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See detailHierarchical message-passing graph neural networks
Zhong, Zhiqiang; Li, Cheng-Te; Pang, Jun UL

in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (2023), 37

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See detailBeam Splash Mitigation for NGSO Spectrum Coexistence between Feeder and User Downlink
Lagunas, Eva UL; Perez-Neira, Ana; Grotz, Joel et al

in International ITG 26th Workshop on Smart Antennas (WSA), Braunschweig, Germany, 27 Feb - 03 Mar 2023. (2023)

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See detailXRP-NDN overlay: Improving the Communication Efficiency of Consensus-Validation based Blockchains with an NDN Overlay
Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Shbair, Wazen UL; Scheidt de Cristo, Flaviene UL et al

Scientific Conference (2023)

With growing adoption of Distributed Ledger Technologies, their networks must scale while maintaining efficient communication for the underlying consensus and replication mechanisms. New content ... [more ▼]

With growing adoption of Distributed Ledger Technologies, their networks must scale while maintaining efficient communication for the underlying consensus and replication mechanisms. New content distribution concepts like Named Data Networking create opportunities to achieve this goal. We present and evaluate XRP-NDN overlay, a solution to increase communication efficiency for consensus-validation blockchains like XRP Ledger. We send consensus messages over different communication models and show that the chosen model lowers the number of messages at node level to minimum, while maintaining or improving performance by leveraging overlay advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive microglia are the major source of tumor necrosis factor alpha and contribute to astrocyte dysfunction and acute seizures in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy.
Henning, Lukas; Antony, Henrike; Breuer, Annika et al

in Glia (2023), 71(2), 168-186

Extensive microglia reactivity has been well described in human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To date, however, it is not clear whether and based on which molecular mechanisms microglia ... [more ▼]

Extensive microglia reactivity has been well described in human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To date, however, it is not clear whether and based on which molecular mechanisms microglia contribute to the development and progression of focal epilepsy. Astroglial gap junction coupled networks play an important role in regulating neuronal activity and loss of interastrocytic coupling causally contributes to TLE. Here, we show in the unilateral intracortical kainate (KA) mouse model of TLE that reactive microglia are primary producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and contribute to astrocyte dysfunction and severity of status epilepticus (SE). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed pronounced and persistent microglia reactivity, which already started 4 h after KA-induced SE. Partial depletion of microglia using a colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor prevented early astrocyte uncoupling and attenuated the severity of SE, but increased the mortality of epileptic mice following surgery. Using microglia-specific inducible TNFα knockout mice we identified microglia as the major source of TNFα during early epileptogenesis. Importantly, microglia-specific TNFα knockout prevented SE-induced gap junction uncoupling in astrocytes. Continuous telemetric EEG recordings revealed that during the first 4 weeks after SE induction, microglial TNFα did not significantly contribute to spontaneous generalized seizure activity. Moreover, the absence of microglial TNFα did not affect the development of hippocampal sclerosis but attenuated gliosis. Taken together, these data implicate reactive microglia in astrocyte dysfunction and network hyperexcitability after an epileptogenic insult. [less ▲]

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See detailApoE4 makes microglia trem(2)bling.
Heneka, Michael UL

in Neuron (2023), 111(2), 142-144

The ApoE-Trem2 pathway links two of the most important genetic risk variants for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In this issue of Neuron, Gratuze and colleagues(1) report that Trem2 deficiency further ... [more ▼]

The ApoE-Trem2 pathway links two of the most important genetic risk variants for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In this issue of Neuron, Gratuze and colleagues(1) report that Trem2 deficiency further aggravates neurodegeneration in tau mutant mice expressing human ApoE4. Together with previous work, this study points to a complex interaction and highlights the need for studying molecular interactions on all human ApoE variants. [less ▲]

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See detailQRNG Entropy as a Service(EaaS) Platform for Quantum-Safe Entropy and key Delivery
Chou, Hung-Pu UL; Hongfu, Chou

Report (2023)

Random numbers [1] are widely used in numerical computing, statistical simulation, random sampling, etc. The security of random numbers is getting more attention. In addition to random numbers ... [more ▼]

Random numbers [1] are widely used in numerical computing, statistical simulation, random sampling, etc. The security of random numbers is getting more attention. In addition to random numbers, information and network environment security [2] are also very important in real life, such as the generation of verification code for login, QR code for online payment, etc. All random numbers that involve important identity information must have extremely high security to protect personal privacy from being leaked or illegally stolen. At present, the mechanism for generating random numbers by computers is at risk of being attacked which is subject that the generated random numbers may be predicted in some cases. Random number generation (RNG) [3] has always been one of the biggest problems. The problem with classic random number generators, i.e., pseudorandom number generators, consists in the possibility to know the deterministic process of pseudorandom generation by unwanted persons. This may result, in the case of cryptography, in compromising a myth of security. Another problem may be the incorrect handling of the generated sequence—mostly in cryptographic uses, the generated random sequence is applied once. Its multiple usage may lead to a security breach (e.g., in the case of the OTP cipher, a sufficiently long key should be truly random and used once in that protocol, otherwise it will be possible to break the code). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Limits of Consumer Law in Pursing Sustainability
Pflücke, Felix UL

in Nowag, Julian (Ed.) Research Handbook on Sustainability and Competition Law (2023)

This Chapter critically examines the limits of consumer law in pursuing sustainability. It uses the case of consumer sales of goods contracts, commercial communications and other marketing practices, and ... [more ▼]

This Chapter critically examines the limits of consumer law in pursuing sustainability. It uses the case of consumer sales of goods contracts, commercial communications and other marketing practices, and financial products and services to depict the potential and limitations of the current and proposed measures. The Chapter demonstrates that some consumer law provisions contradict consumer theories and scientific studies and provides targeted and actionable policy recommendations to address these deficiencies. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a harmonized identification scoring system in LC-HRMS/MS based non-target screening (NTS) of emerging contaminants
Alygizakis, Nikiforos; Lestremau, Francois; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo et al

in TrAC: Trends in Analytical Chemistry (2023), 159

Non-target screening (NTS) methods are rapidly gaining in popularity, empowering researchers to search for an ever-increasing number of chemicals. Given this possibility, communicating the confidence of ... [more ▼]

Non-target screening (NTS) methods are rapidly gaining in popularity, empowering researchers to search for an ever-increasing number of chemicals. Given this possibility, communicating the confidence of identification in an automated, concise and unambiguous manner is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we compiled several pieces of evidence necessary for communicating NTS identification confidence and developed a machine learning approach for classification of the identifications as reliable and unreliable. The machine learning approach was trained using data generated by four laboratories equipped with different instrumentation. The model discarded substances with insufficient identification evidence efficiently, while revealing the relevance of different parameters for identification. Based on these results, a harmonized IP-based system is proposed. This new NTS-oriented system is compatible with the currently widely used five level system. It increases the precision in reporting and the reproducibility of current approaches via the inclusion of evidence scores, while being suitable for automation. [less ▲]

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See detailWater science must be Open Science
Schymanski, Emma UL; Schymanski, Stanislaus UL

in Nature Water (2023), 1(1), 4--6

Since water is a common good, the outcome of water-related research should be accessible to everyone. Since Open Science is more than just open access research articles, journals must work with the ... [more ▼]

Since water is a common good, the outcome of water-related research should be accessible to everyone. Since Open Science is more than just open access research articles, journals must work with the research community to enable fully open and FAIR science [less ▲]

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See detailProteome analysis of monocytes implicates altered mitochondrial biology in adults reporting adverse childhood experiences.
Zang, Johannes C. S.; May, Caroline; Hellwig, Birte et al

in Translational psychiatry (2023), 13(1), 31

The experience of adversity in childhood has been associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood. In search of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects, research so far focused on alterations ... [more ▼]

The experience of adversity in childhood has been associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood. In search of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects, research so far focused on alterations of DNA methylation or shifts in transcriptomic profiles. The level of protein, however, has been largely neglected. We utilized mass spectrometry to investigate the proteome of CD14(+) monocytes in healthy adults reporting childhood adversity and a control group before and after psychosocial stress exposure. Particular proteins involved in (i) immune processes, such as neutrophil-related proteins, (ii) protein metabolism, or (iii) proteins related to mitochondrial biology, such as those involved in energy production processes, were upregulated in participants reporting exposure to adversity in childhood. This functional triad was further corroborated by protein interaction- and co-expression analyses, was independent of stress exposure, i.e. observed at both pre- and post-stress time points, and became evident especially in females. In line with the mitochondrial allostatic load model, our findings provide evidence for the long-term effects of childhood adversity on mitochondrial biology. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of NOMA with Reflecting Intelligent Surfaces: A Multi-cell Optimization with SIC Decoding Errors
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) has gained significant attention due to its high energy and spectral efficiency in next-generation wireless networks. By using low-cost passive reflecting elements ... [more ▼]

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) has gained significant attention due to its high energy and spectral efficiency in next-generation wireless networks. By using low-cost passive reflecting elements, RIS can smartly reconfigure the signal propagation to extend the wireless communication coverage. On the other hand, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been proven as a key air interface technique for supporting massive connections over limited resources. Utilizing the superposition coding and successive interference cancellation (SIC) techniques, NOMA can multiplex multiple users over the same spectrum and time resources by allocating different power levels. This paper proposes a new optimization scheme in a multi-cell RIS-NOMA network to enhance the spectral efficiency under SIC decoding errors. In particular, the power budget of the base station and the transmit power of NOMA users while the passive beamforming of RIS is simultaneously optimized in each cell. Due to objective function and quality of service constraints, the joint problem is formulated as non-convex, which is very complex and challenging to obtain the optimal global solution. To reduce the complexity and make the problem tractable, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems for power allocation and passive beamforming. Then, the efficient solution of each sub-problem is obtained in two-steps. In the first-step of For power allocation sub-problem, we transform it to a convex problem by inner approximation method and then solve it through a standard convex optimization solver in the second-step. Accordingly, in the first-step of passive beamforming, it is transformed to a standard semidefinite programming problem by successive convex approximation and different of convex programming methods. Then, penalty based method is used to achieve a Rank-1 solution for passive beamforming in second-step. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed optimization scheme in the multi-cell RIS-NOMA network. [less ▲]

See detail§§ 129 bis 132 des Aktiengesetzes
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Kersting, C.; Noack, U.

Book published by WoltersKluwer Law - 4 (2023)

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See detailKommunikationsaspekte der Zukunft im Klassenraum
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Kihm, Pascal; Neuböck-Hubinger, Brigitte et al

in Gesellschaft für Didaktik des Sachunterrichts (Ed.) Jahresband GDSU 2022: Herausforderungen und Zukunftsperspektiven für den Sachunterricht (2023)

A future-oriented science education refers to everyday experiences, (technical) language and current developments in migration and multilingualism (Kahlert 2022). This requires a participatory bringing ... [more ▼]

A future-oriented science education refers to everyday experiences, (technical) language and current developments in migration and multilingualism (Kahlert 2022). This requires a participatory bringing together of all areas of knowledge and experience in the classroom (Stoltenberg 2004). The arti-cle discusses tasks in science teaching from different perspectives (semantics, multilingualism, etc.), using the topic “swimming and sinking”, which appears to be a suitable frame of reference for several reasons: (1) the topic is based on a wide range of research; (2) it refers to a precise content area with the phenomenon of buoyancy and the considerations on force, density, interaction; (3) it connects to the living environment, and (4) follows the discourse of everyday language vs. educational language. Based on these items, the article tackles the question of what impact language in science textbooks has on (multilingual) students’ acquisition of science content. [less ▲]

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See detailFighting Fires from Crisis to Crisis: The Evolution of Central Banking in Europe
Chang, Michele; Glöckler, Gabriel; Pierret, Laura UL

in Costa, Olivier; Van Hecke, Steven (Eds.) The EU Political System After the 2019 European Elections (2023)

The year 2019 ushered in the end of an era for the European Central Bank when Mario Draghi stepped down as ECB President. The financial crisis left a legacy of central banks as “the only game in town” ... [more ▼]

The year 2019 ushered in the end of an era for the European Central Bank when Mario Draghi stepped down as ECB President. The financial crisis left a legacy of central banks as “the only game in town”. The COVID-19 pandemic reinforced the role of central banks as critical firefighters during crises, in contrast to earlier periods. This contribution examines the evolution of central banking in Europe. First, it evaluates the ideational shifts that allowed for a more expansive interpretation of the role of a central bank. Second, it looks at the ECB’s response to the Covid-19 crisis and assesses the underlying reasons why the use of the bank’s balance sheet is here to stay. Third, it looks at these issues in a comparative perspective, contrasting the issues and policy responses faced by the ECB to those of the Bank of England and the US Federal Reserve. The final section concludes. [less ▲]

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See detail‘Good workmanship and convenient arrangement’: The Promotion of Commercial Diaries in Victorian Periodicals.
Millim, Anne-Marie UL

in Grass, Sean (Ed.) Life-Writing and the Nineteenth-Century Market (2023)

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See detailInternet histories second early career researcher award
Schafer, Valerie UL; Brügger, Niels; Goggin, Gerard et al

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2023), 6(4),

This special issue is the result of our second call for the Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. For the second time, in 2021, the journal Internet Histories has invited any interested early ... [more ▼]

This special issue is the result of our second call for the Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. For the second time, in 2021, the journal Internet Histories has invited any interested early career researchers (masters students, doctoral students, and post-doctoral researchers) whose research focuses on the history of the Internet and/or the Web, and histories of digital cultures — or any historical topic within the scope of the Internet Histories journal, to apply for the award and to submit an original article. [less ▲]

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See detailKindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality: The influence of puppet theatre on the topic of diversity in a group of kindergarten children
Maus, Johanna; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in Human Arenas (2023)

Homophobic stigmas and the discrimination of homosexual people are still worrying in today’s society. The current study seeks to investigate kindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality and how ... [more ▼]

Homophobic stigmas and the discrimination of homosexual people are still worrying in today’s society. The current study seeks to investigate kindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality and how they are influenced by their peer-groups and authorities. It does so by means of a puppet theatre presentation including ‘Kasperl’ and ‘Seppel’ puppets as the main protagonists in a German puppet theatre. The audience consisted of six German kindergarten children aged 4–6 years, randomly selected by the kindergarten director. A participant observation has been conducted with the first researcher as the presenter of the puppet show. The results of the recorded puppet theatre showed that several intragroup processes including the social identity theory with regard to group membership could be observed within the puppet theatre. Groups have been formed and children of the same ingroup showed equal attitudes towards homosexuality. However, the researcher’s influence as an authority figure could have as well impacted their attitudes through positive reinforcement. The present study contributed to the gap in research regarding kindergarten children’s attitudes towards homosexuality. To have a better overview of the results, future studies should include additional variables like kindergarten’s cultural and geographical differences. [less ▲]