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See detailLanguage beyond flags: Teachers misunderstanding of translanguaging in preschools
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (2022)

Based on an analysis of the video recording and transcript of one lesson chosen by preschool teachers in Luxembourg as an example of translanguaging pedagogy, this article shows the teachers’ limited ... [more ▼]

Based on an analysis of the video recording and transcript of one lesson chosen by preschool teachers in Luxembourg as an example of translanguaging pedagogy, this article shows the teachers’ limited understandings of translanguaging. As a result of a new 2017 multilingual education policy for early childhood, the first author designed a professional development project in which the teachers in this preschool participated. During a lesson, the teachers insisted that these young children had a home language associated with a national affiliation depicted by a flag, despite the children themselves telling them repeatedly that their home language practices were complex and included Luxembourgish, which was part of their identity. The teachers’ actions and discourse reveal raciolinguistic ideologies and misappropriation of the term translanguaging to simply implement what could be better described as a multilingual awareness activity. On the surface, the teachers have shifted from monolingual instruction to one that recognizes the children’s multilingualism. Yet, teachers continue to associate the notion of language with flags and political states, instead of taking up an inside-view of the bilingual speaker, the kernel of translanguaging theory. [less ▲]

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See detailData Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms: Current Proposals and Challenges
Human, Soheil; Degeling, Martin; Santos, Christiana et al

in IEEE eXplore (2022, June 06)

Data Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms (DPCCMs) have the potential of becoming one of the most fundamental means of protecting humans’ privacy and agency. However, they are yet to be ... [more ▼]

Data Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms (DPCCMs) have the potential of becoming one of the most fundamental means of protecting humans’ privacy and agency. However, they are yet to be improved, adopted and enforced. In this paper, based on the results of a technical document analysis and an expert study, we we identify some of the main technical factors that can be comparison factors between some of the main interdisciplinary challenges of a Human-centric, Accountable, Lawful, and Ethical practice of personal data processing on the Internet and discuss whether the current DPCCMs proposal can contribute towards their resolution. In particular, we discuss the two current open specifications, i.e. the Advanced Data Protection Control (ADPC) and the Global Privacy Control (GPC) based on the identified challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailHERO? TRAITOR? VICTIM? AMBIGUITY OF DATA IN WAR BIOGRAPHIES
Janz, Nina UL

Presentation (2022, June 04)

Project WARLUX - Soldiers and their Communities in WWII: The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg", at the Luxembourg Centre for Digital and Contemporary History (C²DH) of the University of ... [more ▼]

Project WARLUX - Soldiers and their Communities in WWII: The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg", at the Luxembourg Centre for Digital and Contemporary History (C²DH) of the University of Luxembourg researches the personal side of the history of Luxembourgish youth born between 1920 and 1927 who were enrolled into German services under the Nazi occupation of Luxembourg during World War II. The research focuses on personal testimonies and their individual war experience to uncover these men, women, and families' individual experiences. The Methodology includes a biographical approach to offer a micro-historical perspective on single actors to link individual life stories to home communities. WARLUX will analyse the individuals from their social environments, social background, or trajectories during the war and their life in the post-war period based on their biographies. But this is almost where the most significant challenge lies in avoiding pre-existing terminologies, e.g. Nazi terms. When analysing the dataset of contemporary Nazi documents and post-war documents, the sources describe the same objects and elements but require a different interpretation. When building a dataset for independent and objective research, it is crucial to distinguish between the various sources and make the data entries comprehensible. While for the Nazis, volunteers in the Waffen-SS were "exemplary fighters", in post-war Luxembourg, they were "traitors to the fatherland". The young men who deserted from the Wehrmacht during the war, "cowards" and "Wehrkraftzersetzer" for the Nazis, in peacetime "heroes" of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The project has worked with a relational database (nodegoat) so far but is reaching its limits. This database's strength lies in linking objects while assigning strict categories and dates but fails when it comes to flexible and uncertain or ambiguous data. In many sources, there are different variations of dates and circumstances of the targets under study. For example, the Nazi authorities introduced the conscription law in Luxembourg on 30 August 1942. Every man born between 1920 and 1927 was called to register on the conscription lists. Therefore, men who enlisted in the Wehrmacht before this date are considered volunteers, which completely changed their status as mentioned during the war and after returning home. Mapping this scheme in a data model seems "easy" - date of enlistment XX, and then building the category of volunteer yes/no. But as the data repeatedly shows, it is more complex than expected. Volunteers who joined the German forces before August 1942 tried to avoid their "real" enlistment and changed it to an earlier date (reporting to the authorities) because they were aware of the severe consequences they and their families faced after the surrender of the Nazi forces. There are now two dates in the dataset. The relational structure only allows one date for the volunteer "tab". If I had chosen only one date, this case would have been overlooked. The analysis requires a flexible and changeable dataset where the fixed points can be changed depending on the research question. It is always a challenge in historical research. Still, due to the mass data (10,000 objects/persons) that WARLUX uses, it needs a flexible and smooth data structure and, on the other hand, one that is as stringent and reliable as possible. [less ▲]

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See detail"Hybrid is the new normal." Einblicke in die Projekte des Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History am Beispiel der virtuellen Ausstellungen ww1.lu, zeitschichten.be und minett-stories.lu
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 03)

Seinen Forschungsschwerpunkt in der digitalen Geschichte trägt das 2017 gegründete C²DH bereits im Namen. Überlegungen zu den methodologischen Herausforderungen des Digitalen für die ... [more ▼]

Seinen Forschungsschwerpunkt in der digitalen Geschichte trägt das 2017 gegründete C²DH bereits im Namen. Überlegungen zu den methodologischen Herausforderungen des Digitalen für die Geschichtswissenschaft stehen bei seiner Arbeit genauso im Mittelpunkt wie das Nachdenken über den Einsatz digitaler Mittel bei der Vermittlung von Zeitgeschichte. Bei dieser Digital Public History spielen besonders die so genannten virtuellen Ausstellungen eine große Rolle. Der Vortrag bettet diese in einem ersten Teil in die konzeptionelle Ausrichtung des C²DH ein, bevor im zweiten Teil drei Ausstellungen vorgestellt werden: zum Ersten Weltkrieg in Luxemburg (2018), zur Geschichte Ostbelgiens seit 1920 (2020) und zur Sozial- und Industriegeschichte im luxemburgisch-französischen Grenzgebiet (2022). Besondere Aufmerksamkeit kommt der Problematisierung der Nutzung von Archivquellen in diesen Ausstellungen zu – sowohl im Zusammenspiel mit anderen (v.a. audiovisuellen) Quellen als auch aus methodischer und didaktischer Perspektive. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-principles investigation of ferroelectricity and related properties of HfO2
Dutta, Sangita UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Nonvolatile memories are in increasing demand as the world moves toward information digitization. The ferroelectric materials offer a promising alternative for this. Since the existing perovskite ... [more ▼]

Nonvolatile memories are in increasing demand as the world moves toward information digitization. The ferroelectric materials offer a promising alternative for this. Since the existing perovskite materials have various flaws, including incompatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes in memory applications, the discovery of new optimized FE thin films was necessary. In 2011, the disclosure of ferroelectricity in hafnia (HfO$_2$) reignited interest in ferroelectric memory devices because this material is well integrated with CMOS technology. Although the reporting of ferroelectricity in HfO$_2$ has been a decade, researchers are still enthralled by this material's properties as well as its possible applications. The ferroelectricity in HfO$_{2}$ has been attributed to the orthorhombic phase with spacegroup $Pca2_1$. This phase is believed to be the metastable phase of the system. Many experimental and theoretical research groups joined the effort to understand the root causes for the stability of this ferroelectric phase of HfO$_{2}$ by considering the role of the surface energy effects, chemical dopants, local strain, oxygen vacancies. However, the understanding was not conclusive. In this part of this work, we will present our first-principles results, predicting a situation where the ferroelectric phase becomes the thermodynamic ground state in the presence of a ordered dopant forming layers. Since the main focus was on understanding and optimizing the ferroelectricity in HfO$_{2}$, we observed that the electro-mechanical response of the system has garnered comparatively less attention. The recent discovery of the negative longitudinal piezoelectric effect in HfO$_2$ has challenged our thinking about piezoelectricity, which was molded by what we know about ferroelectric perovskites. In this work, we will discuss the atomistic underpinnings behind the negative longitudianl piezoelectric effect in HfO$_{2}$. We will also discuss the behavior of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient ($e_{33}$) under the application of epitaxial strain, where we find that $e_{33}$ changes sign even though the polarization does not switch. Aside from a basic understanding of piezoelectric characteristics in HfO$_2$, the application aspect is also worth considering. The piezoelectric properties of the material can be tuned to meet the needs of the applications. In this work, we will describe our findings on how the piezoelectric characteristics of the material change as a function of isovalent dopants. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the History of Digital History: Setting an Agenda
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 02)

See attached.

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See detailEmulating Active Space Debris Removal Scenarios in Zero-G Lab
Li, Xiao UL; Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL et al

Presentation (2022, June 02)

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See detailModerator: Digital History
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2022, June 02)

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See detailIntroduction
Steveker, Lena UL; Frenk, Joachim

in Critical Survey (2022), 34(2), 1-9

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See detailUnlocking web archives through metadata, seed lists and derived data
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 01)

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access, depending on the institutions that were preserving them. While Internet Archive has made its collections available online since 2001 through the Wayback Machine (but with limited features for scholars willing to conduct a distant reading based on data, WARC files, etc.), most national libraries only allowed an onsite access due to authors rights restrictions (and in some cases the frame of legal deposits), while starting to provide interesting metadata for research projects willing to explore them. However, the situation is currently evolving in the frame of several research projects that allow to access a vast amount of (international) metadata and datasets. Taking two research projects in progress as case studies, WARCnet and AWAC2, this paper aims to present the move towards the use of metadata and derived data related to huge collections of web archives of the COVID crisis. WARCnet (Web ARChive studies network researching web domains and events) is a network whose activities (funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark | Humanities (grant no 9055-00005B)) run in 2020-2023. The networking activities are guided by overarching research questions, one of them being “How transnational events developed on the European web?” (and notably the COVID crisis which is explored in WG2 (https://cc.au.dk/en/warcnet/working-groups)). AWAC2 (Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset) is a project part of the Archives Unleashed Cohort Program, that supports and facilitates research engagement with web archives. It aims to explore a unique collection of web material (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529) related to the pandemic, with contributions from over 30 members of IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) as well as public nominations from over 100 individuals/institutions. May it be in terms of access or tools, both projects are currently exploring new methodologies based on broad datasets (i.e. 5,3 TB for the IIPC collection related to the COVID crisis; 9.4 GB and 8,738,751 lines for the CSV related to plain text webpages). Starting with the WARCnet project, the presentation will explain how its WG2 gathered and accessed several national European datasets of COVID web archives, their specificities as well as their heterogeneity, the first analysis conducted through a datathon on January- February 2021 (Aasman et al. 2021) and the limits and assets of such access. Within the AWAC2 project (2021-2022) the access to the international IIPC COVID collection, through Archive-It and through the cohort program developed by the Archives Unleashed Team (Netpreserve, 2021; Ruest et al., 2021), is then a new opportunity to access data through mediated interfaces (ARCH) and to go further into them. Here again the presentation will demonstrate new opportunities and show a few examples of the analysis conducted by the team. Both examples aim to present the way web archiving institutions, libraries and researchers are developing new ways of accessing and exploring web archives, while also increasing their value(s) (Schafer and Winters, 2021). References Aasman, S., Bingham, N., Brügger, N., de Wild, K., Gebeil S. & Schafer V. (2021). Chicken and Egg: Reporting from a Datathon Exploring Datasets of the COVID- 19 Special Collections, WARCnet paper, Aarhus, https://cc.au.dk/fileadmin/dac/Projekter/WARCnet/Aasman_et_al_Chicken_and_Egg.pdf Brügger, N. (2018). The Archived Web. Doing History in the Digital Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. IIPC (2021), A Retrospective with the Archives Unleashed Project, netpreserve blog, https://netpreserveblog.wordpress.com/2021/04/01/a-retrospective-with-the-archives-unleashed-project/ Ruest, N., Fritz, S., Deschamps, R. Lin, J. & Milligan, I. (2021) From archive to analysis: accessing web archives at scale through a cloud-based interface. International Journal of Digital Humanities, https://paperity.org/p/260049927/from-archive-to-analysis-accessing-web-archives-at-scale-through-a-cloud-based-interface Schafer V. & Winters J. (2021). The values of web archives, International Journal of Digital Humanities, 1-10, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190571/ [less ▲]

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See detailLa paix selon Erasme. De la "Querela Pacis" aux années 1930.
Weis, Monique UL

Presentation (2022, June 01)

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See detailSignal-Oriented ECUs in a Centralized Service-Oriented Architecture: Scalability of the Layered Software Architecture
Bengtsson, Hoai Hoang; Hiller, Martin; Migge, Jörn et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 01)

The industry is quickly moving away from a function/signal-oriented architecture towards Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA). To carry-over legacy signal-oriented ECUs during the transition phase, Volvo ... [more ▼]

The industry is quickly moving away from a function/signal-oriented architecture towards Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA). To carry-over legacy signal-oriented ECUs during the transition phase, Volvo Cars has developed a layered software (SW) architecture based on the concepts of "device proxys" (i.e., one per legacy ECU), signal real-time database and service interface. This architecture, executing on the central computer on the TSN backbone, provides a clear separation of concerns between its components with a reduced additional complexity. In this presentation, we will review the main challenges faced in the integration of signal-oriented ECUs into SOA, and present the solutions explored at Volvo with a focus on layered SW architecture in the centralized E/E architecture and its 3 core components: o Device Proxies o Signal DataBase o Service Interface We then report on the performances of this architecture in terms of latencies and conclude on the maximum number of signal-oriented frames and legacy ECUs that can be handled. The performance evaluation is conducted by simulation, with sensitivity analysis to identify the performance bottlenecks. The E/E architecture under study is a prototype TSN-based central computing architecture targeted at next-generation models. The main questions that will be discussed throughout the presentation are 1) how to efficiently handle signal to service conversion? 2) The performance and the scalability of the SW architecture proposed and 3) the suitability of SOME/IP as the SOA protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussant on Film: Occupation and Liberation
Venken, Machteld UL; Kelbecheva, Evelina

Presentation (2022, June 01)

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See detailUniaxial polarization analysis of bulk ferromagnets: theory and first experimental results
Malyeyev, Artem UL; Titov, Ivan UL; Dewhurst, Charles et al

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (2022), 55

Based on Brown’s static equations of micromagnetics, the uniaxial polarization of the scattered neutron beam of a bulk magnetic material is computed. The approach considers a Hamiltonian that takes into ... [more ▼]

Based on Brown’s static equations of micromagnetics, the uniaxial polarization of the scattered neutron beam of a bulk magnetic material is computed. The approach considers a Hamiltonian that takes into account the isotropic exchange interaction, the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, magnetic anisotropy, the dipole–dipole interaction, as well as the effect of an applied magnetic field. In the high-field limit, the solutions for the magnetization Fourier components are used to obtain closed-form results for the spinpolarized SANS (small-angle neutron scattering) cross sections and the ensuing polarization. The theoretical expressions are compared with experimental data on a soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloy. The micromagnetic SANS theory provides a general framework for polarized real-space neutron methods, and it may open up a new avenue for magnetic neutron data analysis on magnetic microstructures. [less ▲]

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See detailApproximating WCRT through the aggregation of short simulations with different initial conditions: application to TSN
Keller, Patrick UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in 30th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS ’22) (2022, June)

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of ... [more ▼]

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of critical systems. There are however contexts where it is not economically or technically feasible to develop one, typically when the software and hardware components have not been designed with predictability in mind, e.g. as soon as TCP-based traffic is involved in network communication or when the hardware platform is too complex (e.g. heterogeneous System-on-Chips). In this paper, we study if it is possible to improve the ability of simulation to observe large traversal times, by running many short simulations with appropriately chosen simulation time and varying initial offsets of the stations on the network. The de-facto standard approach to assess maximal traversal times is to run a single long simulation with synchronized node start offsets and to use randomized node clock drifts inside an acceptable range. This approach is known to yield high traversal times but is not parallelizable. We propose an alternative approach consisting in splitting the simulation time over multiple shorter simulations with, optionally, randomized node start offsets. We evaluate the optimization potential of this simple approach on several realistic network configurations by comparing long simulations to aggregated short simulations, with and without synchronized node start offsets. We observe, considering all flows, that this allows a median improvement of up to 21.3% in terms of maximum traversal time observed, for the same simulation time budget. Additional randomization of the node start offsets showed further improvements of up to 4.8% in our experiments. Results from this line of work can be used to estimate the pessimism of schedulability analyses and verify systems for which no analysis is available. [less ▲]

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See detailDie zweifache Rechtfertigung des ‚Bösewichts‘: Figurationen des Bösen bei Schiller
Kohns, Oliver UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 UL)
See detailKonzept, Methodik und Perspektiven eines digitalen historischen Stadtatlas - das Beispiel Luxemburg
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June)

The historical atlas of the city of Luxembourg has been accessible on the internet since 2019. Since then, it has been continuously expanded, revised and improved, both technically and in terms of content ... [more ▼]

The historical atlas of the city of Luxembourg has been accessible on the internet since 2019. Since then, it has been continuously expanded, revised and improved, both technically and in terms of content. Users currently have the opportunity to view a large number of historical old maps and aerial photographs from Luxembourg archives for the period between 1560 and 2017 at zoom levels of their choice and to compare them with each other on transparent layers, precisely fitting one above the other. In addition, historical photos and views as well as explanatory texts on the city's history and on selected buildings or other infrastructure elements can be displayed. In order to realise the advantages of a web publication in the best possible way, the Luxatlas is based on open source software. This enables the development of customised WebGIS applications for the specific requirements of the project.In addition to the project presentation, the presentation will also highlight the methodological and source-critical challenges and put them up for discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom self-concept to -knowledge to -regulation: A proposal based on students’ domain-specific academic self-concepts and achievements
Grund, Axel UL; Niepel, Christoph UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

We initially tested whether besides possessing a positive self-concept, possessing an accurate self-concept has an incremental effect on students’ school adaptation. As self-knowledge index, we calculated ... [more ▼]

We initially tested whether besides possessing a positive self-concept, possessing an accurate self-concept has an incremental effect on students’ school adaptation. As self-knowledge index, we calculated ipsative profile correlations between 9th grade students’ academic self-concepts (i.e., how well students think they do) in the domains Math, German, and French and their respective achievement test scores in these domains (i.e., how well students actually do). We then related students’ self-knowledge to their general performance across these tests, their school satisfaction, and their perceived quality of the teacher-student relationship, assuming that accurate self-concepts lay the foundation for adaptive self-regulation processes (e.g., building on strengths and remedying or accepting weaknesses). In a first sample (N = 6279), we found that self-knowledge explained an incremental amount of variance in school adaptation above and beyond students’ general and domain-specific self-concepts in multiple regression analyses. The better aligned students’ self-concept profile was with their actual achievement profile, the better their performance across these domains, the more satisfied students were with schooling, and the better their relationship with their teachers. Except for school satisfaction, these findings were replicated in another cohort of 9th grade students (N = 6493), and they remained robust when we used rang-correlation instead of Pearson-correlation to derive our self-knowledge index. Notably, both indices seemed largely independent from students’ self-concepts and, on average, students seem to better “know” about their academic abilities compared to other aspects of their personality. We discuss necessary improvements to further substantiate the adaptive role of self-knowledge in self-regulation. [less ▲]

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