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See detailTowards an evaluation of incentives and nudges for smart charging
Marxen, Hanna UL; Chemudupaty, Raviteja UL; Graf-Drasch, Valerie et al

in Proceedings of the 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important cornerstone to achieve transport decarbonization. Still, simultaneous charging of EVs when home charging increases peak demand, especially during evenings. Smart ... [more ▼]

Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important cornerstone to achieve transport decarbonization. Still, simultaneous charging of EVs when home charging increases peak demand, especially during evenings. Smart charging allows optimal distribution of load, thus preventing peak loads. Nevertheless, this incorporates certain risks for the EV user, e.g., unavailability of EVs for unplanned events. This might lead to a lack of user acceptance. This paper focuses on specific incentives and nudges, motivating users to adopt smart charging. We conducted an integrative literature review, bringing together literature from different areas. Possible incentives and nudges are monetary incentives, feedback, gamification, or smart charging as a default-setting. We conducted three focus groups with 13 EV users in Luxembourg to get first insights into which of those incentives and nudges they prefer. Preliminary results indicate that incentives and nudges should be individualized. In the future, we would use these first insights to develop a large-scale survey. [less ▲]

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See detailLe formalisme de la procédure de cassation luxembourgeoise en question
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue des procédures (2022)

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See detailA genome on shaky ground: exploring the impact of mitochondrial DNA integrity on Parkinson's disease by highlighting the use of cybrid models.
Lang, Martin; Grünewald, Anne UL; Pramstaller, Peter P. et al

in Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS (2022), 79(5), 283

Mitochondria play important roles in the regulation of key cellular processes, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, and signaling towards cell death or survival, and are distinguished ... [more ▼]

Mitochondria play important roles in the regulation of key cellular processes, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, and signaling towards cell death or survival, and are distinguished by carrying their own genome (mtDNA). Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a prominent cellular mechanism involved in neurodegeneration, including Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and the occurrence of proteinaceous Lewy body inclusions. The contribution of mtDNA variants to PD pathogenesis has long been debated and is still not clearly answered. Cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell models provided evidence for a contribution of mtDNA variants to the PD phenotype. However, conclusive evidence of mtDNA mutations as genetic cause of PD is still lacking. Several models have shown a role of somatic, rather than inherited mtDNA variants in the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurodegeneration. Accordingly, several nuclear genes driving inherited forms of PD are linked to mtDNA quality control mechanisms, and idiopathic as well as familial PD tissues present increased mtDNA damage. In this review, we highlight the use of cybrids in this PD research field and summarize various aspects of how and to what extent mtDNA variants may contribute to the etiology of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonality and Subjective Age: Evidence from Six Samples
Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Psychology and Aging (2022), 37(3), 401-412

Subjective age is associated with health-related outcomes across adulthood. The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality traits and subjective age ... [more ▼]

Subjective age is associated with health-related outcomes across adulthood. The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality traits and subjective age. Participants (N > 31,000) were from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the National Health and Aging Study (NHATS), the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate (WLSG) and Siblings (WLSS) samples, and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Demographic factors, personality traits, and subjective age were assessed at baseline. Subjective age was assessed again in the MIDUS, the HRS, and the NHATS, 4 to almost 20 years later. Across the samples and a meta-analysis, higher neuroticism was related to an older subjective age, whereas higher extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with a younger subjective age. Self-rated health, physical activity, chronic conditions, and depressive symptoms partially mediated these relationships. There was little evidence that chronological age moderated these associations. Multilevel longitudinal analyses found similar associations with the intercept and weak evidence for an association with the slope in the opposite of the expected direction: Lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to feeling relatively older over time. The present study provides replicable evidence that personality is related to subjective age. It extends existing conceptualization of subjective age as a biopsychosocial marker of aging by showing that how old or young individuals feel partly reflects personality traits. [less ▲]

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See detailSelection of data sets for FAIRification in drug discovery and development: Which, why, and how?
Alharbi, Ebtisam; Gadiya, Yojana; Henderson, David et al

in Drug Discovery Today (2022)

Despite the intuitive value of adopting the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) principles in both academic and industrial sectors, challenges exist in resourcing, balancing long ... [more ▼]

Despite the intuitive value of adopting the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) principles in both academic and industrial sectors, challenges exist in resourcing, balancing long- versus short-term priorities, and achieving technical implementation. This situation is exacerbated by the unclear mechanisms by which costs and benefits can be assessed when decisions on FAIR are made. Scientific and research and development (R&D) leadership need reliable evidence of the potential benefits and information on effective implementation mechanisms and remediating strategies. In this article, we describe procedures for cost–benefit evaluation, and identify best-practice approaches to support the decision-making process involved in FAIR implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk of burnout in French entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 crisis
Torrès, Olivier; Benzari, Alexandre; Fisch, Christian UL et al

in Small Business Economics (2022), 58(2), 717-739

The COVID-19 crisis presents manifest threats for entrepreneurs since their business survival is often directly at stake given the alarming economic downturn. This existential threat, together with their ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 crisis presents manifest threats for entrepreneurs since their business survival is often directly at stake given the alarming economic downturn. This existential threat, together with their crucial role in the economy, is the reason for the plethora of public financial support schemes being implemented throughout the entire world. However, support schemes for mental health are lacking. We aim to investigate, first, whether burnout levels have increased during the crisis and, second, whether burnout levels during the COVID-19 crisis depend on the threat of becoming ill, having to stay at home due to the lockdown, and/or having to file for bankruptcy due to the economic downturn. We do so using seven data sets of French entrepreneurs with a temporal comparison of averages and two data sets of French entrepreneurs with a cross-sectional analysis of individuals. Our findings show that indeed, the risks of burnout have increased during the pandemic and that the threat of bankruptcy is the dominant threat. As an increasing number of studies in the entrepreneurship literature indicate that entrepreneurs’ mental health influences their activities, as well as the growth and sustainability of their ventures, our study is important and timely in its contribution, as it takes a close look at the perception of burnout in general and more specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailVC investors’ venture screening: the role of the decision maker’s education and experience
Moritz, Alexandra; Diegel, Walter; Block, Jörn et al

in Journal of Business Economics (2022), 92(1), 27-63

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC ... [more ▼]

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC) analysis with 564 individual VC investors. Our results highlight that the level and field of education, as well as the decision maker’s investment and entrepreneurial experience, moderate the relative importance of different screening criteria. More specifically, we find that international scalability seems to become more important for decision makers with higher education and those with entrepreneurial experience. Whereas decision makers with a background in natural science focus on the value-added of the product or service, engineers seem to value a break even profitability and focus less on the management team. Investment experience, on the other hand, leads to a stronger focus on the management team. Our study contributes to the literature investigating the influence of human capital characteristics of the decision maker in venture financing. Practical implications exist for entrepreneurial ventures seeking financing and for risk capital investors making investments in such ventures. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademarks as an indicator of regional innovation: evidence from Japanese prefectures
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Ikeuchi, Kenta et al

in Regional Studies (2022), 22(2), 190-209

Regional science has long been concerned with measuring the spatial distribution of innovation activity. We introduce trademarks as a new indicator for regional innovation and argue that they are ... [more ▼]

Regional science has long been concerned with measuring the spatial distribution of innovation activity. We introduce trademarks as a new indicator for regional innovation and argue that they are particularly useful to measure the ‘soft’ side of innovation that is difficult to capture with conventional indicators. We explore the spatial distribution of trademarks using a detailed and comprehensive dataset of 47 Japanese prefectures from 1999 to 2012. In addition to mapping differences in trademarking across regions, we identify correlates at the regional level that provide insights into determinants of regional innovation measured via trademarks. For example, regional trademark activity positively correlates with population density, income per capita, entrepreneurship rate, the number of universities, and strong private service and finance sectors. Overall, the results reveal associations unique to trademarks that other measures of innovation cannot uncover. Our findings contribute to research in regional science and the evolving literature on trademarks. [less ▲]

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See detailThe determinants of bootstrap financing in crises: evidence from entrepreneurial ventures in the COVID-19 pandemic
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Hirschmann, Mirko

in Small Business Economics (2022), 58(2), 867-885

Bootstrap financing refers to measures that entrepreneurial ventures undertake to preserve liquidity (e.g., reducing expenses, collecting receivables, delaying payments, preselling). Prior research shows ... [more ▼]

Bootstrap financing refers to measures that entrepreneurial ventures undertake to preserve liquidity (e.g., reducing expenses, collecting receivables, delaying payments, preselling). Prior research shows that bootstrap financing is an important enabler for the growth of resource-constrained early-stage ventures. However, little is known about the use of bootstrap financing in crises, during which the preservation of liquidity is particularly salient. We investigate the determinants of bootstrap financing in the 2020 COVID-19 crisis using a sample of 17,046 German entrepreneurial ventures. We formulate hypotheses about the determinants of bootstrap financing from a necessity, human capital, and opportunity cost perspective. Among others, our results show that the severity of the crisis for the venture, the level of private consumption, and self-employment experience are positively associated with an increased use of bootstrap financing measures. Our study contributes to the literature on bootstrap financing and illuminates how entrepreneurial ventures maintain liquidity in crises. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovation in Malmö after the Öresund Bridge
Ejermo, Olof; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Kalash, Basheer et al

in Journal of Regional Science (2022)

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See detailThe Long-Term Effect of Research Grants on the Scientific Output of University Professors
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Carvalho, Joao N.

in Industry and Innovation (2022)

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See detailMaladies mentales et société (XIXe – XXIe siècles)
Henckes, Nicolas; Majerus, Benoît UL

Book published by La Découverte (2022)

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See detailMake-or-buy decisions for industrial additive manufacturing
Friedrich, Anne UL; Lange, Anne UL; Elbert, Ralf

in Journal of Business Logistics (2022)

Much of the potential of industrial additive manufacturing (AM) is said to lie in the digital specification of components that can be transmitted seamlessly and unambiguously to partners fostering ... [more ▼]

Much of the potential of industrial additive manufacturing (AM) is said to lie in the digital specification of components that can be transmitted seamlessly and unambiguously to partners fostering flexible outsourcing. In industry, we observe nuanced AM supply chain governance structures that result from make-or-buy decisions, with a tendency to implement AM in-house. Thus, there is a discrepancy between what is discussed in the literature and implemented in practice. We apply a multiple-case study approach to investigate why and how AM impacts the make-or-buy decision of manufacturing firms. We identify four decision profiles demonstrating the spectrum of specific governance structures and develop a framework to explain the underlying rationales. We find strong arguments for in-house AM including firms’ perceived need to protect their digitally encapsulated intellectual property, reevaluation of their core competencies, commitment to internal learning, and senior management's enthusiasm for AM. By using transaction cost economics and the resource-based view, we contribute to the understanding of how arguments of these general theories are modified by the digital and emerging traits of AM. We reveal contradicting guidance in the theories’ argumentation for the case of AM and provide managers a clear perspective on alternative strategies for their AM implementation process. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Business Logistics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional Characteristics of Education Systems and Inequalities: Introduction II
Gross, Christiane; Zapfe, Laura; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2022), early online

This is the second special issue of the International Journal of Comparative Sociology on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities. The first was ... [more ▼]

This is the second special issue of the International Journal of Comparative Sociology on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities. The first was published in January 2021 and included papers that explored the role of shadow education and country characteristics during early childhood on educational inequalities. This special issue includes three papers that focus on stratification of the education system as a key driver of educational inequalities, cumulative (dis)advantage in the access to higher education, and student experiences in national educational systems. While we already elaborated on the research program, conceptual framework, and methodological challenges in the first introduction, we will deal with the current state-of-research in this second introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailA RNN-Based Hyper-Heuristic for Combinatorial Problems
Kieffer, Emmanuel UL; Duflo, Gabriel UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in A RNN-Based Hyper-Heuristic for Combinatorial Problems (2022)

Designing efficient heuristics is a laborious and tedious task that generally requires a full understanding and knowledge of a given optimization problem. Hyper-heuristics have been mainly introduced to ... [more ▼]

Designing efficient heuristics is a laborious and tedious task that generally requires a full understanding and knowledge of a given optimization problem. Hyper-heuristics have been mainly introduced to tackle this issue and are mostly relying on Genetic Programming and its variants. Many attempts in the literature have shown that an automatic training mechanism for heuristic learning is possible and can challenge human-based heuristics in terms of gap to optimality. In this work, we introduce a novel approach based on a recent work on Deep Symbolic Regression. We demonstrate that scoring functions can be trained using Recurrent Neural Networks to tackle a well-know combinatorial problem, i.e., the Multi-dimensional Knapsack. Experiments have been conducted on instances from the OR-Library and results show that the proposed modus operandi is an alternative and promising approach to human- based heuristics and classical heuristic generation approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailParkin Deficiency Impairs Mitochondrial DNA Dynamics and Propagates Inflammation.
Wasner, Kobi; Smajic, Semra UL; Ghelfi, Jenny UL et al

in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2022)

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Together with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), parkin regulates the clearance of dysfunctional ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Together with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), parkin regulates the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria. New mitochondria are generated through an interplay of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded proteins, and recent studies suggest that parkin influences this process at both levels. In addition, parkin was shown to prevent mitochondrial membrane permeability, impeding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) escape and subsequent neuroinflammation. However, parkin's regulatory roles independent of mitophagy are not well described in patient-derived neurons. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate parkin's role in preventing neuronal mtDNA dyshomeostasis, release, and glial activation at the endogenous level. METHODS: We generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived midbrain neurons from PD patients with parkin (PRKN) mutations and healthy controls. Live-cell imaging, proteomic, mtDNA integrity, and gene expression analyses were employed to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis and genome maintenance. To assess neuroinflammation, we performed single-nuclei RNA sequencing in postmortem tissue and quantified interleukin expression in mtDNA/lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated iPSC-derived neuron-microglia co-cultures. RESULTS: Neurons from patients with PRKN mutations revealed deficits in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, resulting in mtDNA dyshomeostasis. Moreover, the energy sensor sirtuin 1, which controls mitochondrial biogenesis and clearance, was downregulated in parkin-deficient cells. Linking mtDNA disintegration to neuroinflammation, in postmortem midbrain with PRKN mutations, we confirmed mtDNA dyshomeostasis and detected an upregulation of microglia overexpressing proinflammatory cytokines. Finally, parkin-deficient neuron-microglia co-cultures elicited an enhanced immune response when exposed to mtDNA/LPS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that parkin coregulates mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA maintenance pathways, thereby protecting midbrain neurons from neuroinflammation and degeneration. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. [less ▲]

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See detailLa loyauté dans l'interprétation des accords internationaux
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Delile, Jean Felix (Ed.) La loyauté dans l'action extérieure de l'Union européenne (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 UL)