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See detailIndividualised prediction of drug resistance and seizure recurrence after medication withdrawal in people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis
Stevelink, Remi; Al-Toma, Dania; Jansen, Floor E. et al

in eClinicalMedicine (2022)

Summary Background A third of people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are drug-resistant. Three-quarters have a seizure relapse when attempting to withdraw anti-seizure medication (ASM) after ... [more ▼]

Summary Background A third of people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are drug-resistant. Three-quarters have a seizure relapse when attempting to withdraw anti-seizure medication (ASM) after achieving seizure-freedom. It is currently impossible to predict who is likely to become drug-resistant and safely withdraw treatment. We aimed to identify predictors of drug resistance and seizure recurrence to allow for individualised prediction of treatment outcomes in people with JME. Methods We performed an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis based on a systematic search in EMBASE and PubMed – last updated on March 11, 2021 – including prospective and retrospective observational studies reporting on treatment outcomes of people diagnosed with JME and available seizure outcome data after a minimum one-year follow-up. We invited authors to share standardised IPD to identify predictors of drug resistance using multivariable logistic regression. We excluded pseudo-resistant individuals. A subset who attempted to withdraw ASM was included in a multivariable proportional hazards analysis on seizure recurrence after ASM withdrawal. The study was registered at the Open Science Framework (OSF; https://osf.io/b9zjc/). Findings  368) was predicted by an earlier age at the start of withdrawal, shorter seizure-free interval and more currently used ASMs, resulting in an average internal-external cross-validation concordance-statistic of 0·70 (95%CI 0·68–0·73). Interpretation We were able to predict and validate clinically relevant personalised treatment outcomes for people with JME. Individualised predictions are accessible as nomograms and web-based tools. Funding MING fonds. [less ▲]

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See detailRaman imaging of twist angle variations in twisted bilayer graphene at intermediate angles
Schäpers, A.; Sonntag, J.; Valerius, L. et al

in 2D Mater. (2022), 9(4), 045009

Van der Waals layered materials with well-defined twist angles between the crystal lattices of individual layers have attracted increasing attention due to the emergence of unexpected material properties ... [more ▼]

Van der Waals layered materials with well-defined twist angles between the crystal lattices of individual layers have attracted increasing attention due to the emergence of unexpected material properties. As many properties critically depend on the exact twist angle and its spatial homogeneity, there is a need for a fast and non-invasive characterization technique of the local twist angle, to be applied preferably right after stacking. We demonstrate that confocal Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to spatially map the twist angle in stacked bilayer graphene for angles between 6.5 and 8 degree when using a green excitation laser. The twist angles can directly be extracted from the moiré superlattice-activated Raman scattering process of the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon mode. Furthermore, we show that the width of the TA Raman peak contains valuable information on spatial twist angle variations on length scales below the laser spot size of ∼500 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailFake News in Literatur und Medien. Fakten und Fiktionen im interdisziplinären Diskurs
Bendheim, Amelie UL; Pavlik, Jennifer

Book published by transcript (2022)

›Fake News‹ sind aus privaten wie politischen Unterhaltungen nicht mehr wegzudenken und erfahren mit der omnipräsenten Nutzung digitaler Kommunikationskanäle eine geradezu inflationäre Verbreitung. Die ... [more ▼]

›Fake News‹ sind aus privaten wie politischen Unterhaltungen nicht mehr wegzudenken und erfahren mit der omnipräsenten Nutzung digitaler Kommunikationskanäle eine geradezu inflationäre Verbreitung. Die Beiträger*innen diskutieren vor dem Hintergrund verschiedener Disziplinen der Humanities Formen und Folgen von Wissens- und Informationsvermittlung, Wahrheitsreduktion und Wirklichkeitsbeschneidung sowie Täuschung und Beeinflussung der öffentlichen Meinung. Sie erschließen den Begriff aus einer interdisziplinären und diachronen Perspektive und eröffnen Einsichten in die verschiedenen Bedeutungsnuancen des Phänomens. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Mining Covid-19 Literature
Sirajzade, Joshgun UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL; Schommer, Christoph UL

in Applied Informatics, 5th International Conference, ICAI 2022, Arequipa, Peru, October 27–29, 2022, Proceedings (2022)

In this paper we investigate how scientific and medical papers about Covid-19 can be effectively mined. For this purpose we use the CORD19 dataset which is a huge collection of all papers published about ... [more ▼]

In this paper we investigate how scientific and medical papers about Covid-19 can be effectively mined. For this purpose we use the CORD19 dataset which is a huge collection of all papers published about and around the SARS-CoV2 virus and the pandemic it caused. We discuss how classical text mining algorithms like Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) or its modern version Latent Drichlet Allocation (LDA) can be used for this purpose and also touch more modern variant of these algorithms like word2vec which came with deep learning wave and show their advantages and disadvantages each. We finish the paper with showing some topic examples from the corpus and answer questions such as which topics are the most prominent for the corpus or how many percentage of the corpus is dedicated to them. We also give a discussion of how topics around RNA research in connection with Covid-19 can be examined. [less ▲]

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See detailAMBER 22 Reference Manual
Case, David A; Duke, Robert E; Walker, Ross C et al

Book published by University of California (2022)

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See detailFake News. Von Fakten und Fiktionen in Literatur und Medien
Bendheim, Amelie UL; Pavlik, Jennifer

in Bendheim, Amelie; Pavlik, Jennifer (Eds.) Fake News in Literatur und Medien. Fakten und Fiktionen im interdisziplinären Diskurs (2022)

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See detailBücherschau
Steveker, Lena UL; Gruss, Susanne

in Shakespeare Jahrbuch (2022)

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See detailA Magnetohydrodynamic enhanced entry system for space transportation: MEESST
Lani, Andrea; Sharma, Vatsalya; Giangaspero, Vincent F. et al

in Journal of Space Safety Engineering (2022)

This paper outlines the initial development of a novel magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma control system which aims at mitigating shock-induced heating and the radio-frequency communication blackout ... [more ▼]

This paper outlines the initial development of a novel magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma control system which aims at mitigating shock-induced heating and the radio-frequency communication blackout typically encountered during (re-)entry into planetary atmospheres. An international consortium comprising universities, SMEs, research institutions, and industry has been formed in order to develop this technology within the MEESST project. The latter is funded by the Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) program of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 scheme (grant no. 899298). Atmospheric entry imposes one of the harshest environments which a spacecraft can experience. The combination of hypersonic velocities and the rapid compression of atmospheric particles by the spacecraft leads to high-enthalpy, partially ionised gases forming around the vehicle. This inhibits radio communications and induces high thermal loads on the spacecraft surface. For the former problem, spacecraft can sometimes rely on satellite constellations for communicating through the plasma wake and therefore preventing the blackout. On the other hand, expensive, heavy, and non-reusable thermal protection systems (TPS) are needed to dissipate the severe thermal loads. Such TPS can represent up to 30% of an entry vehicles weight, and especially for manned missions they can reduce the cost- efficiency by sacrificing payload mass. Such systems are also prone to failure, putting the lives of astronauts at risk. The use of electromagnetic fields to exploit MHD principles has long been considered as an attractive solution for tackling the problems described above. By pushing the boundary layer of the ionized gas layer away from the spacecraft, the thermal loads can be reduced, while also opening a magnetic window for radio communications and mitigating the blackout phenomenon. The application of this MHD-enabled system has previously not been demonstrated in realistic conditions due to the required large magnetic fields (on the order of Tesla or more), which for conventional technologies would demand exceptionally heavy and power-hungry electromagnets. High-temperature superconductors (HTS) have reached a level of industrial maturity sufficient for them to act as a key enabling technology for this application. Thanks to superior current densities, HTS coils can offer the necessary low weight and compactness required for space applications, with the ability to generate the strong magnetic fields needed for entry purposes. This paper provides an overview of the MEESST project, including its goals, methodology and some preliminary design considerations. [less ▲]

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See detailJack of All Trades - Stolz und Hilflosigkeit
Richter, Daniel UL

in Scuto, Denis; Jaspers, Susanne (Eds.) This Hard Minett Land (2022)

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See detailMarket Regulation and Innovation: Direct and Indirect Effects
Quignon, Aurelien UL

in Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade (2022)

The effects of competition regulations on innovation are, in theory, ambiguous. Using a panel of twenty-five OECD countries over 1995–2015, we estimated how domestic and foreign competition affects ... [more ▼]

The effects of competition regulations on innovation are, in theory, ambiguous. Using a panel of twenty-five OECD countries over 1995–2015, we estimated how domestic and foreign competition affects innovation. Reducing regulation intensifies domestic and foreign competition, increasing R&D expenditure and patenting. Accounting for interaction between these two sources of product market competition, we find that domestic regulation directly led to growing R&D expenditure and patent production, whereas competition from foreign regulation influences innovation toward its effect on domestic competition. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Resource Allocation for Satellite Illumination Pattern Design
Chen, Lin UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Lei, Lei et al

in IEEE 96st Vehicular Technology Conference, London-Beijing, Sept. 2022 (2022)

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See detailCloud removal from satellite imagery using multispectral edge-filtered conditional generative adversarial networks
Hasan, Cengis; Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2022), 43(5), 1881-1893

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See detailDoes waste management affect firm performance? International evidence
Derouiche, Imen UL; Gull, Ammar Ali; Atif, Muhammad et al

in Economic Modelling (2022), 114

This study examines an important yet underexplored aspect of firms’ sustainability practices, i.e., waste management, in order to analyze its impact on financial performance. Although the extant ... [more ▼]

This study examines an important yet underexplored aspect of firms’ sustainability practices, i.e., waste management, in order to analyze its impact on financial performance. Although the extant literature has focused on various aspects of sustainability, the impact of waste management, which has disastrous consequences for the climate and firm performance, remains largely unexplored. Thus, using the 2002–2019 data of listed firms from 41 countries, we found a significantly negative (positive) relationship between waste generation (recycling) and financial performance. Our findings are robust to alternative variables, sub-sample analysis, and identification strategies. Moreover, a channel analysis showed that this relationship is influenced by operating costs, ESG performance-based compensation, industry nature, the Paris agreement on climate change, and the global financial crisis. Overall, the findings suggest that environmental initiatives are beneficial for firms and present important policy implications for regulators and firms. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitizing Inclusion in a Changing World: Comparing insights into four European countries for matching new global realities
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Vogt, Michaela; Bagger, Anette et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

Inclusion and digitalization are among the driving forces in global discourses on education and learning. These global realities cause extensive transformations at local, national, and international ... [more ▼]

Inclusion and digitalization are among the driving forces in global discourses on education and learning. These global realities cause extensive transformations at local, national, and international levels. At the same time, the goal of inclusion is directly interwoven with local conditions, understandings, and historically grown valuations. The concept oscillates between universally shared norms and highly divergent local implementations. Regarding the focus of the symposium it can be assumed that especially in the course of digitalization as one main reaction of the corona pandemic, learning materials are not only expected to be inclusion oriented but also need to be combinable with digital demands to address alls kinds of inequalities amongst students appropriately. Learning materials thus are a central momentum to expatiate on transformations of a changing world. In correspondence with the congress theme, the symposium will therefore discuss how a reflection on centrifugal forces of interdependence and individuality can be located in the context of the immediate everyday life in schools and educational practice. In order to be able to discuss these tensions and current changes within educational practices starting from learning materials, an anchor point is needed in order to open up the international comparison of local specifics. The anchor point for this symposium is a criteria catalog which enables the international comparison of learning materials in their cultural contexts and provides a visualization of local particularities in the field of learning materials (Vogt et al. 2021). If these results are put into relation with the inclusive landscapes in different countries, further insights of relevance for inclusion as a global topic can be generated. The data basis springs from the ITM project (2018-2021, funded by Erasmus+) and other international collections of material. Speakers with expertise in regard to the triangulation of learning materials, inclusion and digitalization from four European universities (Ostrava, Czech Republic; Bielefeld, Germany; Luxemburg and Örebro, Sweden) present their findings in the symposium, more in-depth talks about national perspectives as well as a concluding wrap up. The following research questions are a guideline for each section of the symposium: 1. What are the local specifics and constellations as well as understandings of inclusion as a global reality that are being mirrored in teaching material? 2. How can the international comparison of teaching material impact the advancement of inclusion on a local level? 3. How can international comparative educational research become a driving force in the productive negotiation of globally relevant tensions? The contributions are methodologically based on group discussions and expert interviews about selected learning materials, their quality and criteria for evaluating them. These exchanges have been evaluated with the qualitative content analysis by Mayring (2015). Discourse analysis and context analysis were applied. Furthermore, source corpora of learning material were developed and materials were examined using a qualitative content analysis. This refers to the ITM project from Luxembourg, Örebro and Bielefeld University (Erasmus funding line, 2018-2021) as well as the contribution by Ostrava University. The material mainly comes from primary school education and takes into account various subjects, e.g. mathematics and natural sciences. By looking at the results of the interviews and the analysis of teaching materials as well as on the findings about the cultural and local conditions the presenters were able to develop a deeper understanding about how learning materials are set up for inclusive learning processes and about the underpinning understanding of inclusion in different cultural settings. This is the needed foundation to contextualize everyday practices of teaching and learning with the demands of education within the digital condition. [less ▲]

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See detailKrichever-Novikov type algebras. A general review and the Genus Zero case
Schlichenmaier, Martin UL

in Hervig, Sigbjorn; Kruglikov, Boris; Markina, Irina (Eds.) et al Geometry, Lie theory and applications (2022)

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See detailEditorial: Socio-Technical Ecologies – Design for Human-Machine Systems
Botev, Jean UL; Diaconescu, Ada; Hamann, Heiko et al

in Frontiers in Robotics and AI | Socio-Technical Ecologies: Design for Human-Machine Systems (2022)

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 lockdown stringency on loneliness in five European countries
Caro, Juan Carlos; Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Social Science and Medicine (2022)

Rationale: The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to implement a variety of different dynamic lockdown-stringency strategies in the last two years. Extensive lockdown periods could have potential ... [more ▼]

Rationale: The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to implement a variety of different dynamic lockdown-stringency strategies in the last two years. Extensive lockdown periods could have potential unintended consequences on mental health, at least for at-risk groups. Objective: We present novel evidence on the heterogeneous direct and indirect effects of lockdown-stringency measures on individuals’ perception of social isolation (i.e. loneliness) using panel data from five European countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Sweden), which tracks changes in both in-person and remote social interactions between May 2020 and March 2021. Method: We combine data from the COME-HERE panel survey (University of Luxembourg) and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). We implement a dynamic mixture model in order to estimate the loneliness sub-population classes based on the severity of loneliness, as well as the evolution of social interactions. Results: While loneliness is remarkably persistent over time, we find substantial heterogeneity across individuals, identifying four latent groups by loneliness severity. Group membership probability varies with age, gender, education and cohabitation status. Moreover, we note significant differences in the impact of social interactions on loneliness by degree of severity. Older people are less likely to feel lonely, but were more affected by lockdown measures, partly due to a reduction in face-to-face interactions. On the contrary, the younger, especially those living alone, report high levels of loneliness that are largely unaffected by changes in the pandemic after lockdown measures were initially implemented. Conclusions: Understanding the heterogeneity in loneliness is key for the identification of at-risk populations that can be severely affected by extended lockdown measures. As part of public-health crisis-response systems, it is critical to develop support measures for older individuals living alone, as well as promoting continuous remote communication for individuals more likely to experience high levels of loneliness. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxation change in Sub-saharan African gold mines
Bertinelli, Luisito UL; Bourgain, Arnaud UL; Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Avom, Désiré; Ongo Nkoa, Bruno Emmanuel (Eds.) Pertinence des politiques publiques de développement en Afrique subsaharienne (2021)

In this paper, we analyze empirically the effects of tax changes on firms' profits in extractive industries. We estimate the effect of the profit tax and royalty on the extracting firms' declared profit ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we analyze empirically the effects of tax changes on firms' profits in extractive industries. We estimate the effect of the profit tax and royalty on the extracting firms' declared profit in African countries during the period spanning from 2007 to 2018. We use the Mining Intelligence database to constitute a panel of annual individual data from a database of 363 gold mines located in 21 Sub-Saharan African countries. We obtain an inverse relationship between the tax rate change of the two tax instruments and the profit of the firms. Our results illustrate the crucial role of cost overstatement. From a tax policy point of view, we underline the shortcomings of asymmetry of information for declared profit and consequently for government revenues. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomation, Growth, and Factor Shares in the Era of Population Aging
Irmen, Andreas UL

in Journal of Economic Growth (2021), 26

How does population aging affect economic growth and factor shares in times of increasingly automatable production processes? The present paper addresses this question in a new macroeconomic model of ... [more ▼]

How does population aging affect economic growth and factor shares in times of increasingly automatable production processes? The present paper addresses this question in a new macroeconomic model of automation where competitive firms perform tasks to produce output. Tasks require labor and machines as inputs. New machines embody superior technological knowledge and substitute for labor in the performance of tasks. Automation is labor-augmenting in the reduced-form aggregate production function. If wages increase then the incentive to automate becomes stronger. Moreover, the labor share declines even though the aggregate production function is Cobb–Douglas. Population aging due to a higher longevity reduces automation in the short and promotes it in the long run. It boosts the growth rate of absolute and per-capita GDP in the short and the long run, lifts the labor share in the short and reduces it in the long run. Population aging due to a decline in fertility increases automation, reduces the growth rate of GDP, and lowers the labor share in the short and the long run. In the short run, it may or may not increase the growth rate of per-capita GDP, in the long run it unequivocally accelerates per-capita GDP growth. [less ▲]

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