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See detailPreface
Böhmer, Matthias UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Böhmer, Matthias; Steffgen, Georges (Eds.) Grief in schools - Basic knowledge and advice on dealing with dying and death (2022)

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See detailChanging Routinized Household Energy Consumption Using the Example of Washing, Cooking, and Standby: A Randomized Controlled Field Experiment of Home Energy Advice
Hess, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Iljana; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Cleaner and Responsible Consumption (2022)

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice ... [more ▼]

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice theory framework to disentangle routinized energy consumption, focusing on energy services related to washing, standby, and cooking. We investigate the potential of home energy advice to change elements of routinized behaviors, namely meanings, knowledge, and technologies. Using a randomized controlled field trial on a probabilistic sample of households, we found short-term treatment effects related to increased usage of lids during cooking and improved knowledge of IT-related energy consumption, as well as negative effects regarding multi-sockets and washing frequency. Our findings suggest that meanings (e.g., preferences underlying routinized behaviors) are less subject to change, and that sociodemographic variables are associated with routinized behaviors in complex ways. Our disentangling of energy demand into elements of routines enables us to show how home energy advice may change behaviors and knowledge. This study highlights the benefits of a multifaceted perspective for understanding household energy consumption and can be used to inform intervention and policy design. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Empirical Study on Data Distribution-Aware Test Selection for Deep Learning Enhancement
Hu, Qiang UL; Guo, Yuejun UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution ... [more ▼]

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution shift in a new environment for deployment. However, it is labor-intensive to manually label all the collected test data. Test selection solves this problem by strategically choosing a small set to label. Via retraining with the selected set, DNNs will achieve competitive accuracy. Unfortunately, existing selection metrics involve three main limitations: 1) using different retraining processes; 2) ignoring data distribution shifts; 3) being insufficiently evaluated. To fill this gap, we first conduct a systemically empirical study to reveal the impact of the retraining process and data distribution on model enhancement. Then based on our findings, we propose a novel distribution-aware test (DAT) selection metric. Experimental results reveal that retraining using both the training and selected data outperforms using only the selected data. None of the selection metrics perform the best under various data distributions. By contrast, DAT effectively alleviates the impact of distribution shifts and outperforms the compared metrics by up to 5 times and 30.09% accuracy improvement for model enhancement on simulated and in-the-wild distribution shift scenarios, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailHomological projective duality for the Segre cubic
Beckmann, Thorsten; Belmans, Pieter UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

The Segre cubic and Castelnuovo-Richmond quartic are two projectively dual hypersurfaces in P^4, with a long and rich history starting in the 19th century. We will explain how Kuznetsov's theory of ... [more ▼]

The Segre cubic and Castelnuovo-Richmond quartic are two projectively dual hypersurfaces in P^4, with a long and rich history starting in the 19th century. We will explain how Kuznetsov's theory of homological projective duality lifts this projective duality to a relationship between the derived category of a small resolution of the Segre cubic and a small resolution of the Coble fourfold, the double cover of P^4 ramified along the Castelnuovo-Richmond quartic. Homological projective duality then provides a description of the derived categories of linear sections, which we will describe to illustrate the theory. The case of the Segre cubic and Coble fourfold is non-trivial enough to exhibit interesting behavior, whilst being easy enough to explain the general machinery in this special and very classical case. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effect of Noise Level on the Accuracy of Causal Discovery Methods with Additive Noise Models
Kap, Benjamin; Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Communications in Computer and Information Science (2022), 1530

In recent years a lot of research was conducted within the area of causal inference and causal learning. Many methods were developed to identify the cause-effect pairs. These methods also proved their ... [more ▼]

In recent years a lot of research was conducted within the area of causal inference and causal learning. Many methods were developed to identify the cause-effect pairs. These methods also proved their ability to successfully determine the direction of causal relationships from observational real-world data. Yet in bivariate situations, causal discovery problems remain challenging. A class of methods, that also allows tackling the bivariate case, is based on Additive Noise Models (ANMs). Unfortunately, one aspect of these methods has not received much attention until now: what is the impact of different noise levels on the ability of these methods to identify the direction of the causal relationship? This work aims to bridge this gap with the help of an empirical study. We consider a bivariate case and two specific methods Regression with Subsequent Independence Test and Identification using Conditional Variances. We perform a set of experiments with an exhaustive range of ANMs where the additive noises’ levels gradually change from 1% to 10000% of the causes’ noise level (the latter remains fixed). Additionally, we consider several different types of distributions as well as linear and non-linear ANMs. The results of the experiments show that these causal discovery methods can fail to capture the true causal direction for some levels of noise. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the bubble: will NFTs and digital proof of ownership empower creative industry entrepreneurs
Chalmers, Dominic; Fisch, Christian UL; Matthews, Russell et al

in Journal of Business Venturing Insights (2022), 17

Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs) are blockchain-enabled cryptographic assets that represent proof-of-ownership for digital objects. The use of NFTs has been pioneered by creative industry entrepreneurs who have ... [more ▼]

Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs) are blockchain-enabled cryptographic assets that represent proof-of-ownership for digital objects. The use of NFTs has been pioneered by creative industry entrepreneurs who have sought to generate new revenue streams and modes of stakeholder engagement. Despite rapid growth in popularity, concerns have been raised around the legal ownership of NFT assets and the prevalence of speculation and fraud associated with NFT trading. In this rapid response article, we explore the value of NFTs for creative industry entrepreneurs. First, we examine the novel digital affordances of the technology; second, we analyse NFTs through the prism of the recent Initial Coin Offering (ICO) boom and bust; and finally, we take a longer-term historical perspective to consider how past speculative waves inform the present NFT economy. While we identify some potentially valuable artistic and financial opportunities for creative industry entrepreneurs, we conclude that NFTs should be approached with caution. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are linked, but independent of a-synuclein inclusions, in a seeding/spreading mouse model of Parkinson's disease
Garcia, Pierre UL; Wemheuer, W.; Uriarte, O. et al

in Glia (2022)

A key pathological process in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the transneuronal spreading of α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a presynaptic protein that, in PD, forms pathological inclusions. Other ... [more ▼]

A key pathological process in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the transneuronal spreading of α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a presynaptic protein that, in PD, forms pathological inclusions. Other hallmarks of PD include neurodegeneration and microgliosis in susceptible brain regions. Whether it is primarily transneuronal spreading of α-syn particles, inclusion formation, or other mechanisms, such as inflammation, that cause neurodegeneration in PD is unclear. We used a model of spreading of α-syn induced by striatal injection of α-syn preformed fibrils into the mouse striatum to address this question. We performed quantitative analysis for α-syn inclusions, neurodegeneration, and microgliosis in different brain regions, and generated gene expression profiles of the ventral midbrain, at two different timepoints after disease induction. We observed significant neurodegeneration and microgliosis in brain regions not only with, but also without α-syn inclusions. We also observed prominent microgliosis in injured brain regions that did not correlate with neurodegeneration nor with inclusion load. Using longitudinal gene expression profiling, we observed early gene expression changes, linked to neuroinflammation, that preceded neurodegeneration, indicating an active role of microglia in this process. Altered gene pathways overlapped with those typical of PD. Our observations indicate that α-syn inclusion formation is not the major driver in the early phases of PD-like neurodegeneration, but that microglia, activated by diffusible, oligomeric α-syn, may play a key role in this process. Our findings uncover new features of α-syn induced pathologies, in particular microgliosis, and point to the necessity for a broader view of the process of α-syn spreading. [less ▲]

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See detailProject-based learning course on metabolic network modelling in computational systems biology.
Sauter, Thomas UL; Bintener, Tamara; Kishk, Ali UL et al

in PLoS computational biology (2022), 18(1), 1009711

Project-based learning (PBL) is a dynamic student-centred teaching method that encourages students to solve real-life problems while fostering engagement and critical thinking. Here, we report on a PBL ... [more ▼]

Project-based learning (PBL) is a dynamic student-centred teaching method that encourages students to solve real-life problems while fostering engagement and critical thinking. Here, we report on a PBL course on metabolic network modelling that has been running for several years within the Master in Integrated Systems Biology (MISB) at the University of Luxembourg. This 2-week full-time block course comprises an introduction into the core concepts and methods of constraint-based modelling (CBM), applied to toy models and large-scale networks alongside the preparation of individual student projects in week 1 and, in week 2, the presentation and execution of these projects. We describe in detail the schedule and content of the course, exemplary student projects, and reflect on outcomes and lessons learned. PBL requires the full engagement of students and teachers and gives a rewarding teaching experience. The presented course can serve as a role model and inspiration for other similar courses. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanistically Coupled PK (MCPK) Model to Describe Enzyme Induction and Occupancy Dependent DDI of Dabrafenib Metabolism.
Albrecht, Marco; Kogan, Yuri; Kulms, Dagmar et al

in Pharmaceutics (2022), 14(2),

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and ... [more ▼]

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and consequential relapse. A clinical drug-dose determination study shows increased pERK levels upon daily administration of more than 300 mg dabrafenib. To clarify whether such elevated drug concentrations could be reached by long-term drug accumulation, we mechanistically coupled the pharmacokinetics (MCPK) of dabrafenib and its metabolites. The MCPK model is qualitatively based on in vitro and quantitatively on clinical data to describe occupancy-dependent CYP3A4 enzyme induction, accumulation, and drug-drug interaction mechanisms. The prediction suggests an eight-fold increase in the steady-state concentration of potent desmethyl-dabrafenib and its inactive precursor carboxy-dabrafenib within four weeks upon 150 mg b.d. dabrafenib. While it is generally assumed that a higher dose is not critical, we found experimentally that a high physiological dabrafenib concentration fails to induce cell death in embedded 451LU melanoma spheroids. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 8: Tokenization and Regulatory Compliance for Art and Collectible Markets: From Regulators' Demands for Transparency to Investors' Demands for Privacy
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes et al

in Lacity, Mary; Treiblmaier, Horst (Eds.) Blockchains and the Token Economy: Studies in Theory and Practice (2022)

Art and collectibles markets tend to involve lower liquidity and higher fees than public equity markets. Distributed ledger technology can tokenize artworks and collectibles, so that claims to these ... [more ▼]

Art and collectibles markets tend to involve lower liquidity and higher fees than public equity markets. Distributed ledger technology can tokenize artworks and collectibles, so that claims to these assets can be exchanged digitally without intermediaries. Tokenization offers investors access to a global market plus a digitized paper trail, as well as new options for the fractional ownership of artworks, art-collateralized loans, and yield-bearing art assets. The main challenge for tokenization researchers and platform developers is to simultaneously satisfy regulators’ demands for transparency and auditability as well as art investors’ demands for privacy. New technological solutions are required that enable market participants to disclose the absolute minimum amount of information that is required by regulators. We explore new concepts from distributed ledger technology, cryptography, and digital identity management that can help address this challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug targeting opportunities en route to Ras nanoclusters.
Pavic, Karolina UL; Chippalkatti, Rohan UL; Abankwa, Daniel UL

in Advances in cancer research (2022), 153

Disruption of the native membrane organization of Ras by the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in the late 1990s constituted the first indirect approach to drug target Ras. Since then, our ... [more ▼]

Disruption of the native membrane organization of Ras by the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in the late 1990s constituted the first indirect approach to drug target Ras. Since then, our understanding of how dynamically Ras shuttles between subcellular locations has changed significantly. Ras proteins have to arrive at the plasma membrane for efficient MAPK-signal propagation. On the plasma membrane Ras proteins are organized into isoform specific proteo-lipid assemblies called nanocluster. Recent evidence suggests that Ras nanocluster have a specific lipid composition, which supports the recruitment of effectors such as Raf. Conversely, effectors possess lipid-recognition motifs, which appear to serve as co-incidence detectors for the lipid domain of a given Ras isoform. Evidence suggests that dimeric Raf proteins then co-assemble dimeric Ras in an immobile complex, thus forming the minimal unit of an active nanocluster. Here we review established and novel trafficking chaperones and trafficking factors of Ras, along with the set of lipid and protein modulators of Ras nanoclustering. We highlight drug targeting approaches and opportunities against these determinants of functional Ras membrane organization. Finally, we reflect on implications for Ras signaling in polarized cells, such as epithelia, which are a common origin of tumorigenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Pandemic Worsens Europe’s Housing Problems
Flynn, Lindsay UL

in Current History (2022), 121(833), 83-89

Housing is a flash point in many European countries, with protests erupting and citizens voting to wrench properties from big investors. Inequality is driving the explosive debate, as households across ... [more ▼]

Housing is a flash point in many European countries, with protests erupting and citizens voting to wrench properties from big investors. Inequality is driving the explosive debate, as households across the income distribution face very different kinds of challenges and opportunities in today’s unequal housing markets. The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the risks and rewards already present across different subgroups. This housing-generated inequality creates a conundrum for governments that must balance the interests of competing constituencies with complex housing markets, and points to fundamental questions about how to order society. [less ▲]

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See detailA topological Paley-Wiener-Schwartz Theorem for sections of homogeneous vector bundles on G/K
Palmirotta, Guendalina UL; Olbrich, Martin UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

We study the Fourier transform for compactly supported distributional sections of complex homogeneous vector bundles on symmetric spaces of non-compact type X = G/K. We prove a characterisation of their ... [more ▼]

We study the Fourier transform for compactly supported distributional sections of complex homogeneous vector bundles on symmetric spaces of non-compact type X = G/K. We prove a characterisation of their range. In fact, from Delorme’s Paley-Wiener theorem for compactly supported smooth functions on a real reductive group of Harish-Chandra class, we deduce topological Paley-Wiener and Paley-Wiener- Schwartz theorems for sections. [less ▲]

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See detailInclusion Dialogue with Justin J.W. Powell
Powell, Justin J W UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

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See detailLarge graphene oxide flakes: self-assembly and electro-optical switching in liquid crystal phase
Shahini, Sharif UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Graphene oxide (GO) flakes in aqueous suspension self-organize into liquid crystal (LC) phases. They have been studied for various applications because of their unique properties, but mostly in their bi ... [more ▼]

Graphene oxide (GO) flakes in aqueous suspension self-organize into liquid crystal (LC) phases. They have been studied for various applications because of their unique properties, but mostly in their bi-phasic suspensions since high concentrations was needed for their pure liquid crystal. The stability of a suspension of GO flakes over time is essential for their application. A crucial change in GO biphasic suspension is the isotropic - liquid crystal phase separation. Here I study the isotropic-nematic phase transition for large GO flakes with an average size of ~38 µm for 570 days to examine their stability. I found that large GO flakes make pure LC phases at a very low concentration of 0.7 mg/mL (0.035 vol%), completely stable over time. I observed that the equilibrium concentration for making a LC phase increases over time, and it is not constant until it reaches a critical concentration for the pure nematic phase. As typical LCs, GO LCs exhibits birefringence property and, interestingly, low-field-induced birefringence. Thus, graphene-based lyotropic LCs are an attractive class of materials for electro-optic devices. To control the electro-optic properties of these high-performance functional materials at a macroscopic scale, it is necessary to understand their self-assembly individually. I study this here by determining the large GO flakes arrangement and spatial order in the nematic phase via synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and direct visualization of the flakes with fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. The high fluorescence of large GO flakes makes it possible to individually study the assembly of flakes in real-time when suspended in aqueous dispersions. I successfully performed an enhanced electro-optical switching of large GO flakes in their low concentration nematic phase by using a low electric field, unlike what has been reported so far. I study the optical behavior of GO LCs using polarizing optical microscopy in static and dynamic conditions to follow the flake reassembly under the application of the electric field. [less ▲]

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See detailFour reasons why data centers matter, five implications of their social spatial distribution, one graphic to visualize them
Bast, Desmond; Carr, Constance UL; Madron, Karinne Lynda UL et al

in Environment and Planning A (2022)

Data centers constitute a new kind of telecommunications infrastructure that demands attention for four reasons. Data centers are under-examined in the social sciences literature, urban studies, in ... [more ▼]

Data centers constitute a new kind of telecommunications infrastructure that demands attention for four reasons. Data centers are under-examined in the social sciences literature, urban studies, in particular. Data centers present an under explored geography of cyberworlds. Large digital corporations such as Amazon or Google are expanding their role in urban infrastructural development (such as data centers), and it is necessary to research and explain this phenomenon. Data centers present challenges of urban governance. The graphic provided here visualizes the social spatial distribution of data centers in the Washington Metropolitan Area. There are four implications of their social spatial distribution. Data centers are concentrated in metropolitan areas. Data centers have a high demand for energy and water, competing with local residents for these resources. The DC industry is a state-led niche economy. The uneven distribution of data centers can invoke inter-county competition for tax revenue, in addition to access to the water, power, and land resources that data centers require. The scale of the problem is unknown because the input needs of many data centers are not publicly available. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust and Deployable Gesture Recognition for Smartwatches
Kunwar, Utkarsh; Borar, Sheetal; Berghofer, Moritz et al

in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL)