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See detailHistorESCH: Histories of Esch Told in 25 Objects
van Donkersgoed, Joëlla UL; Cauvin, Thomas UL

Book published by University of Luxembourg (2022)

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See detailHistorESCH: Escher Geschichten a 25 Objeten erzielt
van Donkersgoed, Joëlla UL; Cauvin, Thomas UL

Book published by University of Luxembourg (2022)

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See detailHistorESCH: Histoires d’Esch racontées en 25 objets
van Donkersgoed, Joëlla UL; Cauvin, Thomas UL

Book published by University of Luxembourg (2022)

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See detailReal Time Hyper-elastic Simulations with Probabilistic Deep Learning
Deshpande, Saurabh UL; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in 15th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM-XV) (2022, August)

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See detailThe relationship between COVID-19 countermeasures at the workplace and psychological well-being. Findings from a nationally representative sample of Luxembourgish employees
Sischka, Philipp UL; Schmidt, Alexander F.; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Current Psychology (2022)

The COVID-19 pandemic has massively changed people’s working lives all over the world. While various studies investigated the effects from pandemic-induced unemployment and telecommuting, there is a lack ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has massively changed people’s working lives all over the world. While various studies investigated the effects from pandemic-induced unemployment and telecommuting, there is a lack of research regarding the impact of workplace COVID-19 countermeasures on well-being and mental health for employees who are still working on site. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of workplace COVID-19 countermeasures in organizations in Luxembourg. A person-centered approach was applied in order to explore how employees’ psychological well-being and health (i.e., general psychological well-being, vigor, work satisfaction, work-related burnout, somatic complaints, fear of COVID-19 infection) are impacted by organizational countermeasures and whether there are certain employee groups that are less protected by these. Results of a latent class analysis revealed four different classes (Low level of countermeasures, Medium level of countermeasures, High level of countermeasures, High level of countermeasures low distance). Employees working in a healthcare setting were more likely than employees working in a non-healthcare setting to be members of the High level of countermeasures low distance class. Class membership was meaningfully associated with all well-being outcomes. Members of the High level of countermeasures class showed the highest level of well-being, whereas Members of the Low level of countermeasures class and the High level of countermeasures low distance class showed the lowest level of well-being. Policy makers and organizations are recommended to increase the level of COVID-19 countermeasures as an adjunctive strategy to prevent and mitigate adverse mental health and well-being outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailDocteur
Iglesias González, Alba UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The last century has been characterized by the increasing presence of synthetic chemicals in human surroundings, with as consequence, the increasing exposure of individuals to a wide variety of chemical ... [more ▼]

The last century has been characterized by the increasing presence of synthetic chemicals in human surroundings, with as consequence, the increasing exposure of individuals to a wide variety of chemical substances on a regular basis. The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health estimated that since synthetic chemicals started to be available for common use at the end of the 1940s, more than 140,000 new chemicals have been produced, including five thousand used globally in massive volume. In parallel, awareness of the adverse effects of pollutant mixtures, possibly more severe than single-chemical exposures, has drawn attention towards the need of multi-residue analytical methods to obtain the most comprehensive information on human chemical exposome. Human biomonitoring, consisting in the measurement of pollutants in biological matrices, provides information that integrates all the possible sources of exposure, and is specific to the subject the sample is collected from. For this purpose, hair appears as a particularly promising matrix to assess chemical exposure thanks to its multiple benefits. Hair enables to detect both parent chemicals and metabolites, it is suitable to investigate exposure to chemicals from different families, and allows the detection of persistent and non-persistent chemicals. Moreover, contrary to fluids such as urine and blood, which only give information on the short-term exposure and present great variability in chemical concentration, hair is representative of wider time windows that can easily cover several months. Children represent the most vulnerable part of the population, and exposure to pollutants at young ages has been associated with severe health effects during childhood, but also during the adult life. Nevertheless, most epidemiological studies investigating exposure to pollutants are still conducted on adults, and data on children remain much more limited. The present study named “Biomonitoring of children exposure to pollutants based on hair analysis” investigated the relevance of hair analysis for assessing children exposure to pollutants. In this study, 823 hair samples were collected from children and adolescents living in 9 different countries (Luxembourg, France, Spain, Uganda, Indonesia, Ecuador, Suriname, Paraguay and Uruguay), and 117 hair samples were also collected from French adults. All samples were analysed for the detection of 153 organic compounds (140 were pesticides, 4 PCBs, 7 BDEs and 2 bisphenols). Moreover, the hair samples of French adults and children were also analysed for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their metabolites (n = 62), nicotine, cotinine and metals (n = 36). The results obtained here clearly demonstrated that children living in different geographical areas are simultaneously exposed to multiple chemicals from different chemical classes. Furthermore, the presence of persistent organic pollutants in all children, and not only in adults, suggests that exposure to these chemicals is still ongoing, although these chemicals were banned decades ago. In the sub-group of Luxembourgish children, information collected within questionnaires in parallel to hair sample collection allowed to identify some possible determinant of exposure, such as diet (organic vs conventional), residence area (urban vs countryside), and presence of pets at home. Moreover, results showed higher levels of concentration in younger children, and higher exposure of boys to non-persistent pesticides than girls, which could possibly be attributed to differences in metabolism, behaviour and gender-specific activities. Finally, the study also highlighted high level of similarity in the chemical exposome between children from the same family compared to the rest of the population. The present study strongly supports the use of hair analysis for assessing exposure to chemical pollutants, and demonstrates the relevance of multi-residue methods to investigate exposome. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality of Work and Quality of Employment Profiles and their longitudinal impact on well-being
Sischka, Philipp UL; Fernandez de Henestrosa, Martha UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 06)

Many studies on job quality operationalize job quality as a composite indicator (Munoz de Bustillo et al., 2011) and investigate its link with different well-being outcomes or investigate the incremental ... [more ▼]

Many studies on job quality operationalize job quality as a composite indicator (Munoz de Bustillo et al., 2011) and investigate its link with different well-being outcomes or investigate the incremental effects of specific job characteristics on well-being. However, these variable-centered approaches on job quality ignore the fact that certain job characteristic configurations cluster in specific employee groups (Van Aeren et al., 2014). Thus, the current longitudinal study employs a person-centered approach (i.e., latent profile and transition analysis (LPA/LTA), e.g., Spurk et al., 2020) to identify groups of employees that show different job characteristic profiles (over time). Data were collected via CATI or CAWI within a stratified random sample from Luxembourg’s working population (nWave 1 = 1,689; nWave 2 = 848). The survey contains eleven quality of work and six quality of employment dimensions that were used as indicators for the latent profile analysis. Moreover, the survey contains different mental health and work-related attitudinal outcomes. Fit indices and substantive interpretability/utility were jointly considered to determine the number of profiles. To explore the relationships between the latent categorical variable and the other variables, we followed the three-step procedure (e.g., Asparouhov & Muthén, 2014) LPA revealed five profiles, i.e., poor working conditions (1), medium working conditions, high work intensity (2), high working conditions, medium work intensity (3), high working conditions, high work intensity and physical demands (4), medium working conditions, low work intensity (5). Cross-sectionally, these profiles were meaningfully linked with mental and attitudinal outcomes. LTA suggests the stability of these profiles within one year, with varying impact depending on mental health and work-related attitudinal outcome. Scholars and policy makers need to be aware of job characteristic configurations. To promote employee’s well-being organizations and policy makers need to redesign the ecological contexts of working conditions depending on its profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailEssays on Market Microstructure and Financial Markets Stability
Levin, Vladimir UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The present doctoral thesis consists of three main chapters. The chapters of the thesis can be considered independently. Each of the three chapters raises a research question, reviews the related ... [more ▼]

The present doctoral thesis consists of three main chapters. The chapters of the thesis can be considered independently. Each of the three chapters raises a research question, reviews the related literature, proposes a method for the analysis, and, finally, reports results and conclusions. Chapter 1 is entitled Dark Trading and Financial Markets Stability and it is based on a working paper co-authored with Prof. Dr. Jorge Goncalves and Prof. Dr. Roman Kraussl. This paper examines how the implementation of a new dark order -- Midpoint Extended Life Order (M-ELO) on Nasdaq -- impacts financial markets stability in terms of occurrences of mini-flash crashes in individual securities. We use high-frequency order book data and apply panel regression analysis to estimate the effect of dark order trading activity on market stability and liquidity provision. The results suggest a predominance of a speed bump effect of M-ELO rather than a darkness effect. We find that the introduction of M-ELO increases market stability by reducing the average number of mini-flash crashes, but its impact on market quality is mixed. Chapter 2 is entitled Dark Pools and Price Discovery in Limit Order Markets and it is a single-authored work. This paper examines how the introduction of a dark pool impacts price discovery, market quality, and aggregate welfare of traders. I use a four-period model where rational and risk-neutral agents choose the order type and the venue and obtain the equilibrium numerically. The comparative statics on the order submission probability suggests a U-shaped order migration to the dark pool. The overall effect of dark trading on market quality and aggregate welfare was found to be positive but limited in size and depended on market conditions. I find mixed results for the process of price discovery. Depending on the immediacy need of traders, price discovery may change due to the presence of the dark venue. Chapter 3 is entitled Machine Learning and Market Microstructure Predictability and it is another single-authored piece of work. This paper illustrates the application of machine learning to market microstructure research. I outline the most insightful microstructure measures, that possess the highest predictive power and are useful for the out-of-sample predictions of such features of the market as liquidity volatility and general market stability. By comparing the models' performance during the normal time versus the crisis time, I come to the conclusion that financial markets remain efficient during both periods. Additionally, I find that high-frequency traders activity is not able to forecast accurately neither of the market features. [less ▲]

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See detailMULTI-STAGE PROCESS FOR A HIGHER FLEXIBILITY OF BIOGAS PLANTS WITH (CO-) FERMENTATION OF WASTE – OPTIMISATION AND MODELLING
Sobon-Mühlenbrock, Elena Katarzyna UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The European Union has been striving to become the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. This implicates an intensified transition towards sustainability. The most applied renewable energy sources are ... [more ▼]

The European Union has been striving to become the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. This implicates an intensified transition towards sustainability. The most applied renewable energy sources are the sun and wind, which are intermittent. Thus, great fluctuating shares in the energy network are expected within the next years. Consequently, there might occur periods of no congruence between energy demand and energy supply leading to destabilization of the electricity grid. Therefore, an urgency to overcome the intermittency arises. One feasible option is to use a third renewable energy source, biomass, which can be produced demand-oriented. Hence, a flexible biogas plant running on a two-stage mode, where the first stage would serve as a storage for liquid intermediates, could be a viable option to create demand-driven and need-orientated electricity. Since vast amounts of food waste are thrown away each year (in 2015 they amounted 88 mio. tones within the EU-28, accounting for ca. 93 TWh of energy), one could energetically recover this substrate in the above-described process. This is a promising concept, however, not widely applicable as it faces many challenges, such as technical and economical. Additionally, food waste is inhomogeneous, and its composition is country- and collecting season dependent. The motivation of this work was to contribute to a vaster understanding of the two-stage anaerobic digestion process by using food waste as a major substrate. At first, an innovative substitute for a heterogeny food waste was introduced and examined at two different loadings and temperature modes. It was proven that the Model Kitchen Waste (MKW) was comparable to the real Kitchen Waste (KW), at mesophilic and thermophilic mode for an organic loading in accordance with the guideline VDI 4630 (2016). For an “extreme” loading, and mesophilic mode, the MKW generated similar biogas, methane, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) patterns as well. Furthermore, another two MKW versions were developed, allowing covering a variety of different organic wastes and analyzing the impact of fat content on the biogas production. Afterwards, a semi-continuous one-stage experiment of 122 days was conducted. It was followed by an extensive semi-continuous two-stage study of almost 1.5-year runtime. Different loadings and hydraulic retention times were investigated in order to optimize this challenging process. Additionally, the impact of co-digestion of lignocellulose substrate was analyzed. It was concluded that two-stage mode led to a higher biogas and methane yield than the one-stage. However, the former posed challenges related to the stability and the process maintenance. Additionally, it was found that co-digestion of food waste and maize silage results in methane yield, atypical for the acidic stage. Apart from the experiments, the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), originally developed for wastewater, was modified so that it would suit the anaerobic digestion of food waste of different fat contents, at batch and semi-continuous mode consisting of one- and two-stages. The goodness of fit was assessed by the Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) and coefficient of efficiency (CE). For the batch mode, two temperature modes could be properly simulated at loadings conform and nonconform to the VDI 4630 (2016). For each mode, two different sets of parameters were introduced, namely for substrates of low-fat content and for substrates of middle/high fat content (ArSo LF and ArSo MF, with LF standing for low fat and MF for middle fat). The models could be further validated in another experiment, also using a co-digestion of lignocellulose substances. Further, parameters estimated for the batch mode, were applied for the semi-continuous experiment. It proved successful, however, due to a high amount of butyrate (HBu) and valerate (HVa), the model underwent calibration so that it could better predict the acids (model developed for one-stage semi-continuous experiment was called: ArSo M LF*). This could be validated on another semi-continuous reactor running on one-stage. Finally, the acidic-stage of the two-stage mode was analyzed. The model applied for one-stage fitted the data of the two-stage mode as far as the VFA are concerned. Nevertheless, due to a vast amount of acids, it was adjusted and called ArSo M LF**. [less ▲]

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See detailArbeitnehmer in Luxemburg wünschen sich verstärkt eine Reduktion ihrer vertraglichen Arbeitszeit
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird aufgezeigt, wie sich die gewünschte Wochenarbeitszeit von Arbeitnehmern sowie die Differenz zwischen gewünschter Wochenarbeitszeit und vertraglicher Wochenarbeitszeit in ... [more ▼]

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird aufgezeigt, wie sich die gewünschte Wochenarbeitszeit von Arbeitnehmern sowie die Differenz zwischen gewünschter Wochenarbeitszeit und vertraglicher Wochenarbeitszeit in den vergangenen Jahren in Luxemburg entwickelt haben. Dabei zeigt sich, dass der Anteil an Arbeitnehmern, die gerne weniger arbeiten würden, zwischen 2018 und 2021 deutlich gestiegen ist (von 32,8% auf 43,9%). Die Arbeitnehmer, die gerne weniger pro Woche arbeiten würden, möchten im Durchschnitt etwa 8 Stunden weniger arbeiten. Diese Entwicklungen fallen jedoch differenziert nach verschiedenen Arbeitnehmer-Gruppen unterschiedlich aus. So wünschen sich Arbeitnehmer im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmerinnen konstant eine längere Arbeitszeit. Differenziert nach Alter, sind es vor allem die ältesten Arbeitnehmer, die sich im Durchschnitt die kürzeste Wochenarbeitszeit wünschen. Arbeitnehmer, die gerne weniger arbeiten würden, berichten tendenziell auch über schlechtere Arbeitsbedingungen im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmern, deren gewünschte Arbeitszeit mit ihrer vertraglichen Arbeitszeit übereinstimmt. Auch berichten Arbeitnehmer, die gerne weniger pro Woche arbeiten würden, über ein geringeres Wohlbefinden. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrogliosis: a double-edged sword in the control of food intake
Salvi, Juliette; Andreoletti, Pierre; Audinat, Etienne et al

in FEBS Journal (2022)

Maintaining energy balance is essential for survival and health. This physiological function is controlled by the brain, which adapts food intake to energy needs. Indeed, the brain constantly receives a ... [more ▼]

Maintaining energy balance is essential for survival and health. This physiological function is controlled by the brain, which adapts food intake to energy needs. Indeed, the brain constantly receives a multitude of biological signals that are derived from digested foods or that originate from the gastrointestinal tract, energy stores (liver and adipose tissues) and other metabolically active organs (muscles). These signals, which include circulating nutrients, hormones and neuronal inputs from the periphery, collectively provide information on the overall energy status of the body. In the brain, several neuronal populations can specifically detect these signals. Nutrient-sensing neurons are found in discrete brain areas and are highly enriched in the hypothalamus. In turn, specialized brain circuits coordinate homeostatic responses acting mainly on appetite, peripheral metabolism, activity and arousal. Accumulating evidence shows that hypothalamic microglial cells located at the vicinity of these circuits can influence the brain control of energy balance. However, microglial cells could have opposite effects on energy balance, that is homeostatic or detrimental, and the conditions for this shift are not totally understood yet. One hypothesis relies on the extent of microglial activation, and nutritional lipids can considerably change it. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking Sense of AI: Our Algorithmic World, by Anthony Elliott (2022) Polity Press.
Gubenko, Alla UL

in International Journal of Technoethics (2022), 13(1),

How can we understand consequences and make sense of an event when we are in its epicentre? Would it be possible to gain a deep understanding of the situation without putting it into a certain perspective ... [more ▼]

How can we understand consequences and make sense of an event when we are in its epicentre? Would it be possible to gain a deep understanding of the situation without putting it into a certain perspective or broader context? The book Making sense of AI invites us to resist a natural inclination to make fast inferences based on the proximity and salient experiences and instead, engage in slow thinking and pondering on the evolution of human technology. An effortful exercise, as this reading may turn out to be, is worth, nevertheless, undertaking for 21st century students interested in recognizing future opportunities, coping with challenges, and understanding complex phenomena such as AI. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom social robots to creative humans and back
Gubenko, Alla UL; Lubart, Todd; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Confalonieri, Roberto; Kutz, Oliver; Veale, Tony (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Computational Creativity (2022, July)

The research on physically and socially situated artificial agents could complement and enrich computational models of creativity. This paper discusses six perspective lines of inquiry at the intersection ... [more ▼]

The research on physically and socially situated artificial agents could complement and enrich computational models of creativity. This paper discusses six perspective lines of inquiry at the intersection of creativity and social robotics. It provides a description of ways in which the field of social robotics may influence (and be influenced by) creativity research in psychology and speculates how human-machine co-creation will affect the notions of both human and artificial creativity. By discussing potential research areas, the authors hope to outline an agenda for future collaboration between creativity scholars in psychology, social robotics, and computer science. [less ▲]

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See detailOpinion Statement ECJ-TF 2/2022 on the Decision of 27 January 2022 in European Commission v. Kingdom of Spain (Form 720) (Case C-788/19)
Kofler, Georg; García Prats, Alfredo; Haslehner, Werner UL et al

in European Taxation (2022), 62(7), 304-310

In this CFE Opinion Statement, the CFE ECJ Task Force comments on the decision of 27 January 2022 in European Commission v. Kingdom of Spain (Form 720) (Case C-788/19) on the lack of proportionality of ... [more ▼]

In this CFE Opinion Statement, the CFE ECJ Task Force comments on the decision of 27 January 2022 in European Commission v. Kingdom of Spain (Form 720) (Case C-788/19) on the lack of proportionality of the consequences derived from the failure to provide information concerning assets or rights held in other Member States of the European Union or the European Economic Area. [less ▲]

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See detailDigBug—Pre/post-processing operator selection for accurate bug localization
Kim, Kisub; Ghatpande, Sankalp UL; Liu, Kui et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (2022), 189

Bug localization is a recurrent maintenance task in software development. It aims at identifying relevant code locations (e.g., code files) that must be inspected to fix bugs. When such bugs are reported ... [more ▼]

Bug localization is a recurrent maintenance task in software development. It aims at identifying relevant code locations (e.g., code files) that must be inspected to fix bugs. When such bugs are reported by users, the localization process become often overwhelming as it is mostly a manual task due to incomplete and informal information (written in natural languages) available in bug reports. The research community has then invested in automated approaches, notably using Information Retrieval techniques. Unfortunately, reported performance in the literature is still limited for practical usage. Our key observation, after empirically investigating a large dataset of bug reports as well as workflow and results of state-of-the-art approaches, is that most approaches attempt localization for every bug report without considering the different characteristics of the bug reports. We propose DigBug as a straightforward approach to specialized bug localization. This approach selects pre/post-processing operators based on the attributes of bug reports; and the bug localization model is parameterized in accordance as well. Our experiments confirm that departing from “one-size-fits-all” approaches, DigBug outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques by 6 and 14 percentage points, respectively in terms of MAP and MRR on average. [less ▲]

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See detailIs There a Need for a Directive on Pillar Two? A Few Normative Comments.
Haslehner, Werner UL

in Intertax, International Tax Review (2022), 50(6/7), 527-530

Poland’s request to link the entry into force of the Pillar 2 Directive to an international agreement on Pillar 1 raises fundamental questions about the European constitutional structure. Beyond the mere ... [more ▼]

Poland’s request to link the entry into force of the Pillar 2 Directive to an international agreement on Pillar 1 raises fundamental questions about the European constitutional structure. Beyond the mere legality of such a link, this contribution seeks to respond to some normative concerns related to the creation of such secondary legislation. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch note: Ukrainian Refugee Crisis Tests Luxembourg’s Humanitarian and Integration Policy
Beine, Michel UL; Doquier, Frédéric; Machado, Jöel et al

Diverse speeches and writings (2022)

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the resulting sanctions have contributed to accelerating the rise in commodity prices (including energy), triggering inflation, and exacerbating instability in an already ... [more ▼]

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the resulting sanctions have contributed to accelerating the rise in commodity prices (including energy), triggering inflation, and exacerbating instability in an already convalescent Europe. The war has also sparked a massive refugee crisis, the most impressive in speed and size since World War II, whose economic impact is likely to be significant. As of mid-May, the stock of Ukrainian refugees who have fled their country due to the Russian invasion slightly exceeded 6 million, and some 8 million more were displaced internally.1 This refugee crisis imposes huge stress on the humanitarian protection regime and reception capacity of most European countries. This is not only the case in frontline countries such as Poland (3.3 million), Romania (0.9 million), Hungary (0.6 million) or Moldova (0.5 million), but also in other EU member states where the numbers of arrivals has almost reached (and sometimes exceeds) the levels of the 2015-16 refugee crisis in two months only. As of early May, the stocks have risen to 610 thousand in Germany, 70 thousand in France, 40 thousand in Belgium and 5 thousand in Luxembourg. These numbers are likely to grow in the coming weeks, as the war is far from over. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen the “vulnerable” talk back: subjective responses and individual experiences of young refugees
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Richard, Catherine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 30)

In the context of international protection and reception, an increasing amount of interest has been given to the assessment of vulnerability among forced migrants in order to provide special provisions ... [more ▼]

In the context of international protection and reception, an increasing amount of interest has been given to the assessment of vulnerability among forced migrants in order to provide special provisions and guarantees to ‘vulnerable refugees’. However, a common definition of vulnerability does not exist. The systematisation of individuals’ experiences in pre-defined bureaucratic categories risks ignoring the contextual and contingent nature of migrants’ vulnerability, the subjective and biographical differences among those considered vulnerable and the agency of each individual facing conditions of vulnerability. Thus, in the context of the H2020 project MIMY, this paper proposes to explore the experiences and feelings of the people living in an apparent condition of vulnerability. Based on in-depth interviews with young adults who obtained refugee status in Luxembourg but still live in ‘temporary’ reception centres, the current study wants to move beyond the bureaucratic vulnerability label, questioning the relationship between structural, contingent and material conditions of vulnerability and the subjective experiences and responses of the active agents who occupy them. Additionally, bringing the stories and perspectives of young refugees living in Luxembourg to the forefront, the study points to the variability of vulnerability at the individual level in the context of integration. We propose to analyse such plurality of stories through the lens of agency and temporality, as the unique product of past personal experiences, current situations of difficulty and conditions of(in)security (based on the interrelationship between obstacles and resources) and individual future perspectives and feelings of self-efficacy. [less ▲]

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