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See detailWeight Status and Mental Well-Being Among Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self-Perceived Body Weight. A Cross-National Survey
Fismen, Anne-Siri; Galler, Martina; Klepp, Knut-Inge et al

in Journal of Adolescent Health (2022)

Purpose Overweight and obesity are associated with poor mental health in adolescents. However, little is known about whether the influence of overweight and obesity on mental well-being is mediated by ... [more ▼]

Purpose Overweight and obesity are associated with poor mental health in adolescents. However, little is known about whether the influence of overweight and obesity on mental well-being is mediated by self-perceived body weight. Exploring the mechanisms underlying the relationships between obesity and mental well-being is of interest to policy makers and others working in the field of adolescent health. Methods 76,998). Mixed regression models that included gender and socioeconomic status as covariates were used to identify associations between weight status and mental well-being (life satisfaction and subjective health complaints) and to explore whether self-perceived body weight (feeling too thin or too fat) has a mediating effect. Associations between weight status, self-perceived weight, and mental well-being were further assessed country by country. Results Self-perceived body weight mediated the observed associations between overweight or obesity and mental well-being. Perceiving one's body weight as “too thin” or “too fat” was associated with poorer mental well-being, regardless of weight status. Self-perceived body weight varied by gender, socioeconomic status, and country. Discussion Self-perceived body weight may explain, to a greater extent than body mass index, variation in mental well-being among adolescents. These results are important to policy makers, clinicians, and others targeting adolescent health. [less ▲]

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See detailViews on Aging – Current Trends and Future Directions for Cross- Cultural Research
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; De Paula Couto, Clara M. P.; Rothermund, Klaus

in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (2022), 6(2),

The investigation of what enables societies and individuals to age well remains one of the greatest challenges of our time. Views on aging are a decisive factor in this process, and thus, improving their ... [more ▼]

The investigation of what enables societies and individuals to age well remains one of the greatest challenges of our time. Views on aging are a decisive factor in this process, and thus, improving their understanding through cross-cultural research is of utmost importance. In the current review, we address the role of socio-ecological variables and cultural values and beliefs when investigating country differences in what people think about older persons and getting old themselves. Several complexities are introduced in terms of a differentiated conceptualization of views on aging that takes life domains and normative prescriptions into account, and also in terms of a differentiated and extended view on the factors through which societal and cultural aspects and views on aging mutually influence each other. We propose that an encompassing, lifespan framework on views on aging enhances our understanding of aging well in different cultural and societal contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailBook review - Adrian Briggs Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments and A conflict of Laws Companion
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2022)

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See detailTrauer, Wut, Empörung, Hass: zu deutschen Afrika-Reisebüchern der Zwischenkriegszeit
Malzner, Sonja UL

in Baisez, Olivier (Ed.) Empörung, Revolte, Emotion. Emotionsforschung aus der Perspektive der German Studies (2022)

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See detailPerformance of early warning signals for disease re-emergence: A case study on COVID-19 data
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Kemp, Francoise UL; Magni, Stefano UL et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2022), 18(3), 1009958

Developing measures for rapid and early detection of disease re-emergence is important to perform science-based risk assessment of epidemic threats. In the past few years, several early warning signals ... [more ▼]

Developing measures for rapid and early detection of disease re-emergence is important to perform science-based risk assessment of epidemic threats. In the past few years, several early warning signals (EWS) from complex systems theory have been introduced to detect impending critical transitions and extend the set of indicators. However, it is still debated whether they are generically applicable or potentially sensitive to some dynamical charac- teristics such as system noise and rates of approach to critical parameter values. Moreover, testing on empirical data has, so far, been limited. Hence, verifying EWS performance remains a challenge. In this study, we tackle this question by analyzing the performance of common EWS, such as increasing variance and autocorrelation, in detecting the emer- gence of COVID-19 outbreaks in various countries. Our work illustrates that these EWS might be successful in detecting disease emergence when some basic assumptions are sat- isfied: a slow forcing through the transitions and not-fat-tailed noise. In uncertain cases, we observe that noise properties or commensurable time scales may obscure the expected early warning signals. Overall, our results suggest that EWS can be useful for active moni- toring of epidemic dynamics, but that their performance is sensitive to certain features of the underlying dynamics. Our findings thus pave a connection between theoretical and empiri- cal studies, constituting a further step towards the application of EWS indicators for inform- ing public health policies. [less ▲]

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See detailSharing Big Data in Health Care: Focus on the Role Played by Co-regulatory Instruments in Light of the New European Health Data Space
Vigna, Francesco UL

in Tom, Goffin; Tom, Balthazar (Eds.) Book of Proceedings: Eighth European Conference on Health Law (2022)

Big data and AI are revolutionizing data processing in health care. The new paradigm of data-driven decision making will lead primary activities, such as the provision of care services, as well as ... [more ▼]

Big data and AI are revolutionizing data processing in health care. The new paradigm of data-driven decision making will lead primary activities, such as the provision of care services, as well as secondary health care purposes, like clini-cal research. However, the extraction of knowledge from big data in health care depends on the possibility for stakeholders to share and connect datasets in compliance with data protection law requirements. In this regard, the EU Data Strategy seeks to foster data sharing for public benefit. The EU Commission, in the preparatory works for the European Health Data Space, has stressed that issues related to GDPR compliance could hinder the sharing and the re-use of data in health care. Namely, two order of problems may be highlighted in this perspective: 1) the special regime for health data pro-cessing in GDPR, which allows MS to add even stricter data protection rules; 2) margins of choice for data controllers and processors about how to implement technical and organisational measures for reaching GDPR compliance, according to the risk-based approach. According to the EU Commission, legal uncertainty might be mitigated by adopting co-regulatory measures, such as a Code of Conduct for the sharing of health data. A Code of Conduct (articles 40 and 41 GDPR) could establish common ways to interpret and comply with loose GDPR requirements and prin-ciples, therefore creating harmonization. However, given the legal fragmentation typical of the health domain among MS, the elaboration of an EU-wide Code of Conduct for personal data processing could not bring the desired effects. More-over, some doubts concern the lack of legal effects produced by a Code of Conduct on the burden of proof for data controllers. Finally, also costs and complexities linked to the elaboration of GDPR co-regulatory instruments may hamper the diffusion of these mechanisms. The paper discusses opportunities and limits of GDPR co-regulatory mecha-nisms, considering the forthcoming European Health Data Space. It is argued that despite legal and governance reasoning are theoretically correct about the role of these instruments, their spread is limited once the reasoning is linked to market and economic aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailPINK1 Protects against Staurosporine-Induced Apoptosis by Interacting with Beclin1 and Impairing Its Pro-Apoptotic Cleavage.
Brunelli, Francesco; Torosantucci, Liliana; Gelmetti, Vania et al

in Cells (2022), 11(4),

PINK1 is a causative gene for Parkinson's disease and the corresponding protein has been identified as a master regulator of mitophagy-the autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria. It interacts with ... [more ▼]

PINK1 is a causative gene for Parkinson's disease and the corresponding protein has been identified as a master regulator of mitophagy-the autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria. It interacts with Beclin1 to regulate autophagy and initiate autophagosome formation, even outside the context of mitophagy. Several other pro-survival functions of this protein have been described and indicate that it might play a role in other disorders, such as cancer and proliferative diseases. In this study, we investigated a novel anti-apoptotic function of PINK1. To do so, we used SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, a neuronal model used in Parkinson's disease and cancer studies, to characterize the pro-survival functions of PINK1 in response to the apoptosis inducer staurosporine. In this setting, we found that staurosporine induces apoptosis but not mitophagy, and we demonstrated that PINK1 protects against staurosporine-induced apoptosis by impairing the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Beclin1. Our data also show that staurosporine-induced apoptosis is preceded by a phase of enhanced autophagy, and that PINK1 in this context regulates the switch from autophagy to apoptosis. PINK1 protein levels progressively decrease after treatment, inducing this switch. The PINK1-Beclin1 interaction is crucial in exerting this function, as mutants that are unable to interact do not show the anti-apoptotic effect. We characterized a new anti-apoptotic function of PINK1 that could provide options for treatment in proliferative or neurodegenerative diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailCatMesNEET – Ein Maßnahmenkatalog für junge Menschen mit NEET-Status in Luxemburg
Nell, Josepha; Scheier, Elisabeth; Zuniga, Michaela et al

Report (2022)

Zielgruppe des Projektes CatMesNEET (Catalogue de mesures pour NEETs) sind Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene mit NEET-Status in Luxemburg. Die Abkürzung NEET steht hier für „Not in Education, Employment or ... [more ▼]

Zielgruppe des Projektes CatMesNEET (Catalogue de mesures pour NEETs) sind Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene mit NEET-Status in Luxemburg. Die Abkürzung NEET steht hier für „Not in Education, Employment or Training“ und meint Jugendliche, die keine Schule besuchen, keiner Arbeit nachgehen und sich nicht in beruflicher Ausbildung befinden.Es besteht kein nationaler Überblick über Zertifikate, die für die Teilnahme an einer Maßnahme vergeben werden. Diese Lücke soll ebenfalls in der Studie geschlossen werden. Zum einen wird erhoben, welche Massnahmen ein Zertifikat vergeben und zum anderen, worauf diese Zertifikate abzielen. In der ersten Feldphase wurde von Jugend- und Sozialarbeitern kommuniziert, dass Zertifikate durchaus einen wichtigen Stellenwert bei der Suche nach einem Ausbildungs- und Arbeitsplatz haben können. Ziel der Studie ist es daher, ein klares und differenziertes Bild der bestehenden Maßnahmen zur Unterstützung der in Luxemburg lebenden jungen Menschen mit einem problematischen NEET-Status im Alter zwischen 15 und 29 Jahren zu geben. Da der Fokus der Forschung auf Maßnahmen für junge Menschen mit NEET-Status liegt, wird auf individueller Ebene angesetzt, nämlich an der jeweiligen Situation der Betroffenen. Dies bedeutet, dass der Frage nachgegangen wird, welche Maßnahmen Jugendlichen helfen können, um ihrem NEET-Status zu überwinden. Es ist allerdings wichtig, darauf hinzuweisen, dass es auch auf einer strukturellen arbeitsmarktpolitischen Ebene Maßnahmen bedarf, die die NEET-Rate erheblich senken könnten. Daher gilt es festzuhalten, dass es sich bei der NEET-Thematik nicht nur um eine Problematik handelt, die auf individueller Ebene gelöst werden kann, sondern dass diese auch Maßnahmen auf struktureller arbeitsmarkt-, sozial-, und bildungspolitischer Ebene verlangt. [less ▲]

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See detailLe recours au juge (nord)américain
Kinsch, Patrick UL

in Marchadier, Fabien (Ed.) La prohibition de l’esclavage et de la traite des êtres humains (2022)

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See detailUplink Capacity Optimization for High Throughput Satellites using SDN and Multi-Orbital Dual Connectivity
Dazhi, Michael UL; Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

Dual Connectivity is a key approach to achieving optimization of throughput and latency in heterogeneous networks. Originally a technique introduced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for ... [more ▼]

Dual Connectivity is a key approach to achieving optimization of throughput and latency in heterogeneous networks. Originally a technique introduced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for terrestrial communications, it is not been widely explored in satellite systems. In this paper, Dual Connectivity is implemented in a multi-orbital satellite network, where a network model is developed by employing the diversity gains from Dual Connectivity and Carrier Aggregation for the enhancement of satellite uplink capacity. An introduction of software defined network controller is performed at the network layer coupled with a carefully designed hybrid resource allocation algorithm which is implemented strategically. The algorithm performs optimum dynamic flow control and traffic steering by considering the availability of resources and the channel propagation information of the orbital links to arrive at a resource allocation pattern suitable in enhancing uplink system performance. Simulation results are shown to evaluate the achievable gains in throughput and latency; in addition we provide useful insight in the design of multi-orbital satellite networks with implementable scheduler design. [less ▲]

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See detailDebiased Label Aggregation for Subjective Crowdsourcing Tasks
Wallace, Shaun; Cai, Tianyuan; Le, Brendan et al

in Extended Abstracts of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA) (2022)

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See detailDer Sarkophag eines sevir Augustalis und medicus ordinarius der legio XXII Primigenia pia fidelis aus Mainz
Groff, Thierry UL

in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (2022), 221

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See detailLove at First Sight? A User Experience Study of Self-Sovereign Identity Wallets
Sartor, Sebastian; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

Today’s systems for digital identity management exhibit critical security, efficiency, and privacy issues. A new paradigm, called Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI), addresses these shortcomings by equipping ... [more ▼]

Today’s systems for digital identity management exhibit critical security, efficiency, and privacy issues. A new paradigm, called Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI), addresses these shortcomings by equipping users with mobile wallets and empowering them to manage their digital identities. Various companies and governments back this paradigm and promote its development and diffusion. User experience often plays a subordinate role in these efforts, even though it is crucial for user satisfaction and adoption. We thus conduct a comprehensive user experience study of four prominent SSI wallets using a mixed-method approach that involves moderated and remote interviews and the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ). We find that the examined wallets already provide a decent level of user experience, yet further improvements need to be done. In particular, the examined wallets do not make their novelty and benefits sufficiently apparent to users. Our analysis contributes to user experience research and offers guidance for SSI practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailUser-centricity and Public Values in eGovernment: Friend or Foe?
Weigl, Linda UL; Amard, Alexandre UL; Marxen, Hanna UL et al

in 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

In their delivery of services, public administrations seek to develop a ‘citizen-centric’ approach. Concomitantly, user-centricity is emerging as a widely accepted construct for Web 3.0 applications ... [more ▼]

In their delivery of services, public administrations seek to develop a ‘citizen-centric’ approach. Concomitantly, user-centricity is emerging as a widely accepted construct for Web 3.0 applications supporting the digital interaction between service providers and recipients. The digitalization of public services can positively impact important public values, such as efficiency and transparency. However, the digital divide highlights that information and communication technologies can simultaneously neglect public needs. This begs the question of whether user-centricity reflects or conflicts with public values. To answer this question, we present a systematic review of existing literature on user-centricity and public values. The contribution of this paper is an extended taxonomy of public values for user-centricity, as well as recommendations for public policy to address conflicts between public values and user-centricity. [less ▲]

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See detailSymbiotic Radio based Spectrum Sharing in Cooperative UAV-IRS Wireless Networks
Solanki, Sourabh UL; Gautam, Sumit; Singh, Vibhum UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

Ambient backscatter communication (AmBC) technology can potentially offer spectral- and energy-efficient solutions for future wireless systems. This paper proposes a novel design to facilitate the ... [more ▼]

Ambient backscatter communication (AmBC) technology can potentially offer spectral- and energy-efficient solutions for future wireless systems. This paper proposes a novel design to facilitate the spectrum sharing between a secondary system and a primary system based on the AmBC technique in intelligent reflective surface (IRS)-assisted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks. In particular, an IRS-aided UAV cooperatively relays the transmission from a terrestrial primary source node to a user equipment on the ground. On the other hand, leveraging on the AmBC technology, a terrestrial secondary node transmits its information to a terrestrial secondary receiver by modulating and backscattering the ambient relayed radio frequency (RF) signals from the UAV-IRS. The performance of such a system setup is analyzed by deriving the expressions of outage probability and ergodic spectral efficiency. Finally, we present the numerical results to provide useful insights into the system design and also validate the derived theoretical results using Monte Carlo simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom #MuseumAtHome to #AtHomeAtTheMuseum: Digital Museums and Dialogical Engagement beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Morse, Christopher UL; Landau, Blandine UL; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in ACM Journal of Computing and Cultural Heritage (2022), 15(2),

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period ... [more ▼]

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period. In this study, we investigated the use of digital technologies by museums during a period when in-person interaction was not possible. The aim of the study was to better understand the impact of the confinement period on the use of museum technologies in order to identify implications for future museum experience design. We compared museums across four countries – France, Japan, Luxembourg, and the United States – by conducting an international survey in three languages on the use of digital technologies during the early phase of the pandemic. Additionally, we analyzed the Facebook activity of museums in each country and conducted a series of interviews with digital museology professionals in academia and the private sector. We found that despite a flurry of online activities, especially during the early phase of the pandemic, museums confronted a number of internal and external challenges that were often incongruent with their ability to offer new forms of digital engagement. In general, digital solutions served only as a temporary substitute for the museum experience rather than as an opportunity to usher in a new digital paradigm for cultural mediation, and many cultural professionals cited a lack of digital training as a limiting factor in robust ICT implementation. We also argue that the most successful digital engagement came from those activities that promoted a sense of community or an invitation for self-expression by visitors. We conclude with a framework that describes a ‘virtuous circle of museum participation’, aiming to support public engagement with museums through the development of content that builds on the interconnectedness of on-site and online interactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelated Wave Functions for Electron–Positron Interactions in Atoms and Molecules
Charry Martinez, Jorge Alfonso UL; Barborini, Matteo UL; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation (2022), 18(4), 22672280

The positron, as the antiparticle of the electron, can form metastable states with atoms and molecules before its annihilation with an electron. Such metastable matter–positron complexes are stabilized by ... [more ▼]

The positron, as the antiparticle of the electron, can form metastable states with atoms and molecules before its annihilation with an electron. Such metastable matter–positron complexes are stabilized by a variety of mechanisms, which can have both covalent and noncovalent character. Specifically, electron–positron binding often involves strong many-body correlation effects, posing a substantial challenge for quantum-chemical methods based on atomic orbitals. Here we propose an accurate, efficient, and transferable variational ansatz based on a combination of electron–positron geminal orbitals and a Jastrow factor that explicitly includes the electron–positron correlations in the field of the nuclei, which are optimized at the level of variational Monte Carlo (VMC). We apply this approach in combination with diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) to calculate binding energies for a positron e+ and a positronium Ps (the pseudoatomic electron–positron pair), bound to a set of atomic systems (H–, Li+, Li, Li–, Be+, Be, B–, C–, O– and F–). For PsB, PsC, PsO, and PsF, our VMC and DMC total energies are lower than that from previous calculations; hence, we redefine the state of the art for these systems. To assess our approach for molecules, we study the potential-energy surfaces (PES) of two hydrogen anions H– mediated by a positron (e+H22–), for which we calculate accurate spectroscopic properties by using a dense interpolation of the PES. We demonstrate the reliability and transferability of our correlated wave functions for electron–positron interactions with respect to state-of-the-art calculations reported in the literature. [less ▲]

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