, as was demonstrated as far back as 2011 by the Data mining with criminal intent project (Cohen et al.). This means that researchers often become data managers (Cartier et al.). Most researchers now practise these habits, and there is an urgent need to analyse them and adapt initial and further training in history in order to help students and historians grasp how ways of writing history are being changed. [less ▲]

Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Cemetery Surveyor Application: Non-paper data Collection Methods in Luxembourg Burial Grounds
Streb, Christoph Klaus UL; Médard de Chardon, Cyrille UL; Kolnberger, Thomas UL

in Mytum, Harold; Veit, Richard (Eds.) Innovation and implementation. Critical Reflections and New Approaches to Historc Mortuary Data Collection, Analysis and Dissemination (2023)

Sepulchral culture-science requires detailed fieldwork, focusing on minutiae and spatial attributes, yielding cumbersomely large data sets. For a study on material cultures in the Luxembourg region’s ... [more ▼]

Sepulchral culture-science requires detailed fieldwork, focusing on minutiae and spatial attributes, yielding cumbersomely large data sets. For a study on material cultures in the Luxembourg region’s spaces of remembrance, we developed the Cemetery Surveyor Application (CSA) and Web Cemetery Surveyor (WCA) for Android devices and desktop computers respectively, aiming to streamline diverse data collection methodologies. The multi-platform applications provide varying affordances, benefits and limitations. The android application, operating off-line, allows the association of photographs to grave features directly, while the desktop version, accessed online, allows simultaneous collaboration. This paper describes how the tools responded to a need, their development and design process, the justifications for their operations, strengths, weaknesses, and makes recommendations for future implementations. [less ▲]

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See detailProteome analysis of monocytes implicates altered mitochondrial biology in adults reporting adverse childhood experiences.
Zang, Johannes C. S.; May, Caroline; Hellwig, Birte et al

in Translational psychiatry (2023), 13(1), 31

The experience of adversity in childhood has been associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood. In search of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects, research so far focused on alterations ... [more ▼]

The experience of adversity in childhood has been associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood. In search of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects, research so far focused on alterations of DNA methylation or shifts in transcriptomic profiles. The level of protein, however, has been largely neglected. We utilized mass spectrometry to investigate the proteome of CD14(+) monocytes in healthy adults reporting childhood adversity and a control group before and after psychosocial stress exposure. Particular proteins involved in (i) immune processes, such as neutrophil-related proteins, (ii) protein metabolism, or (iii) proteins related to mitochondrial biology, such as those involved in energy production processes, were upregulated in participants reporting exposure to adversity in childhood. This functional triad was further corroborated by protein interaction- and co-expression analyses, was independent of stress exposure, i.e. observed at both pre- and post-stress time points, and became evident especially in females. In line with the mitochondrial allostatic load model, our findings provide evidence for the long-term effects of childhood adversity on mitochondrial biology. [less ▲]

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See detailOpportunities for physical layer security in UAV communication enhanced with intelligent reflective surfaces
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Ali, Zain et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications (2022), 29(06), 22-28

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an important component of next-generation wireless networks that can assist in high data rate communications and provide enhanced coverage.Their high mobility and ... [more ▼]

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an important component of next-generation wireless networks that can assist in high data rate communications and provide enhanced coverage.Their high mobility and aerial nature offer deployment flexibility and low-cost infrastructure support to existing cellular networks and provide many applications that rely on mobile wireless communications. However, security is a major challenge in UAV communications, and physical layer security (PLS) is an important technique to improve the reliability and security of data shared with the assistance of UAVs. Recently, the intelligent reflective surface (IRS) has emerged as a novel technology to extend and/or enhance wireless coverage by reconfiguring the propagation environment of communications. This article provides an overview of how the IRS can improve the PLS of UAV networks. We discuss different use cases of PLS for IRS-enhanced UAV communications and briefly review the recent advances in this area. Then, based on the recent advances, we also present a case study that utilizes alternate optimization to maximize the secrecy capacity for an IRS-enhanced UAV scenario in the presence of multiple Eves. Finally, we highlight several open issues and research challenges to realize PLS in IRS-enhanced UAV communications. [less ▲]

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See detailErgodic Performance Analysis of Double Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces-Aided NOMA–UAV Systems with Hardware Impairment
Nguyen, Minh-Sang Van; Do, Dinh-Thuan; Phan, Van-Duc et al

in Drones (2022)

In this work, we design an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted Internet of Things (IoT) by enabling non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) approaches. We pay ... [more ▼]

In this work, we design an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted Internet of Things (IoT) by enabling non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) approaches. We pay attention to studying the achievable rates for the ground users. A practical system model takes into account the presence of hardware impairment when Rayleigh and Rician channels are adopted for the IRS–NOMA–UAV system. Our main findings are presented to showcase the exact expressions for achievable rates, and then we derive their simple approximations for a more insightful performance evaluation. The validity of these approximations is demonstrated using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We confirm the achievable rate improvement decided by main parameters such as the average signal to noise ratio at source, the position of IRS with respect to the source and destination and the number of IRS elements. As a suggestion for the deployment of a low-cost IoT system, the double-IRS model is a reliable approach to realizing the system as long as the hardware impairment level is controlled. The results show that the proposed scheme can greatly improve achievable rates, obtain optimal performance at one of two devices and exhibit a small performance gap compared with the other benchmark scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailTask-Oriented Communication Design in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Survey on Theory and Applications
Mostaani, Arsham UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL et al

in IEEE Access (2022)

Communication system design has been traditionally guided by task-agnostic principles, which aim at efficiently transmitting as many correct bits as possible through a given channel. However, in the era ... [more ▼]

Communication system design has been traditionally guided by task-agnostic principles, which aim at efficiently transmitting as many correct bits as possible through a given channel. However, in the era of cyber-physical systems, the effectiveness of communications is not dictated simply by the bit rate, but most importantly by the efficient completion of the task in hand, e.g., controlling remotely a robot, automating a production line or collaboratively sensing through a drone swarm. In parallel, it is projected that by 2023, half of the worldwide network connections will be among machines rather than humans. In this context, it is crucial to establish a new paradigm for designing communication strategies for multi-agent cyber-physical systems. This is a daunting task, since it requires a combination of principles from information, communication, control theories and computer science in order to formalize a general framework for task-oriented communication designs. In this direction, this paper reviews and structures the relevant theoretical work across a wide range of scientific communities. Subsequently, it proposes a general conceptual framework for task-oriented communication design, along with its specializations according to targeted use cases. Furthermore, it provides a survey of relevant contributions in dominant applications, such as industrial internet of things, multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems, autonomous vehicles, distributed learning systems, smart manufacturing plants, 5G and beyond self-organizing networks, and tactile internet. Finally, this paper also highlights the most important open research topics from both the theoretical framework and application points of view. [less ▲]

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See detailElucidating the role of formate on cancer cell invasion
Delbrouck, Catherine Anne Lucie UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Metabolic rewiring is essential to enable cancer onset and progression. One important metabolic pathway that is often hijacked by cancer cells is the one-carbon (1C) cycle, in which the third carbon of ... [more ▼]

Metabolic rewiring is essential to enable cancer onset and progression. One important metabolic pathway that is often hijacked by cancer cells is the one-carbon (1C) cycle, in which the third carbon of serine is oxidized to formate. It was previously shown that formate production in cancer cells often exceeds the anabolic demand, resulting in formate overflow. Furthermore, extracellular formate was described to promote the in vitro invasiveness of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the formate-induced invasion remains elusive. In this present study, we aimed to characterize formate-induced invasion in greater detail. At first, we studied the generalizability of formate-induced invasion in different GBM models as well as in different breast cancer models. We applied different in vitro assays, like the Boyden chamber assay to probe the impact of formate on different cancer cell lines. Then, we studied the in vivo relevance and the pro-invasive properties of formate in physiological models by using different ex vivo and in vivo models. Lastly, we investigated the mechanism underlying the formate-dependent pro-invasive phenotype. We applied a variety of different biochemical as well as cellular assays to investigate the underlying mechanism. In the present study, we underline that formate specifically promotes invasion and not migration in different cancer types. Furthermore, we now demonstrate that inhibition of formate overflow results in a decreased invasiveness of GBM cells ex vivo and in vivo. Using breast cancer models, we also obtain first evidence that formate does not only promote local cancer cell invasion but also metastasis formation in vivo, suggesting that locally increased formate concentrations within the tumour microenvironment promote cancer cell motility and dissemination. Mechanistically, we uncover a previously undescribed interplay where formate acts as a trigger to alter fatty acid metabolism, which in turn affects cancer cell invasiveness and metastatic potential via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release. Gaining a better mechanistic understanding of formate overflow, and how formate promotes invasion in cancer, may contribute to preventing cancer cell dissemination, one of the main reasons for cancer-related mortality. [less ▲]

See detailDistributionally robust optimal allocation with costly verification
Bayrak, Halil Ibrahim; Kocyigit, Cagil UL; Kuhn, Daniel et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

See detailChair: Remembering as Bordering
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2022, December 15)