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See detailReal-time Monitoring and Early Warning Of Atrial Fibrillation
Gavidia, Marino UL

in Preprint (2022)

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See detailInteroception, stress and stress-associated diseases
Schulz, André UL

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

The brain and peripheral bodily organs continuously exchange information. Interoception refers to the processing of afferent signals from the body to the brain. Stress activates peripheral bodily organs ... [more ▼]

The brain and peripheral bodily organs continuously exchange information. Interoception refers to the processing of afferent signals from the body to the brain. Stress activates peripheral bodily organs via neural and endocrine pathways and can thus be seen as an example of efferent signal transmission between the brain and the body. The interaction of interoception and stress, therefore, implies bi-directional communication on the brain-body axis. Ten studies are presented to address the following objectives: To reveal ‘normal’ bi-directional communication on the brain-body axis (i.e. interoception and stress) in healthy individuals and mechanisms of potentially altered brain-body communication in stress-associated diseases. With regard to interoception, the studies focus on different interoceptive facets, including early stages of CNS representation of visceral-afferent signals, attention focused on visceral sensations and their interpretation. Concerning stress, both physiological stress axes, the sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, are addressed. An activation of the SAM axis does not only stimulate the cardiovascular system, but it also enhances attention focused on bodily sensations. Cortisol seems to selectively amplify the brain-body communication at cortical level, without affecting peripheral cardiovascular activation. Stress-associated disorders, such as depersonalization/derealization, somatic symptom, post-traumatic stress, major depression or borderline personality disorder, are characterized by a highly-specific patterns of alterations of interoceptive signal transmission and physiological stress axis dysregulations. In conclusion, new intervention methods should be developed that enhance the communication between the brain and the body to improve mental health. These may be based on nerve or brain stimulation, perceptual learning or neurofeedback. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic order and disorder environments in superantiferromagnetic NdCu2 nanoparticles
Jefremovas, E.M.; Svedlindh, P.; Damay, F. et al

in Scientific Reports (2022), 12

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See detailFrom hands to heart: a trend for higher interoceptive accuracy in left-handed as compared to right-handed female participants
Bernard, Sam UL; Barnabo, Meggie; Boos, Mareike et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

There is a discrete anatomical organization of the neural substrates of mental processes. Right hemispheric dominance was repeatedly shown for interoception, the perception and processing of signals from ... [more ▼]

There is a discrete anatomical organization of the neural substrates of mental processes. Right hemispheric dominance was repeatedly shown for interoception, the perception and processing of signals from inside the body. This right hemispheric dominance is supported, for example, by stronger heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) over the right hemisphere, which represent neurophysiological indicators of cardiac interoception. These findings, however, are based on individuals with left hemispheric dominance, which manifests among other traits, predominantly in right-handedness. Left-handed individuals (presumably showing a right-hemispheric dominance) may show a facilitation of processes with a right-hemispheric relevance, such as interoception, which remains yet unclear. N = 42 healthy participants (21 left- and right-handed each) performed the heartbeat counting task (HCT) to assess cardiac interoceptive accuracy (“IAc”, i.e. the correspondence between actual and perceived bodily signals), as well as a time estimation task, as previous studies suggested that IAc in the HCT may be confounded by time estimation accuracy (TEAc). We found a trend-level difference among female participants, with left-handers presenting higher IAc scores than right-handers. There were no differences in TEAc or heart rate between groups. These preliminary findings suggest a potential facilitating effect of right hemispheric dominance on interoception, which seems to be specific for additional hemispheric specialization effects related to female sex. Future studies are warranted to replicate this trend and to reveal neurophysiological mechanisms of this effect (e.g., by investigating HEPs). [less ▲]

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See detailCovid-19 et imprévision à l'aune de la problématique du paiement du loyer commercial : confirmation des enseignements formulés il y a plus de 35 ans par le Prof. Denis Philippe dans sa thèse de doctorat
Corbisier, Isabelle UL

in Minne, Grégory; Strowel, Alain (Eds.) Liber Amicorum Denis Philippe - Volume 2 : Cabinet de curiosités pour un juriste passionné (2022)

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See detailGastrische Interozeption und gastrische myoelektrische Aktivität bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen und Reizdarmsyndrom
Schulz, André UL; Welsch, Sina; Etringer, Sarah et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

Viszerale Hypersensitivität wird als zentraler Mechanismus bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen (CED) und Reizdarmsyndrom (RDS) diskutiert, welche beide mit einer erheblichen Einschränkung der ... [more ▼]

Viszerale Hypersensitivität wird als zentraler Mechanismus bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen (CED) und Reizdarmsyndrom (RDS) diskutiert, welche beide mit einer erheblichen Einschränkung der Lebensqualität einhergehen. Bisherige Studien verwenden zumeist invasive Verfahren, die jedoch typischerweise mit der Messung viszeraler Wahrnehmung interferieren. Diese Studie untersucht daher, ob CED und RDS mit einer veränderten Wahrnehmung „natürlicher“ (nicht-invasiver) gastrischer Dehnungen assoziiert sind („Interozeption“). Zwanzig CED-Patienten in Remission (13 Morbus Crohn, 7 Colitis Ulcerosa), 12 RDS-Patienten, sowie 20/12 parallelisierte gesunde Kontrollprobanden absolvierten den 2-stufigen Water-Load-Test, bei dem eine beliebige Menge Wasser getrunken wird, bis die subjektiven Schwelle der Sättigung (Stufe 1) und des Völlegefühls (Stufe 2) erreicht sind. Gastrische Motilität wurde mittels Elektrogastrographie untersucht. CED-Patienten tranken signifikant mehr Wasser bis zur Sättigungsschwelle als RDS-Patienten, während es keine Unterschiede zu den Kontrollgruppen gab. Die getrunkene Wassermenge bis zur Schwelle des Völlegefühls unterschied sich nicht zwischen den Gruppen. Die elektrogastrographischen Muster zeigten ebenfalls keine Gruppenunterschiede, was impliziert, dass es keine Pathologien in der gastrischen Motilität gab. Die getrunkene Wassermenge bis zur Sättigung korrelierte negativ mit darmbezogener Lebensqualität bei CED-Patienten, aber positiv mit emotionalem Wohlbefinden bei RDS-Patienten. Diese Ergebnisse legen eine relative gastrische Hypersensitivität bei RDS und eine relative gastrische Hyposensitivität bei CED nahe, was jeweils mit spezifischen Facetten der wahrgenommenen Lebensqualität assoziiert ist. [less ▲]

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See detailAkuter Stress und kardiale interozeptive Genauigkeit in einer Herzschlagzählaufgabe
Hansen, Greta UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Bellingrath, Silja et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

Interozeption, d.h. die Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung körperinnerer Signale, hängt mit der Aktivität eines Körperorgans (z.B. kardiale Aktivierung) zusammen. Die Organaktivität wird maßgeblich durch Stress ... [more ▼]

Interozeption, d.h. die Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung körperinnerer Signale, hängt mit der Aktivität eines Körperorgans (z.B. kardiale Aktivierung) zusammen. Die Organaktivität wird maßgeblich durch Stress beeinflusst, der beispielsweise durch soziale Situationen oder Schmerz ausgelöst wird. Auch wenn erste Erkenntnisse implizieren, dass Stress die bewusste Ebene der Interozeption („interozeptive Genauigkeit“/IG) beeinflussen könnte, sind der Zeitverlauf dieses Effekts und die Rolle von Organaktivierung bislang unklar. Anhand eines Gruppenexperiments mit gesunden Versuchspersonen (je n=33 Stress- und Kontrollgruppe, w=48) wurde die Auswirkung von akutem Stress (sozial-evozierter Kaltwassertest) auf IG in einer Herzschlagzählaufgabe zu vier unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten (pre-Stress/post-Stress-1/2/3) untersucht. Der Stressor führte zu einem Anstieg von selbstberichtetem Stress (sowie Speichelcortisol). Die Herzrate (Organaktivität) sowie die IG blieben jedoch, entgegen der Erwartungen, sowohl zwischen den Gruppen als auch über die Zeit, unverändert. Unabhängig von der Bedingung und den Zeitpunkten zeigte sich außerdem eine Tendenz, die tatsächlichen Herzschläge zu 56% zu unterschätzen. Bei konstanter Herzrate (M=81.5 bpm) über alle Versuchsbedingungen hinweg konnten die gezählten Herzschläge alleine (M=28.55) somit die IG (M=.43) vorhersagen (r=.962, p<.001). Diese Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass sowohl die zentrale Rolle der gezählten Herzschläge auf die IG, als auch jene Organaktivierung, die durch akuten Stress verändert wird und sich in einer Veränderung der gezählten Herzschläge widerspiegelt, bei Anwendung der Herzschlagzählaufgabe, berücksichtigt werden muss. [less ▲]

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See detailInterozeptive Verarbeitung bei Psychopathologie: pharmakologische und neurophysiologische Konzeptualisierungen und Interventionen
Schulz, André UL; Bertsch, Katja

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

Interozeption umfasst die Repräsentation, Verarbeitung und Wahrnehmung körpereigener Prozesse. Veränderungen der Interozeption sind potenziell transdiagnostische Störungsmechanismen bei Psychopathologie ... [more ▼]

Interozeption umfasst die Repräsentation, Verarbeitung und Wahrnehmung körpereigener Prozesse. Veränderungen der Interozeption sind potenziell transdiagnostische Störungsmechanismen bei Psychopathologie. Bisherige Studien deuten auf ein komplexes Zusammenspiel zwischen interozeptiven Prozessen und modulierenden Faktoren, wie humoralen Signalwegen und sozialen Faktoren, hin. Dieses Symposium präsentiert und diskutiert aktuelle Befunde zu pharmakologischen und neurophysiologischen Grundlagen von Interozeption, sowie Interventionen bei Populationen mit psychischen Störungen. Die Auswirkungen von akutem Stress auf die interozeptive Verarbeitung werden von Greta Hansen (Luxemburg) beschrieben. André Schulz (Luxemburg) wird Daten zu gastrisch-interozeptiven Prozessen bei Patienten mit entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen und Reizdarmsyndrom vorstellen. Aline Tiemann (Fribourg) wird Zusammenhänge von gastrischer und kardialer Interozeption mit pathologischem Essverhalten (einschließlich bei Individuen mit Bulimieund Binge-Eating-Symptomatik) vorstellen, sowie Pilotdaten über ein neu entwickeltes virtuelles gastrisches Biofeedback-Paradigma als Intervention bei beeinträchtigter gastrischer Interozeption. Mögliche Interventionen für veränderte neurobiologische Mechanismen im Zusammenhang mit Interozeption umfassen pharmakologische und neurophysiologische Interventionen. Sarah Back (München) wird vagale neurophysiologische Veränderungen im Hinblick auf die Herzfrequenzvariabilität und Herzschlag-evozierte Potenziale bei Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung, sowie Modulationen durch das Neuropeptid Oxytocin vorstellen. Schließlich wird Marius Schmitz (Heidelberg) ein ätiologisches Modell interozeptiver Prozesse für Psychopathologie vorstellen und zukünftige Richtungen für das weitere Forschungsfeld aufzeigen. Zusammen zeigen diese Beiträge auf, dass veränderte Interozeption auf verschiedenen Verarbeitungsebenen für spezifische Symptome bei psychischen Störungen verantwortlich sein könnte. Außerdem könnte Interozeption zu diagnostischen Prozessen und als Verlaufsindikator bei Interventionen beitragen. [less ▲]

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See detailA Theory-Informed, Personalized mHealth Intervention for Adolescents (Mobile App for Physical Activity): Development and Pilot Study
Domin, Alex; Uslu, Sinan UL; Schulz, André UL et al

in JMIR Formative Research (2022), 6(6), 35118

Background: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is crucial as it usually results in adequate PA levels in adulthood. Given the ubiquitous use of smartphones by ... [more ▼]

Background: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is crucial as it usually results in adequate PA levels in adulthood. Given the ubiquitous use of smartphones by adolescents, these devices may offer feasible means to reach young populations and deliver interventions aiming to increase PA participation and decrease sedentary time. To date, very few studies have reported smartphone-based interventions promoting PA for adolescents. In addition, most available fitness apps do not include the latest evidence-based content. Objective: This paper described the systematic development of a behavior change, theory-informed Mobile App for Physical Activity intervention with personalized prompts for adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. The within-subject trial results provided the first evidence of the general effectiveness of the intervention based on the outcomes step count, sedentary time, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes. The effectiveness of the intervention component personalized PA prompt was also assessed. Methods: A 4-week within-subject trial with 18 healthy adolescents aged 16 to 18 years was conducted (mean age 16.33, SD 0.57 years). After the baseline week, the participants used the Mobile App for Physical Activity intervention (Fitbit fitness tracker+app), which included a daily personalized PA prompt delivered via a pop-up notification. A paired 1-tailed t test was performed to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Change-point analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of a personalized PA prompt 30 and 60 minutes after prompt delivery. Results: The results showed that the intervention significantly reduced sedentary time in adolescents during the first week of the trial (t17=−1.79; P=.04; bootstrapped P=.02). This trend, although remaining positive, diminished over time. Our findings indicate that the intervention had no effect on metabolic equivalent of task–based MVPA minutes, although the descriptive increase may give reason for further investigation. Although the results suggested no overall change in heart rate–based MVPA minutes, the results from the change-point analyses suggest that the personalized PA prompts significantly increased heart rate per minute during the second week of the study (t16=1.84; P=.04; bootstrapped P=.04). There were no significant increases in participants’ overall step count; however, the personalized PA prompts resulted in a marginally significant increase in step counts per minute in the second week of the study (t17=1.35; P=.09; bootstrapped P=.05). Conclusions: The results of the trial provide preliminary evidence of the benefit of the Mobile App for Physical Activity intervention for modest yet significant reductions in participants’ sedentary time and the beneficial role of personalized PAprompts. These results also provide further evidence of the benefits and relative efficacy of personalized activity suggestions for inclusion in smartphone-based PA interventions. This study provides an example of how to guide the development of smartphone-based mobile health PA interventions for adolescents. [less ▲]

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See detailWohin mit meinem Ärger - psychotherapeutische Behandlungsansätze
de Boer, Claudia; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Psychotherapie Aktuell (2022), 14(2), 54-58

Ärger ist eine grundlegende Emotion, die nicht per se ein Problem darstellt. Die Modifikation von zu häufig und zu intensiv erlebten Ärgers sowie dessen unangemessener Bewältigung kann jedoch ein ... [more ▼]

Ärger ist eine grundlegende Emotion, die nicht per se ein Problem darstellt. Die Modifikation von zu häufig und zu intensiv erlebten Ärgers sowie dessen unangemessener Bewältigung kann jedoch ein bedeutsames Ziel einer psychotherapeutischen Behandlung sein. Ärgerbezogene Interventionen sollten dabei verstärkt an der Motivation und Beziehung zu dem Klienten ansetzen, sowie deren Selbstregulation und soziale Kompetenzen aufbauen bzw. stärken. [less ▲]

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See detailLess efficient cognitive pain modulation in healthy older adults – the impact of executive functions, chronic stress, and physical activity
Heiler, Ann-Sophie; van der Meulen, Marian UL; Miltner, Wolfgang et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

Demographic change and the associated increasing prevalence of chronic pain have contributed to increased research interest in the field of aging. Aging has been associated with less efficient pain ... [more ▼]

Demographic change and the associated increasing prevalence of chronic pain have contributed to increased research interest in the field of aging. Aging has been associated with less efficient pain inhibition through cognitive distraction. As pain modulation and executive functioning mainly involve the prefrontal cortical network, which shows age-related atrophy, we hypothesized an association between deteriorating cognitive modulation of pain in healthy older adults and reduced executive functions. As chronic stress can decrease executive functioning through prefrontal cortical impairment, we expected a negative impact on distraction from pain. In contrast, physical activity can have a stress-buffering effect and positively influences executive functions in older age. Therefore, increased physical activity should lead to better distraction from pain. Healthy young (18 -30 years) and older adults (65+ years) took part in a pain distraction paradigm (N-back) while receiving non-painful and moderately painful electric stimuli. Before, we examined executive functions, including response inhibition (Go/No-Go-task), inhibitory control (Stroop task), and working memory (Sternberg task). Additionally, chronic stress and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires, supported by physiological measurements (heart rate variability). Preliminary results indicate a negative impact of chronic stress on distraction from pain particular in young participants, while physical fitness was related to more successful pain modulation in older adults. Our final results will contribute to a more differentiated view on executive functioning and pain modulation in aging, thereby leading to a better understanding of the impact of aging on non-pharmacological pain treatment and to better adapted pain therapies in this population. [less ▲]

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See detailMember, Managing Board, European Banking Center Network
Wolff, Christian UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2022)

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See detailIntroduction
Mourlon-Druol, Emmanuel; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Politique Européenne (2022), 2022(2), 6-11

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se ... [more ▼]

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se concentrer sur la période de la guerre froide, présente brièvement le contexte historique plus large et clarifie enfin l'utilisation du mot "asymétrie". [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.
Wolff, Christian UL

in Best Paper Award (2022)

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See detailBest Paper Award
Wolff, Christian UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2022)

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See detailDer 50cm lange Gliedermaßstab
Foyen, Andy UL; Perucca, Antonella UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailVisiting professorship in "Visual Semiotics"
Roelens, Nathalie UL

Presentation (2022)

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See detailDie zwei Geister des Präsidenten. Lincoln-Mythos und politische Theologie im Hollywood-Kino während der Great Depression: Gabriel over the White House (1933).
Pause, Johannes UL

in Gradinari, Irina; Niehaus, Michael (Eds.) Störung, Verunsicherung, Destabilisierung: Filmanalysen (2022)

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See detailHigher cardiovascular activation, but normal heartbeat-evoked potentials and cardiac interoceptive accuracy in somatoform disorders and major depressive disorder
Schulz, André UL; Dierolf, Angelika UL; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Psychiatry Research Communications (2022), 2(3), 100052

The perception-filter model posits that the generation of medically-unexplained symptoms is associated with (I.) more intense afferent bodily signals, (II.) impaired filter system activity to ... [more ▼]

The perception-filter model posits that the generation of medically-unexplained symptoms is associated with (I.) more intense afferent bodily signals, (II.) impaired filter system activity to differentiate relevant from irrelevant signals, and (III.) altered perception of bodily signals. We tested these assumptions for cardiac perception in patients with somatoform disorders (SFD), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control (HC) individuals. Heart rate (variability; HR/HRV) and blood pressure served as indicators of bodily signals (I.); heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) assessed during a heartbeat counting task (HCT) and a distraction task indicated filter system activity (II.); interoceptive accuracy (IAc) in the HCT was interpreted as an index of perception (III.). All indicators were assessed before and after a socially-evaluated cold pressor stress task (SECPT) and a control intervention. SFD patients (n ​= ​24) showed higher average HR and diastolic blood pressure, as well as lower HRV than HC individuals (n ​= ​22), but there were no differences in HEPs or IAc. Neither were there significant differences between the SFD and the MDD groups (n ​= ​24), nor any stress effect on HEPs or IAc. Our findings suggest that increased intensity of bodily signals (I.) is the only model assumption that could be supported for patients with fully-developed SFD. [less ▲]

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See detailEducação, cultura e inclusão: contextos internacionais e locais
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Ferreira da Silva, Brigida Ticiane; de Moraes Novais, Valéria Silva

Book published by Appris (2022)

Esta coletânea, intitulada Educação, Cultura e Inclusão: contextos internacionais e locais, é um esforço coletivo que visa à reflexão sobre estudos e pesquisas acerca da educação e da inclusão, em suas ... [more ▼]

Esta coletânea, intitulada Educação, Cultura e Inclusão: contextos internacionais e locais, é um esforço coletivo que visa à reflexão sobre estudos e pesquisas acerca da educação e da inclusão, em suas relações com perspectivas que envolvem as diversidades culturais, especialmente no que se refere ao ambiente escolar (predominantemente) e universitário, envolvendo pesquisadores de diferentes países, como Alemanha, Brasil, Canadá, Luxemburgo e Suécia. Concentrar e compartilhar cenários com desafios e contextos particulares e gerais constitui o diferencial desta coletânea, ao abordar assuntos que discorrem, principalmente, sobre os contextos educacionais e sociais nesses países; o que se configura em um convite para ampliar os horizontes e conhecimentos sobre o fenômeno educativo ao redor do mundo, aspectos que delineiam seu diferencial. A obra é direcionada a estudantes do ensino superior, pesquisadores e demais interessados nas temáticas abordadas. Espera-se contribuir com o aprofundamento das discussões sobre educação e inclusão e suas manifestações em diferentes contextos nacionais e internacionais. [less ▲]

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