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See detailFuture Pasts: Web Archives and Public History as Challenges for Historians of Education in Times of COVID-19
Priem, Karin UL; Grosvenor, Ian

in Herman, Frederik; Braster, Sjaak; del Mar del Pozo Andrés, Maria (Eds.) Exhibiting the Past: Public Histories of Edcuatuon (in press)

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only sparked a renewed interest in history; it has also focused our attention on how the present can be historically preserved. Therefore, it is safe to predict that the ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only sparked a renewed interest in history; it has also focused our attention on how the present can be historically preserved. Therefore, it is safe to predict that the COVID-19 crisis and its documentation will be analyzed by future historians, and it will bring about methodological and technological changes that affect our ways of working as historians of education. This chapter will examine the following: First, it looks at some basic characteristics of web archives and how they challenge our work as historians. Second, it offers reflections on different modes of archival access and on how this may affect current concepts of the past. Third, the chapter discusses how web archives relate to public history and, next, introduces the Education & Pandemics Archive launched by the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (ISCHE). The chapter will also provide preliminary insights into how web archives may affect our work as historians of education. Web archives offer different structures, opportunities for different interactions and technological environments. They can be characterized by collaborative processes by networked data within a flattened structure, and by interconnected hardware and software environments. Web archives are user-friendly, flexible and invite us to get involved and to develop new historical dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailEntangled Media Ecologies: The Nexus of Education and Mass Communication from the Perspective of UNESCO (1945-1989)
Priem, Karin UL

in Flury, Carmen; Geiss, Michael (Eds.) How Computers Entered the Classroom (1960-2000): Historical Perspectives (in press)

Numerous studies and handbooks in the history of education are devoted to the history of educational media and the evolution of educational technologies. This chapter puts an explicit focus on the ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies and handbooks in the history of education are devoted to the history of educational media and the evolution of educational technologies. This chapter puts an explicit focus on the implications and conceptual background of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization´s (UNESCO) technology-driven idea of education, which already took shape before the 1957 Sputnik shock. Eager to establish strong bonds between mass communication and education, UNESCO by the late 1940s had already begun to set up a powerful internal apparatus for media policy which soon closely collaborated with its Education Division. From the late 1970s, UNESCO set out to establish a New World Information and Communication Order to further stabilize its global role in education and media policies. This chapter posits that textbooks, radio, TV, film, and computers were serving as interconnected elements of UNESCO’s educational mission. By looking at these specific technological ecologies of education, I connect research into the history of education with research into UNESCO´s media policies. This conceptual history approach demonstrates that education is not only based on ethical norms, teaching, and learning but is also connected to technological properties that offer access to knowledge and its acquisition. In addition, and when studying UNESCO, it becomes evident that the organization´s education-technology-nexus is also very much connected with the media and publishing industries. [less ▲]

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See detailZur Transformation ökologischer Beziehungen: Manifest für Bildungsgeschichte nach COVID-19
Priem, Karin UL

in Pädagogische Rundschau (in press)

Dieser Beitrag richtet sich auf die Fotografie als aktive Intervention innerhalb einer geschädigten oder gefährdeten Umwelt und bedient sich dieses Mediums, um neue Perspektiven der Bildungsgeschichte – ... [more ▼]

Dieser Beitrag richtet sich auf die Fotografie als aktive Intervention innerhalb einer geschädigten oder gefährdeten Umwelt und bedient sich dieses Mediums, um neue Perspektiven der Bildungsgeschichte – in Bezug auf die bereits geschriebene und die zukünftige – zu entwickeln. Diese Perspektiven werden besonders deutlich, wenn sie vor dem Hintergrund gegenwärtiger Debatten zu Fragen der planetarischen Verantwortung und einer geteilten Welt entwickelt werden, die auch unsere Vorstellungen von Erziehung und Bildung prägen. Der Beitrag schlägt vor, dass sich die Forschung von einer anthropozentrischen Weltsicht, sowohl in positiver als auch in negativ verstandener Weise, innerhalb der historischen Bildungsforschung verabschiedet. Dies impliziert kritische Distanz zu jenen Konzepten, die die Souveränität und Freiheit des Menschen in den Mittelpunkt rücken, ferner Distanz zu Ideen der Modernisierung und zu ökonomischem Wachstum als Norm, Distanz gegenüber Fortschrittsdenken, starken Nationalstaaten und dem Glauben an eine effiziente Steuerung von Bildungssystemen, deren ökologische Konsequenzen insgesamt negiert wurden und werden. Entsprechend wird argumentiert, dass anthropozentrische Ansätze der Bildungsgeschichte die Offenheit und Vulnerabilität des menschlichen Körpers sowie dessen ethische, kulturelle und soziale Nähe zu anderen Lebewesen sowie zur materiellen Welt vernachlässigt haben. [less ▲]

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See detailLessons from Investment Treaty Arbitration
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

in Haslehner, Werner; Rust, Alexander; Kofler (Eds.) Alternative Dispute Resolution in Taxation (in press)

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See detailImmunity Defences and the Enforcement of Awards in Investor-State Disputes
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

in Nasir Gore, Kiran; Duggal, Kabir; Putilin, Elijah (Eds.) et al Investment Law & Arbitration in Central Asia: Emerging Issues (in press)

This chapter critically examines the claim that investment treaty awards have a final and binding character. It finds that, despite providing different mechanisms of collection, the ICSID and New York ... [more ▼]

This chapter critically examines the claim that investment treaty awards have a final and binding character. It finds that, despite providing different mechanisms of collection, the ICSID and New York Conventions provide states with a tool to avoid compliance with investment treaty awards based on sovereign immunity rules. These rules have been invoked by states in an increasing number of cases, creating a hurdle for investors to obtain payment of the award. This chapter concludes with some potential remedies to the immunity bar. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Family Firms Doing More Innovation Output With Less Innovation Input? A Replication and Extension
Block, Joern; Hansen, Christopher UL; Steinmetz, Holger

in Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice (in press)

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See detailAltersbilder als wichtiger Hintergrund für die Altersmedizin.
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Bauer, Jürgen; Denkinger, Michael; Becker, Clemens (Eds.) et al Geriatrie (in press)

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See detailTheme Track - Valuing the qualitative in design and data
Lockton, Dan; Lallemand, Carine UL; Menheere, Daphne et al

in Proceedings of DRS 2022 (in press)

The DRS 2022 track ‘Valuing the Qualitative in Design and Data’ features eleven accepted papers on topics including visualisation and physicalisation of qualitative data, the use of materials in this ... [more ▼]

The DRS 2022 track ‘Valuing the Qualitative in Design and Data’ features eleven accepted papers on topics including visualisation and physicalisation of qualitative data, the use of materials in this context, practical applications in design and education, and applications in personal informatics. In this editorial, the track chairs introduce the track, and the reasoning behind it, together with a short introduction to the papers. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic insecurity and political preferences
Bossert, Walter; Clark, Andrew UL; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Oxford Economic Papers (in press)

Economic insecurity has attracted growing attention, but there is no consensus as to its definition. We characterize a class of individual economic-insecurity measures based on the time profile of ... [more ▼]

Economic insecurity has attracted growing attention, but there is no consensus as to its definition. We characterize a class of individual economic-insecurity measures based on the time profile of economic resources. We apply this economic-insecurity measure to political-preference data in the USA, UK, and Germany. Conditional on current economic resources, economic insecurity is associated with both greater political participation (support for a party or the intention to vote) and more support for conservative parties. In particular, economic insecurity predicts greater support for both Donald Trump before the 2016 US Presidential election and the UK leaving the European Union in the 2016 Brexit referendum. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial adaptive settlement systems in archaeology. Modelling long-term settlement formation from spatial micro interactions
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Doctoral thesis (2023)

Despite research history spanning more than a century, settlement patterns still hold a promise to contribute to the theories of large-scale processes in human history. Mostly they have been presented as ... [more ▼]

Despite research history spanning more than a century, settlement patterns still hold a promise to contribute to the theories of large-scale processes in human history. Mostly they have been presented as passive imprints of past human activities and spatial interactions they shape have not been studied as the driving force of historical processes. While archaeological knowledge has been used to construct geographical theories of evolution of settlement there still exist gaps in this knowledge. Currently no theoretical framework has been adopted to explore them as spatial systems emerging from micro-choices of small population units. The goal of this thesis is to propose a conceptual model of adaptive settlement systems based on complex adaptive systems framework. The model frames settlement system formation processes as an adaptive system containing spatial features, information flows, decision making population units (agents) and forming cross scale feedback loops between location choices of individuals and space modified by their aggregated choices. The goal of the model is to find new ways of interpretation of archaeological locational data as well as closer theoretical integration of micro-level choices and meso-level settlement structures. The thesis is divided into five chapters, the first chapter is dedicated to conceptualisation of the general model based on existing literature and shows that settlement systems are inherently complex adaptive systems and therefore require tools of complexity science for causal explanations. The following chapters explore both empirical and theoretical simulated settlement patterns based dedicated to studying selected information flows and feedbacks in the context of the whole system. Second and third chapters explore the case study of the Stone Age settlement in Estonia comparing residential location choice principles of different periods. In chapter 2 the relation between environmental conditions and residential choice is explored statistically. The results confirm that the relation is significant but varies between different archaeological phenomena. In the third chapter hunter-fisher-gatherer and early agrarian Corded Ware settlement systems were compared spatially using inductive models. The results indicated a large difference in their perception of landscape regarding suitability for habitation. It led to conclusions that early agrarian land use significantly extended land use potential and provided a competitive spatial benefit. In addition to spatial differences, model performance was compared and the difference was discussed in the context of proposed adaptive settlement system model. Last two chapters present theoretical agent-based simulation experiments intended to study effects discussed in relation to environmental model performance and environmental determinism in general. In the fourth chapter the central place foragingmodel was embedded in the proposed model and resource depletion, as an environmental modification mechanism, was explored. The study excluded the possibility that mobility itself would lead to modelling effects discussed in the previous chapter. The purpose of the last chapter is the disentanglement of the complex relations between social versus human-environment interactions. The study exposed non-linear spatial effects expected population density can have on the system and the general robustness of environmental inductive models in archaeology to randomness and social effect. The model indicates that social interactions between individuals lead to formation of a group agency which is determined by the environment even if individual cognitions consider the environment insignificant. It also indicates that spatial configuration of the environment has a certain influence towards population clustering therefore providing a potential pathway to population aggregation. Those empirical and theoretical results showed the new insights provided by the complex adaptive systems framework. Some of the results, including the explanation of empirical results, required the conceptual model to provide a framework of interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailSoK: Secure E-Voting with Everlasting Privacy
Haines, Thomas; Mueller, Johannes UL; Mosaheb, Rafieh UL et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (2023)

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting ... [more ▼]

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting) protocols have been proposed to address this challenge, striving for everlasting privacy. This property guarantees that even computationally unbounded adversaries cannot break privacy of past elections. The broad interest in secure e-voting with everlasting privacy has spawned a large variety of protocols over the last three decades. These protocols differ in many aspects, in particular the precise security properties they aim for, the threat scenarios they consider, and the privacy-preserving techniques they employ. Unfortunately, these differences are often opaque, making analysis and comparison cumbersome. In order to overcome this non-transparent state of affairs, we systematically analyze all e-voting protocols designed to provide everlasting privacy. First, we illustrate the relations and dependencies between all these different protocols. Next, we analyze in depth which protocols do provide secure and efficient approaches to e-voting with everlasting privacy under realistic assumptions, and which ones do not. Eventually, based on our extensive and detailed treatment, we identify which research problems in this field have already been solved, and which ones are still open. Altogether, our work offers a well-founded reference point for conducting research on secure e-voting with everlasting privacy as well as for future-proofing privacy in real-world electronic elections. [less ▲]

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See detailCoexistence of eMBB and URLLC in Open Radio Access Networks: A Distributed Learning Framework
Al-Senwi, Madyan Abdullah Othman UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailTerminal-Aware Multi-Connectivity Scheduler for Uplink Multi-Layer Non-Terrestrial Networks
Dazhi, Michael UL; Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December)

This paper introduces the concept of multi-connectivity (MC) to the multi-orbit non-terrestrial networks (NTNs), where user terminals can be served by more than one satellite to achieve higher peak ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces the concept of multi-connectivity (MC) to the multi-orbit non-terrestrial networks (NTNs), where user terminals can be served by more than one satellite to achieve higher peak throughput. MC is a technique initially introduced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for terrestrial communications in 4G and 5G, it has shown much gain in the terrestrial domain and this paper explores areas where this concept can benefit the satellite domain. MC can increase throughput, but this entails increased power consumption at user terminal for uplink transmissions. The energy efficiency of uplink communications can be improved by designing efficient scheduling schemes, and to this end, we developed a terminal aware multi-connectivity scheduling algorithm. This proposed algorithm uses the available radio resources and propagation information to intelligently define a dynamic resource allocation pattern, that optimally routes traffic so as to maximize uplink data rate while minimizing the energy consumption at the UT. The algorithm operates with the terminal differentiating multi-layer NTN resource scheduling architecture, which has a softwarized dispatcher at the network layer that classifies and differentiates the packets based on terminal type. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with round robin and joint carrier schedulers in terms of uplink data rate and energy efficiency. We also provide architectural design of implementable schedulers for multi-orbital satellite networks that can operate with different classes of terminals. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-preserving federated learning for residential short-term load forecasting
Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Lee, Chul Min UL et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 326

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these ... [more ▼]

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these forecasts as they provide detailed load data. However, using smart meter data for load forecasting is challenging due to data privacy requirements. This paper investigates how these requirements can be addressed through a combination of federated learning and privacy preserving techniques such as differential privacy and secure aggregation. For our analysis, we employ a large set of residential load data and simulate how different federated learning models and privacy preserving techniques affect performance and privacy. Our simulations reveal that combining federated learning and privacy preserving techniques can secure both high forecasting accuracy and near-complete privacy. Specifically, we find that such combinations enable a high level of information sharing while ensuring privacy of both the processed load data and forecasting models. Moreover, we identify and discuss challenges of applying federated learning, differential privacy and secure aggregation for residential short-term load forecasting. [less ▲]

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See detailSecure and Distributed Assessment of Privacy-Preserving Releases of GWAS
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie; Volp, Marcus UL

in ACM/IFIP International Middleware Conference (2022, November)

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify correlations between the genetic variants and an observable characteristic such as a disease. Previous works presented privacy-preserving distributed ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify correlations between the genetic variants and an observable characteristic such as a disease. Previous works presented privacy-preserving distributed algorithms for a federation of genome data holders that spans multiple institutional and legislative domains to securely compute GWAS results. However, these algorithms have limited applicability, since they still require a centralized instance to decide whether GWAS results can be safely disclosed, which is in violation to privacy regulations, such as GDPR. In this work, we introduce GenDPR, a distributed middleware that leverages Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs) to securely determine a subset of the potential GWAS statistics that can be safely released. GenDPR achieves the same accuracy as centralized solutions, but requires transferring significantly less data because TEEs only exchange intermediary results but no genomes. Additionally, GenDPR can be configured to tolerate all-but-one honest-but-curious federation members colluding with the aim to expose genomes of correct members. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecifying Source Code and Signal-based Behaviour of CPS Components
Dawes, Joshua UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL

in Dawes, Joshua; Bianculli, Domenico (Eds.) Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Formal Aspects of Component Software (2022, November)

Specifying properties over the behaviour of components of Cyber-Physical Systems usually focuses on the behaviour of signals, i.e., the behaviour of the physical part of the system, leaving the behaviour ... [more ▼]

Specifying properties over the behaviour of components of Cyber-Physical Systems usually focuses on the behaviour of signals, i.e., the behaviour of the physical part of the system, leaving the behaviour of the cyber components implicit. There have been some attempts to provide specification languages that enable more explicit reference to the behaviour of cyber components, but it remains awkward to directly express the behaviour of both cyber and physical components in the same specification, using one formalism. In this paper, we introduce a new specification language, Source Code and Signal Logic (SCSL), that 1) provides syntax specific to both signals and events originating in source code; and 2) does not require source code events to be abstracted into signals. We introduce SCSL by giving its syntax and semantics, along with examples. We then provide a comparison between SCSL and existing specification languages, using an example property, to show the benefit of using SCSL to capture certain types of properties. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Uni Luxemburg vernetzt kluge Köpfe für die Nachkriegszeit
Ganschow, Inna UL; Sebastian, Weisbrodt; During, Marten UL et al

Article for general public (2022)

"Am Campus Belval sollen die Forschenden aus der Ukraine durch das LURN (Luxembourg Ukrainian Researcher Network) ein interdisziplinäres Netzwerk aufbauen, also Forschende außerhalb ihres Fachgebiets ... [more ▼]

"Am Campus Belval sollen die Forschenden aus der Ukraine durch das LURN (Luxembourg Ukrainian Researcher Network) ein interdisziplinäres Netzwerk aufbauen, also Forschende außerhalb ihres Fachgebiets kennenlernen. Zusätzlich sollen sie Berührungspunkte mit der luxemburgischen Forschungslandschaft bekommen." [less ▲]

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See detailMinimizing Supervision for Vision-Based Perception and Control in Autonomous Driving
Robinet, François UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on reducing the need for supervision in two tasks related to autonomous driving: end-to-end steering and free space segmentation. For end-to-end ... [more ▼]

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on reducing the need for supervision in two tasks related to autonomous driving: end-to-end steering and free space segmentation. For end-to-end steering, we devise a new regularization technique which relies on pixel-relevance heatmaps to force the steering model to focus on lane markings. This improves performance across a variety of offline metrics. In relation to this work, we publicly release the RoboBus dataset, which consists of extensive driving data recorded using a commercial bus on a cross-border public transport route on the Luxembourgish-French border. We also tackle pseudo-supervised free space segmentation from three different angles: (1) we propose a Stochastic Co-Teaching training scheme that explicitly attempts to filter out the noise in pseudo-labels, (2) we study the impact of self-training and of different data augmentation techniques, (3) we devise a novel pseudo-label generation method based on road plane distance estimation from approximate depth maps. Finally, we investigate semi-supervised free space estimation and find that combining our techniques with a restricted subset of labeled samples results in substantial improvements in IoU, Precision and Recall. [less ▲]

See detailL'espace frontalier franco-luxembourgeois vu depuis le Luxembourg
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 02)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 UL)