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See detailLeading the Charge on Digital Regulation: The More, the Better, or Policy Bubble?
Codagnone, Cristiano; Weigl, Linda UL

in Digital Society (2023), 2(4), 1-25

For about a decade, the concept of ‘digital sovereignty’ has been prominent in the European policy discourse. In the quest for digital sovereignty, the European Union has adopted a constitutional approach ... [more ▼]

For about a decade, the concept of ‘digital sovereignty’ has been prominent in the European policy discourse. In the quest for digital sovereignty, the European Union has adopted a constitutional approach to protect fundamental rights and democratic values, and to ensure fair and competitive digital markets. Thus, ‘digital constitutionalism’ emerged as a twin discourse. A corollary of these discourses is a third phenomenon resulting from a regulatory externalisation of European law beyond the bloc’s borders, the so-called ‘Brussels Effect’. The dynamics arising from Europe’s digital policy and regulatory activism imply increasing legal complexities. This paper argues that this phenomenon in policy-making is a case of a positive ‘policy bubble’ characterised by an oversupply of policies and legislative acts. The phenomenon can be explained by the amplification of values in the framing of digital policy issues. To unpack the policy frames and values at stake, this paper provides an overview of the digital policy landscape, followed by a critical assessment to showcase the practical implications of positive policy bubbles. [less ▲]

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See detailReliable Fix Patterns Inferred from Static Checkers for Automated Program Repair
Liu, Kui; Zhang, Jingtang; Li, Li et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2023)

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See detailEfficiency versus effort: A better way to compare best photovoltaic research cell efficiencies
Dale, Phillip UL; Scarpulla, Michael A.

in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2023)

See detailHeimat in Literatur und Kultur : Neue Perspektiven
Carstensen, Thorsten; Kohns, Oliver UL

Book published by Brill Fink (2023)

The term "Heimat" is in vogue - in popular culture as well as in literary and cultural studies research. For a long time, the term "Heimat" was considered merely an ideological concept of "völkisch ... [more ▼]

The term "Heimat" is in vogue - in popular culture as well as in literary and cultural studies research. For a long time, the term "Heimat" was considered merely an ideological concept of "völkisch" thinking. However, contemporary reflections in literature and culture, for example in the genre of the village story, reveal diverse and ambivalent points of view. Against this background, the anthology is devoted, on the one hand, to those works from the 19th to the 21st century that were formative for the development of the Heimat discourse. On the other hand, previously less intensively discussed texts are (re)discovered and examples from the fields of film and television are also included. [less ▲]

See detailEinleitung : Neue Perspektiven auf den Heimat-Begriff
Carstensen, Thorsten; Kohns, Oliver UL

in Carstensen, Thorsten; Kohns, Oliver (Eds.) Heimat in Literatur und Kultur : neue Perspektiven (2023)

See detail"Urheimat" und "Kulturnation": Heimat und nationale Identität in Richard Wagners Essay "Was ist deutsch?"
Kohns, Oliver UL

in Carstensen, Thorsten; Kohns, Oliver (Eds.) Heimat in Literatur und Kultur : neue Perspektiven (2023)

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See detailA matter of habit? Stressful life events and cognitive flexibility in 15-month-olds
Tisborn, Katharina; Kumsta, Robert UL; Zmyj, Norbert et al

in Infant Behavior and Development (2023), 71 file://localhost/Users/robert.kumsta/Documents/Papers%20Library/Tisborn-A%20matter%20of%20habit-%20Stressful%20life%20events%20and%20cognitive%20flexibility%20in%2015-month-olds-2023-Infant%20Behavior%20and%20Development.pdf

Exposure to chronic stress is associated with habitual learning in adults. We studied the origins of this association by examining the link between stressful life events and infant cognitive flexibility ... [more ▼]

Exposure to chronic stress is associated with habitual learning in adults. We studied the origins of this association by examining the link between stressful life events and infant cognitive flexibility. The final sample consisted of N = 72 fifteen-month-old infants and their mothers. Mothers completed a survey on pre- and postnatal negative life events. To assess chronic stress physiologically, infant and maternal hair cortisol concentrations were determined for cortisol accumulation during the past 3 months. Each infant participated in two cognitive tasks in the laboratory. An instrumental learning task tested infants’ ability to disengage from a habituated action when this action became ineffective (Seehagen et al., 2015). An age-adequate version of the A-not-B task tested infants’ ability to find a toy at location B after repeatedly finding it at location A. Correlations between cortisol concentrations and postnatal negative life events (number, perceived impact) did not yield significance. Infant and maternal hair cortisol concentrations were not correlated. Infants’ ability to shift to a new action in either task, controlled for acute stress, correlated neither with pre- and postnatal negative life events nor with cortisol concentrations. Taken together, these results indicate that the potential link between long-term stress exposure and cognitive flexibility might not be present in samples with low levels of psychosocial stress. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic Deontic Logics for Reasoning about Uncertain Norms
de Wit, Vincent UL; Doder, Dragan; Meyer, John Jules

in Journal of Applied Logics (IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications) (2023)

In this article, we present a proof-theoretical and model-theoretical approach to probabilistic logic for reasoning about uncertainty about normative state- ments. We introduce two logics with languages ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present a proof-theoretical and model-theoretical approach to probabilistic logic for reasoning about uncertainty about normative state- ments. We introduce two logics with languages that extend both the language of monadic deontic logic and the language of probabilistic logic. The first logic allows statements like “the probability that one is obliged to be quiet is at least 0.9”. The second logic allows iteration of probabilities in the language. We axiomatize both logics, provide the corresponding semantics and prove that the axiomatizations are sound and complete. We also prove that both logics are decidable. In addition, we show that the problem of deciding satisfiability for the simpler of our two logics is in PSPACE, no worse than that of deontic logic. [less ▲]

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See detailBeam Splash Mitigation for NGSO Spectrum Coexistence between Feeder and User Downlink
Lagunas, Eva UL; Perez-Neira, Ana; Grotz, Joel et al

in International ITG 26th Workshop on Smart Antennas (WSA), Braunschweig, Germany, 27 Feb - 03 Mar 2023. (2023)

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See detailXRP-NDN overlay: Improving the Communication Efficiency of Consensus-Validation based Blockchains with an NDN Overlay
Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Shbair, Wazen UL; Scheidt de Cristo, Flaviene UL et al

Scientific Conference (2023)

With growing adoption of Distributed Ledger Technologies, their networks must scale while maintaining efficient communication for the underlying consensus and replication mechanisms. New content ... [more ▼]

With growing adoption of Distributed Ledger Technologies, their networks must scale while maintaining efficient communication for the underlying consensus and replication mechanisms. New content distribution concepts like Named Data Networking create opportunities to achieve this goal. We present and evaluate XRP-NDN overlay, a solution to increase communication efficiency for consensus-validation blockchains like XRP Ledger. We send consensus messages over different communication models and show that the chosen model lowers the number of messages at node level to minimum, while maintaining or improving performance by leveraging overlay advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of NOMA with Reflecting Intelligent Surfaces: A Multi-cell Optimization with SIC Decoding Errors
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

in arXiv (2023)

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) has gained significant attention due to its high energy and spectral efficiency in next-generation wireless networks. By using low-cost passive reflecting elements ... [more ▼]

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) has gained significant attention due to its high energy and spectral efficiency in next-generation wireless networks. By using low-cost passive reflecting elements, RIS can smartly reconfigure the signal propagation to extend the wireless communication coverage. On the other hand, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been proven as a key air interface technique for supporting massive connections over limited resources. Utilizing the superposition coding and successive interference cancellation (SIC) techniques, NOMA can multiplex multiple users over the same spectrum and time resources by allocating different power levels. This paper proposes a new optimization scheme in a multi-cell RIS-NOMA network to enhance the spectral efficiency under SIC decoding errors. In particular, the power budget of the base station and the transmit power of NOMA users while the passive beamforming of RIS is simultaneously optimized in each cell. Due to objective function and quality of service constraints, the joint problem is formulated as non-convex, which is very complex and challenging to obtain the optimal global solution. To reduce the complexity and make the problem tractable, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems for power allocation and passive beamforming. Then, the efficient solution of each sub-problem is obtained in two-steps. In the first-step of For power allocation sub-problem, we transform it to a convex problem by inner approximation method and then solve it through a standard convex optimization solver in the second-step. Accordingly, in the first-step of passive beamforming, it is transformed to a standard semidefinite programming problem by successive convex approximation and different of convex programming methods. Then, penalty based method is used to achieve a Rank-1 solution for passive beamforming in second-step. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed optimization scheme in the multi-cell RIS-NOMA network. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive microglia are the major source of tumor necrosis factor alpha and contribute to astrocyte dysfunction and acute seizures in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy.
Henning, Lukas; Antony, Henrike; Breuer, Annika et al

in Glia (2023), 71(2), 168-186

Extensive microglia reactivity has been well described in human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To date, however, it is not clear whether and based on which molecular mechanisms microglia ... [more ▼]

Extensive microglia reactivity has been well described in human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To date, however, it is not clear whether and based on which molecular mechanisms microglia contribute to the development and progression of focal epilepsy. Astroglial gap junction coupled networks play an important role in regulating neuronal activity and loss of interastrocytic coupling causally contributes to TLE. Here, we show in the unilateral intracortical kainate (KA) mouse model of TLE that reactive microglia are primary producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and contribute to astrocyte dysfunction and severity of status epilepticus (SE). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed pronounced and persistent microglia reactivity, which already started 4 h after KA-induced SE. Partial depletion of microglia using a colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor prevented early astrocyte uncoupling and attenuated the severity of SE, but increased the mortality of epileptic mice following surgery. Using microglia-specific inducible TNFα knockout mice we identified microglia as the major source of TNFα during early epileptogenesis. Importantly, microglia-specific TNFα knockout prevented SE-induced gap junction uncoupling in astrocytes. Continuous telemetric EEG recordings revealed that during the first 4 weeks after SE induction, microglial TNFα did not significantly contribute to spontaneous generalized seizure activity. Moreover, the absence of microglial TNFα did not affect the development of hippocampal sclerosis but attenuated gliosis. Taken together, these data implicate reactive microglia in astrocyte dysfunction and network hyperexcitability after an epileptogenic insult. [less ▲]

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See detailApoE4 makes microglia trem(2)bling.
Heneka, Michael UL

in Neuron (2023), 111(2), 142-144

The ApoE-Trem2 pathway links two of the most important genetic risk variants for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In this issue of Neuron, Gratuze and colleagues(1) report that Trem2 deficiency further ... [more ▼]

The ApoE-Trem2 pathway links two of the most important genetic risk variants for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In this issue of Neuron, Gratuze and colleagues(1) report that Trem2 deficiency further aggravates neurodegeneration in tau mutant mice expressing human ApoE4. Together with previous work, this study points to a complex interaction and highlights the need for studying molecular interactions on all human ApoE variants. [less ▲]