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See detailDiscussant: Facing Violence: When and Why to Document War Experiences?
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2022, May 27)

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See detailCommunicating Confidence of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance Identification via High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Charbonnet, Joseph A.; McDonough, Carrie A.; Xiao, Feng et al

in Environmental Science Technology Letters (2022), 0(0),

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See detailAnalysis of GNSS sensed slant wet delay during severe weather events in central Europe
Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Duman, Hüseyin; Elgered, Gunnar et al

Scientific Conference (2022, May 26)

Over the last few decades, anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased the frequency of climatological anomalies such as temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. It is noticed that ... [more ▼]

Over the last few decades, anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased the frequency of climatological anomalies such as temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. It is noticed that the frequency and severity of the intense precipitation signify a greater susceptibility to flash flooding. Flash flooding continues to be a major threat to European cities, with devastating mortality and considerable damage to urban infrastructure. As a result, accurate forecasting of future extreme precipitation events is critical for natural hazard mitigation. A network of ground-based GNSS receivers enables the measurement of integrated water vapour along slant pathways providing three-dimensional water vapour distributions. This study aims to demonstrate how GNSS sensing of the troposphere can be used to monitor the rapid and extreme weather events that occurred in central Europe in June 2013 and resulted in flash floods and property damage. We recovered one-way slant wet delay (SWD) by adding GNSS post-fit phase residuals, representing the troposphere's higher-order inhomogeneity. Nonetheless, noise in the GNSS phase observable caused by site-specific multipath can significantly affect the SWD from individual satellites. To overcome the problem, we employ a suitable averaging strategy for stacking post-fit phase residuals obtained from the PPP processing strategy to generate site-specific multipath corrections maps (MPS). The spatial stacking is carried out in congruent cells with an optimal resolution in elevation and azimuth at the local horizon but with decreasing azimuth resolution as the elevation angle increases. This permits an approximately equal number of observations allocated to each cell. The spatio-temporal fluctuations in the SWD as measured by GNSS closely mirrored the moisture field associated with severe weather events in central Europe, i.e., a brief rise prior to the main rain events, followed by a rapid decline once the storms passed. Furthermore, we validated the one-way SWD between ground-based water-vapour radiometry (WVR) and GNSS-derived SWD for different elevation angles. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide Association and Meta-analysis of Age-at-Onset in Parkinson Disease: Evidence From COURAGE-PD Consortium 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200699
Grover, Sandeep; Ashwin, Ashok Kumar Sreelatha; Pihlstrom, Lasse et al

in Neurology (2022)

Background and Objectives: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature concerning genetic determinants of the age of onset (AAO) of Parkinson\textquoterights disease (PD), which could be ... [more ▼]

Background and Objectives: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature concerning genetic determinants of the age of onset (AAO) of Parkinson\textquoterights disease (PD), which could be attributed to lack of well-powered replication cohorts. The previous largest GWAS identified SNCA and TMEM175 loci on chromosome (Chr) 4 with a significant influence on AAO of PD, these have not been independently replicated. The present study aims to conduct a meta-analysis of GWAS of PD AAO and validate previously observed findings in worldwide populations.Methods: A meta-analysis was performed on PD AAO GWAS of 30 populations of predominantly European ancestry from the Comprehensive Unbiased Risk Factor Assessment for Genetics and Environment in Parkinson\textquoterights Disease (COURAGE-PD) consortium. This was followed up by combining our study with the largest publicly available European ancestry dataset compiled by the International Parkinson disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC).Results: The COURAGE-PD included a cohort of 8,535 patients with PD (91.9\%: Europeans, 9.1\%: East-Asians). The average AAO in the COURAGE-PD dataset was 58.9 years (SD=11.6), with an under-representation of females (40.2\%). The heritability estimate for AAO in COURAGE-PD was 0.083 (SE=0.057). None of the loci reached genome-wide significance (P\<5x10-8). Nevertheless, the COURAGE-PD dataset confirmed the role of the previously published TMEM175 variant as genetic determinant of AAO of PD with Bonferroni-corrected nominal levels of significance (P\<0.025): (rs34311866:β(SE)COURAGE=0.477(0.203), PCOURAGE=0.0185). The subsequent meta-analysis of COURAGE-PD and IPDGC datasets (Ntotal=25,950) led to the identification of two genome-wide significant association signals on Chr 4, including the previously reported SNCA locus (rs983361:β(SE)COURAGE+IPDGC=0.720(0.122), PCOURAGE+IPDGC=3.13x10-9) and a novel BST1 locus (rs4698412:β(SE)COURAGE+IPDGC=-0.526(0.096), PCOURAGE+IPDGC=4.41x10-8).Discussion: Our study further refines the genetic architecture of Chr 4 underlying the AAO of the PD phenotype through the identification of BST1 as a novel AAO PD locus. These findings open a new direction for the development of treatments to delay the onset of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailLe début de la fin des passeports et visas dorés en Europe
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Article for general public (2022)

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See detailDIGITAL COLLECTION - DIGITAL COLLECTION of PROJECT WARLUX-Soldiers and their communities in WWII: The impact and legacy of war experiences in Luxembourg
Janz, Nina UL; Vercruysse, Sarah Maya UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

In February 2021, a call for contributions was launched through the media (newspapers and radio) to collect ego-documents about the men, women and their families affected by the Nazi draft during the ... [more ▼]

In February 2021, a call for contributions was launched through the media (newspapers and radio) to collect ego-documents about the men, women and their families affected by the Nazi draft during the Second World War. The response was overwhelmingly successful, and the team received more than 200 calls and messages in the first few days. The collection phase (February to October 2021) involved visiting families to bring the originals to campus, where they were scanned and indexed. Interaction with donors and the public was a pivotal activity to enrich the personal documents with additional information about the individuals' backgrounds for an in-depth analysis. After completing the survey process, the team collected 160 collections (from 160 contributors), creating the central source of documentation for research into personal experiences of war. [less ▲]

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See detailA Cybersecurity Incident: Who You Gonna Call?
Schmitz, Sandra UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 25)

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See detail“Use”: When personas become real users…
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 24)

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed ... [more ▼]

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed Project, we will provide feedback related to users’ needs and achievements. Ian Milligan distinguished in his paper “You shouldn’t Need to be a Web Historian to Use Web Archives: Lowering Barriers to Access Through Community and Infrastructure” (WARCnet paper, Aarhus, 2020), three personas: a computational humanist, a digital humanist, and a conventional historian. As an heterogeneous team, mirroring in some ways the personas distinguished by Ian Milligan, we will underline the successes and failures we experienced, the technical layers and levels we unfolded, our experience of collective work which also needs to take interdisciplinarity and heterogeneity (of technical skills, interests, availability, digital literacy) into account, the value of mentorship and our iterative process with data and research questions. We will finally shortly discuss the many pros and few cons in lowering barriers to access web archives (e.g. How to make access easiest without hiding the complexity of web archives?). [less ▲]

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See detail100 Joer Stade Thillebierg
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2022)

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See detailLes archives du Web, des sources aux données
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 20)

This keynote during Humanistica 2022 aimed to retrace 15 years of evolution of web archiving and web archives' studies. It also presented some research projects like the current Hivi, WARCnet and AWAC2 ... [more ▼]

This keynote during Humanistica 2022 aimed to retrace 15 years of evolution of web archiving and web archives' studies. It also presented some research projects like the current Hivi, WARCnet and AWAC2 projects. [less ▲]

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See detailFRACTAL DIMENSION AND POINT-WISE PROPERTIES OF TRAJECTORIES OF FRACTIONAL PROCESSES
Daw, Lara UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The topics of this thesis lie at the interference of probability theory with dimensional and harmonic analysis, accentuating the geometric properties of random paths of Gaussian and non-Gaussian ... [more ▼]

The topics of this thesis lie at the interference of probability theory with dimensional and harmonic analysis, accentuating the geometric properties of random paths of Gaussian and non-Gaussian stochastic processes. Such line of research has been rapidly growing in past years, paying off clear local and global properties for random paths associated to various stochastic processes such as Brownian and fractional Brownian motion. In this thesis, we start by studying the level sets associated to fractional Brownian motion using the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension. Then as a preliminary step, we establish some technical points regarding the distribution of the Rosenblatt process for the purpose of studying various geometric properties of its random paths. First, we obtain results concerning the Hausdorff (both classical and macroscopic), packing and intermediate dimensions, and the logarithmic and pixel densities of the image, level and sojourn time sets associated with sample paths of the Rosenblatt process. Second, we study the pointwise regularity of the generalized Rosenblatt and prove the existence of three kinds of local behavior: slow, ordinary and rapid points. In the last chapter, we illustrate several methods to estimate the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension, which played a key role in our results. In particular, we build the potential theoretical methods. Then, relying on this, we show that the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension of the projection of a set E ⊂ R^2 onto almost all straight lines passing through the origin in R^2 depends only on E, that is, they are almost surely independent of the choice of straight line. [less ▲]

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See detailL'émission de radio "100 Jahre Ostbelgien"
Brüll, Christoph UL; Fickers, Andreas UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 20)

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See detailA Dusty Road to the Riviera?
van de Maele, Jens UL

Article for general public (2022)

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See detailModèles participatifs pour interpréter le passé
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Project description Ecole d’été « Participation & Démocratie » 16-20 Mai (Esch-Belval ; Esch-sur-Alzette; Dudelange) La plateforme de la démocratie participative/Université du Luxembourg a le grand ... [more ▼]

Project description Ecole d’été « Participation & Démocratie » 16-20 Mai (Esch-Belval ; Esch-sur-Alzette; Dudelange) La plateforme de la démocratie participative/Université du Luxembourg a le grand plaisir d’accueillir la cinquième édition de l’école d’été internationale (International Summer School) “Participation et démocratie”. Dans le prolongement des précédentes éditions, l’école d’été vise à approfondir les réflexions sur le fonctionnement de nos démocraties représentatives et sur les différents processus démocratiques – plus ou moins innovants – visant à promouvoir une participation plus directe et délibérative des citoyens. S’adressant aux étudiant·e·s en sciences politiques et sociales, ainsi qu’aux praticien·ne·s souhaitant renforcer leurs compétences, l’École d’été offre une semaine de formation interactive et personnalisée avec des enseignant·e·s reconnu·e·s internationalement. Elle propose un encadrement adapté aux étudiant·e·s en fin de master et aux doctorant·e·s à différents stades de leur avancement. Elle propose aussi aux praticien·ne·s de mettre en dialogue leur pratiques avec les évolutions de la gouvernance et de la participation citoyenne. L’ambition est de confronter les participant·e·s aux pratiques de recherche de chercheurs·euses confirmé·e·s, tout en donnant une opportunité de présenter ses travaux et de recevoir les commentaires et recommandations de des intervenant·e·s invité·es, mais aussi des autres participant·e·s. Cette école d’été est le fruit d’une collaboration forte entre cinq universités francophones d’excellence : Sciences Po Bordeaux, l’Université Laval, l’Université libre de Bruxelles, l’Université de Lausanne et l’Université du Luxembourg. Cela en fait une école unique dans le champ des sciences sociales et de la science politique francophone notamment par sa capacité à comparer les approches, les cas nationaux et leurs transformations. La spécificité de cette école est d’être l’une des rares en Europe à faire du français la langue de travail principale, même si l’anglais est utilisé pour certaines interventions. La présente édition marque la première édition de l’école à Luxembourg après que celle-ci se soit tenue à deux reprises à Bordeaux en 2016 et 2021, à Laval en 2017, à Bruxelles en 2018 et à Lausanne en 2020. Cette édition sera aussi l’occasion d’ouvrir un regard sur les nombreuses expériences participatives du Luxembourg et de saluer la collaboration fructueuse entre quatre acteurs engagés dans la l’étude et la promotion de la démocratie à Luxembourg : la Plateforme Luxembourgeoise de la Démocratie Participative (PLDP), la Chaire de Recherche en Études Parlementaires, ETICC et la ville de Dudelange en tant que ville pilote dans la démocratie participative. L’école sera organisée autour des thématiques suivantes : Y-a-t-il une demande pour plus de participation à l’ère de la désinformation ? Etat des lieux des consultations citoyennes Participation des jeunes et budget participatif Participation citoyenne dans les tiers lieux : le cas de Esch2022 Capitale européenne de la culture Digitalisation des campagnes politiques et effets sur la participation [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmarking Low-Frequency Variant Calling With Long-Read Data on Mitochondrial DNA
Lüth, Theresa; Schaake, Susen; Grünewald, Anne UL et al

in Frontiers in Genetics (2022), 13

Background: Sequencing quality has improved over the last decade for long-reads, allowing for more accurate detection of somatic low-frequency variants. In this study, we used mixtures of mitochondrial ... [more ▼]

Background: Sequencing quality has improved over the last decade for long-reads, allowing for more accurate detection of somatic low-frequency variants. In this study, we used mixtures of mitochondrial samples with different haplogroups (i.e., a specific set of mitochondrial variants) to investigate the applicability of nanopore sequencing for low-frequency single nucleotide variant detection.Methods: We investigated the impact of base-calling, alignment/mapping, quality control steps, and variant calling by comparing the results to a previously derived short-read gold standard generated on the Illumina NextSeq. For nanopore sequencing, six mixtures of four different haplotypes were prepared, allowing us to reliably check for expected variants at the predefined 5%, 2%, and 1% mixture levels. We used two different versions of Guppy for base-calling, two aligners (i.e., Minimap2 and Ngmlr), and three variant callers (i.e., Mutserve2, Freebayes, and Nanopanel2) to compare low-frequency variants. We used F<sub>1</sub> score measurements to assess the performance of variant calling.Results: We observed a mean read length of 11 kb and a mean overall read quality of 15. Ngmlr showed not only higher F<sub>1</sub> scores but also higher allele frequencies (AF) of false-positive calls across the mixtures (mean F<sub>1</sub> score = 0.83; false-positive allele frequencies < 0.17) compared to Minimap2 (mean F<sub>1</sub> score = 0.82; false-positive AF < 0.06). Mutserve2 had the highest F<sub>1</sub> scores (5% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.99, 2% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.54, and 1% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.70) across all callers and mixture levels.Conclusion: We here present the benchmarking for low-frequency variant calling with nanopore sequencing by identifying current limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy distinguishes disease manifestation in PINK1- and PRKN-linked Parkinson's disease 2022.05.17.22275087
Trinh, Joanne; Hicks, Andrew A.; Koenig, Inke R. et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Biallelic mutations in PINK1 and PRKN cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Though some studies suggest that PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutations may not contribute to risk, deep phenotyping ... [more ▼]

Biallelic mutations in PINK1 and PRKN cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Though some studies suggest that PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutations may not contribute to risk, deep phenotyping assessment showed that PINK1 or PRKN monoallelic pathogenic variants were at a significantly higher rate in PD compared to controls. Given the established role of PINK1 and Parkin in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, we explored mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and inflammation as potential disease modifiers in carriers of mutations in these genes. MtDNA integrity, global gene expression and serum cytokine levels were investigated in a large collection of biallelic (n=84) and monoallelic (n=170) carriers of PINK1/PRKN mutations, iPD patients (n=67) and controls (n=90). Affected and unaffected PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutation carriers can be distinguished by heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load (AUC=0.83, CI:0.74-0.93). Biallelic PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers harbor more heteroplasmic mtDNA variants in blood (p=0.0006, Z=3.63) compared to monoallelic mutation carriers. This enrichment was confirmed in iPSC-derived and postmortem midbrain neurons from biallelic PRKN-PD patients. Lastly, the heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load was found to correlate with IL6 levels in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers (r=0.57, p=0.0074). PINK1/PRKN mutations predispose individuals to mtDNA variant accumulation in a dose- and disease-dependent manner. MtDNA variant load over time is a potential marker of disease manifestation in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThe authors wish to thank the many patients and their families who volunteered, and the efforts of the many clinical teams involved. Funding has been obtained from the German Research Foundation (ProtectMove; FOR 2488, GR 3731/5-1; SE 2608/2-1; KO 2250/7-1), the Luxembourg National Research Fund in the ATTRACT (Model-IPD, FNR9631103), NCER-PD (FNR11264123) and INTER programmes (ProtectMove, FNR11250962; MiRisk-PD, C17/BM/11676395, NB 4328/2-1), the BMBF (MitoPD), the Hermann and Lilly Schilling Foundation, the European Community (SysMedPD), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Peter and Traudl Engelhorn Foundation. Initial studies in Tunisia on familial parkinsonism were in collaboration with Lefkos Middleton, Rachel Gibson, and the GlaxoSmithKline PD Programme Team (2002-2005). We would like to thank Dr Helen Tuppen from the Welcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Newcastle University, UK for providing us with the plasmid p7D1. Moreover, this project was supported by the high throughput/high content screening platform and HPC facility at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, and the University of Luxembourg.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:University of Lubeck Ethics CommitteeI confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesAll data produced in the present study are available upon reasonable request to the authors [less ▲]

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