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See detailThe Luxembourg Financial Ecosystem and the European Monetary Innovation. Cas Study on KBL, LuxSE and EIB (1957-1990)
Danescu, Elena UL; Cheng, Anqi

Scientific Conference (2022, April 26)

The Luxembourg international financial centre developed considerably during the 1960s, propelled by several factors including concerted government policy, flexible regulation and a willingness to harness ... [more ▼]

The Luxembourg international financial centre developed considerably during the 1960s, propelled by several factors including concerted government policy, flexible regulation and a willingness to harness opportunities at international level (such as the 1963 US interest equalisation tax and the Bundesbank provisions introduced in 1968 and 1974). The decision to establish various Community institutions (the ECSC High Authority in 1952) and European funding institutions (the European Investment Bank in 1968) in the country also had a decisive impact. The currency union with Belgium (BLEU, 1921) and the absence of a Luxembourg Central Bank made these developments all the more significant. Drawing on archives and oral history sources, this paper aims to illustrate the complexity and originality that characterised the development of the conceptual, political and regulatory context in Luxembourg in the 1960s-1990s, in what can be seen as a sui generis experiment and preparation for EMU. It will explore the changing financial ecosystem in Luxembourg and the collaborative efforts by its main stakeholders (banks, regulatory authorities, individuals, networks) - with a focus on KBL, LuxSE and EIB - to encourage financial and monetary innovation (via the EUA, ECU, and Eurco) before the introduction of the European single currency and to pave the way for the establishment and consolidation of the euro [less ▲]

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See detailUser Experience Design for Cybersecurity & Privacy: addressing user misperceptions of system security and privacy
Stojkovski, Borce UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The increasing magnitude and sophistication of malicious cyber activities by various threat actors poses major risks to our increasingly digitized and inter-connected societies. However, threats can also ... [more ▼]

The increasing magnitude and sophistication of malicious cyber activities by various threat actors poses major risks to our increasingly digitized and inter-connected societies. However, threats can also come from non-malicious users who are being assigned too complex security or privacy-related tasks, who are not motivated to comply with security policies, or who lack the capability to make good security decisions. This thesis posits that UX design methods and practices are necessary to complement security and privacy engineering practices in order to (1) identify and address user misperceptions of system security and privacy; and (2) inform the design of secure systems that are useful and appealing from end-users’ perspective. The first research objective in this thesis is to provide new empirical accounts of UX aspects in three distinct contexts that encompass security and privacy considerations, namely: cyber threat intelligence, secure and private communication, and digital health technology. The second objective is to empirically contribute to the growing research domain of mental models in security and privacy by investigating user perceptions and misperceptions in the afore-mentioned contexts. Our third objective is to explore and propose methodological approaches to incorporating users’ perceptions and misperceptions in the socio-technical security analyses of systems. Qualitative and quantitative user research methods with experts as well as end users of the applications and systems under investigation were used to achieve the first two objectives. To achieve the third objective, we also employed simulation and computational methods. Cyber Threat Intelligence: CTI sharing platforms Reporting on a number of user studies conducted over a period of two years, this thesis offers a unique contribution towards understanding the constraining and enabling factors of security information sharing within one of the leading CTI sharing platforms, called MISP. Further, we propose a conceptual workflow and toolchain that would seek to detect user (mis)perceptions of key tasks in the context of CTI sharing, such as verifying whether users have an accurate comprehension of how far information travels when shared in a CTI sharing platform, and discuss the benefits of our socio-technical approach as a potential security analysis tool, simulation tool, or educational / training support tool. Secure & Private Communication: Secure Email We propose and describe multi-layered user journeys, a conceptual framework that serves to capture the interaction of a user with a system as she performs certain goals along with the associated user beliefs and perceptions about specific security or privacy-related aspects of that system. We instantiate the framework within a use case, a recently introduced secure email system called p≡p, and demonstrate how the approach can be used to detect misperceptions of security and privacy by comparing user opinions and behavior against system values and objective technical guarantees offered by the system. We further present two sets of user studies focusing on the usability and effectiveness of p≡p’s security and privacy indicators and their traffic-light inspired metaphor to represent different privacy states and guarantees. Digital Health Technology: Contact Tracing Apps Considering human factors when exploring the adoption as well as the security and privacy aspects of COVID-19 contact tracing apps is a timely societal challenge as the effectiveness and utility of these apps highly depend on their widespread adoption by the general population. We present the findings of eight focus groups on the factors that impact people’s decisions to adopt, or not to adopt, a contact tracing app, conducted with participants living in France and Germany. We report how our participants perceived the benefits, drawbacks, and threat model of the contact tracing apps in their respective countries, and discuss the similarities and differences between and within the study groups. Finally, we consolidate the findings from these studies and discuss future challenges and directions for UX design methods and practices in cybersecurity and digital privacy. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning in Public Health: Relevant applications in ageing populations
Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2022, April 25)

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See detailRKHS Based State Estimator for Radar Sensor in Indoor Application
Kumar Singh, Uday UL; Shankar, Bhavani; Alaee, Mohammad

Scientific Conference (2022, April 23)

For the estimation of targets’ states (location, velocity, and acceleration) from nonlinear radar measurements, usually, the improved version of well known Kalman filter: extended Kalman filter (EKF) and ... [more ▼]

For the estimation of targets’ states (location, velocity, and acceleration) from nonlinear radar measurements, usually, the improved version of well known Kalman filter: extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are used. However, EKF and UKF approximates the nonlinear measurement function either by Jacobian or using sigma points. Consequently, because of the approximation of the measurement function, the EKF and UKF cannot achieve high estimation accuracy. The potential solution is to replace the approximation of nonlinear measurement function with its estimate, obtained in high dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). An ample amount of research has been done in this direction, and the combined filter is termed RKHS based Kalman filter. However, there is a shortage of literature dealing with estimating the dynamic state of the target in an indoor environment using RKHS based Kalman filter. Therefore, in this paper, we propose the use of RKHS based Kalman filter for indoor application. Specifically, we validate the suitability of the RKHS based Kalman filtering approach using simulations performed over three different target motion models. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Country-Level Availability and Generosity of Healthcare Services, and Old-Age Ageism for Missed Healthcare during the COVID-19 Pandemic Control Measures in Europe
Settels, Jason UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Journal of Aging and Health (2022)

Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’s COVID-19 module (2020 ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’s COVID-19 module (2020) (N = 57,025), country-level data from the European Social Survey (2008) and OECD (2020), and logistic regressions, this study examines predictors of older Europeans’ forgone, postponed, and denied healthcare during the pandemic. Results: Country-level availability of physicians, healthcare systems’ generosity, and beliefs that older persons burden healthcare systems all increased forgone healthcare. Healthcare system generosity increased postponed and denied healthcare. Greater medical resources decreased denied healthcare. Furthermore, missed healthcare varied by individual-level gender (higher rates among women), age, education, and health. Discussion: This study reveals predictors of missed healthcare during the pandemic. To decrease unintended health consequences of a pandemic, both individual-level determinants, such as gender and health, and contextual-level determinants, such as healthcare systems’ characteristics, should be considered in research and practice. [less ▲]

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See detailMetal-oxide nanostructures for low-power gas sensors
Bhusari, Rutuja Dilip UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

For gas sensing applications, metal oxide (MOx) nanostructures have demonstrated attractive properties due their large surface-over-volume ratio, combined with the possibility to use multiple materials ... [more ▼]

For gas sensing applications, metal oxide (MOx) nanostructures have demonstrated attractive properties due their large surface-over-volume ratio, combined with the possibility to use multiple materials and multi-functional properties. For MOx chemiresistive gas sensors, the temperature activated interaction of atmospheric oxygen with MOx surface plays a major role in the sensor kinetics as it leads to oxygen adsorption-desorption reactions, that eventually affects the gas sensing performance. Thus, MOx sensors are operated at high temperatures to achieve the desired sensitivity. This high temperature operation of MOx sensors limits their application in explosive gas detection, reduces the sensor lifetime and causes power consumption. To overcome these drawbacks of MOx sensors, researchers have proposed the use of heterostructures and light activation as alternatives. In this thesis, we aim to develop low power consuming MOx sensors using these solutions. We show the template-free bottom-up synthesis and shape control of copper hydroxide-based nanostructures grown in liquid phase which act as templates for formation of CuO nanostructures. Precise control over the pH of the solution and the reaction temperature led to intended tuning of the morphology and chemical composition of the nanostructures. We contemplate upon the rationale behind this change in shape and material as CuO nanostructures are further used in a heterostructure. We discuss synthesis and characterisation of CuO bundles and Cu2O truncated cubes, former of which lead to very interesting gas sensing properties and application. Devices made from CuO bundles network are investigated for their electrical and oxygen adsorption- desorption properties as a gas sensor. It was observed that the sensor has faster response and recovery in as deposited condition in comparison to annealed sensor. A detailed inspection of response and recovery curves enabled us to derive parameters like time constants, reaction constants and diffusion coefficients for CuO bundles, an analysis that is scarcely performed on p-type materials. Investigation of the derived parameters, role of network junctions and a hydroxylated CuO surface leads us to discuss the hypotheses for the contributing processes. CuO bundles show conduction transients upon exposure to reducing gas H2 and temperature-based inversion of response upon exposure to reducing gas CO. This has not been reported in literature for CuO exposed to H2 and/or CO. Armed with this fundamental knowledge of gas sensing, we choose ZnO, n type transducer material, and CuO, p type materials with lower band gap and higher absorption in the visible range to synthesise a heterostructure. However, sol-gel synthesis of ZnO and CuO nanostructures have different reactions parameters, like temperature, pH, etc., and do not show natural affinity to grow on the other material. These challenges are overcome by implementing a stepped synthesis procedure to fabricate a heterostructure with Cu-based nanoplatelets on ZnO Nanorods, also represented as CuO@ZnO heterostructure in this thesis. We finally demonstrate electrical and functional characterisation of CuO@ZnO heterostructure. The heterostructure responds differently to tested gasses as compared to its constituent nanostructure ZnO nanorods and a reference CuO nanostructure, CuO bundles. This is an unexpected result as heterostructures usually show response type similar to their base material but with an enhanced sensor response. We present a possible application of e-nose that can differentiate qualitatively between CO, NO2 and ethanol, using the heterostructure, ZnO nanorods and CuO bundles together. [less ▲]

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See detailAcademic Profile Development: An Investigation of Differentiation Processes Based on Students' Achievement and Grade Level
Breit, Moritz; Brunner, Martin; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, April 21)

Academic achievement profiles affect students’ further development, i.e., by informing educational and professional choices. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the mechanisms behind the development ... [more ▼]

Academic achievement profiles affect students’ further development, i.e., by informing educational and professional choices. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the mechanisms behind the development of academic profiles. For research on cognitive ability profiles, specifically differentiation processes, statistical tools have been developed. In the present article, we transfer these methods for differentiation research to academic achievement data. We examine differentiation depending on students’ general level of achievement and grade level in a large Luxembourgish student sample. Students’ achievements in German, French, and Math were assessed within the Luxembourg school monitoring program. We found more balanced academic profiles with increasing achievement level. We further found more balanced profiles with increasing grade level and a positive interaction effect. [less ▲]

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See detail“Put it back”. Issues and challenges of historicising online virality
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, April 21)

From the Hampster Dance, All your Base are belong to us and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to Bernie’s mittens at the US presidential inauguration and the image macros of the Evergreen ... [more ▼]

From the Hampster Dance, All your Base are belong to us and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to Bernie’s mittens at the US presidential inauguration and the image macros of the Evergreen blocked in the Suez Canal, through Disaster Girl or Distracted Boyfriend to name but a few, memes and Internet phenomena have become in the last twenty years an important part of our digital cultures (Shifman, 2014). After presenting why historicising virality matters (which is the purpose of our Hivi research project supported by the Luxembourg National Research Fund and conducted at the University of Luxembourg, https://hivi.uni.lu), this talk will focus on the challenges related to sources. Historicising online virality requires to first acknowledge how difficult it is to build corpora and develop chronological views in the vast and heterogeneous amount of data lakes and sources available on the live web and in web archives. All these repositories preserve viral content in a very different manner, covering different frames and periods, while the actors who come into play have different size and motivations, from giant platforms (Twitter, YouTube - see Burgess and Green 2018, etc.) to small communities, through heritagisation platform (i.e. Know Your Meme - see Pettis, 2021) and web archives. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the many levels of politics, curation and agencies at stake when studying the history and heritagisation of memes and Internet phenomena and their impact. Finally, temporalities and scales are also challenging, and scalability is key for studying the spreadability of digital contents, notably in a long-term perspective. There is a constant need for balancing between several scales to study circulation and flow (Jenkins, 2009), processes, participation (Milner, 2018) and appropriation, while recontextualizing memes and Internet phenomena in their complex and changing environments (changes of platforms, of participation, of audience, of meaning...). [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralizing Solutions Across Functionally Similar Problems Correlates with World Knowledge and Working Memory in 2.5- to 4.5-Year-Olds
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; Sahlström, Johan; Thorstensson, Klara et al

in Cognitive Development (2022)

Analogical transfer, denoting the ability to use an action that solved a given problem in order to successfully handle a seemingly different but functionally similar problem, requires well-developed self ... [more ▼]

Analogical transfer, denoting the ability to use an action that solved a given problem in order to successfully handle a seemingly different but functionally similar problem, requires well-developed self-regulation, as it draws on previous knowledge and demands selecting and shifting between relevant features while ignoring irrelevant ones. Thus, analogical transfer involves executive functions (EFs), yet the contribution of specific EFs is unclear, particularly during the development of the capacity before the age of 5. Here, for the first time, we investigated the contribution of world knowledge, working memory and set-shifting in 2.5- to 4.5-year-olds’ (N = 86) capacity to single-event analogical transfer in a simple, non-verbal, tool-use task. Analogical transfer was independent of age but was predicted by a measure of world knowledge and a measure of working memory across the age-span tested. Our results suggest that world knowledge and working memory underscore analogical transfer early in development. [less ▲]

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See detailA new R package for Finite Mixture Models with an application to pension systems
Schiltz, Jang UL; Noel, Cédric

Scientific Conference (2022, April 20)

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See detailCOMBINED HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR LOW-ENERGY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND USER COMFORT
Shirani, Arsalan UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Combined heating and ventilation systems are applied here in highly energy-efficient residential buildings to save construction cost. Combining a Heat Pump with a Heat Recovery Ventilation system to heat ... [more ▼]

Combined heating and ventilation systems are applied here in highly energy-efficient residential buildings to save construction cost. Combining a Heat Pump with a Heat Recovery Ventilation system to heat and cool the building offers faster response times, a smaller footprint and an increased cooling capacity, compared to floor heating systems. As a result, such systems are expected to have a larger market share in the future. The available research on Ventilation Based Heating systems focuses mostly on comparing Exhaust Air Heat Pumps with conventional systems in energy-efficient buildings. The majority of published research neglects the usual existence of electrical backup heaters as well as the need to develop and use an adapted and optimized control strategy for such systems. This work compares the energy efficiency of the common-standard ventilation-based heating concepts including Exhaust Air Heat Pumps with the conventional floor heating systems using single room control strategy to achieve similar user comfort. The comparison is carried out in a simulation environment in order to optimize the systems under exactly reproducible boundary conditions. Additionally, two field tests were performed to achieve a better understanding and validation of the simulation models. The measured data was used to model the dynamic behavior of the Exhaust Air Heat Pump and the air distribution system. These field tests revealed that the overall run time and heating output of the heat pump were much lower than expected. This was the motivation to investigate and optimize the heat pump and electric heater control strategy. It could be demonstrated that the applied control strategy has a significant impact on the overall performance of the system. The suggested control strategy was tested and validated in a third field measurement. Based on the gained knowledge using the system simulation tool and the conducted field tests, an improved second concept for Ventilation Based Heating systems was defined with three optimization steps. It could be demonstrated that using the suggested methodologies in the hard- and software of such a system, can significantly improve its overall efficiency. However, Ventilation Based Heating systems cannot compete with floor heating systems in terms of total system energy efficiency, due to the necessity of electrical backup heaters and due to the higher supply temperatures. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 UL)
See detailContent Management
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

in Zaagsma, Gerben; Noiret, Serge; Tebeau, Mark (Eds.) Handbook of Digital Public History (2022)

The use of content management systems (CMSes) in public history is a relatively new phenomenon that has greatly enhanced the possibilities of presenting, curating and narrating history online. As CMSes ... [more ▼]

The use of content management systems (CMSes) in public history is a relatively new phenomenon that has greatly enhanced the possibilities of presenting, curating and narrating history online. As CMSes have become increasingly powerful and easier to use, they obviate the need for comparatively costlier custom solutions, both in terms of time and financial investment. Archives, libraries, museums, institutions, scholars and educators are making use of CMSes to showcase collections, accompany exhibitions, tell histories online and to build online communities and networks. This chapter discusses how content management systems support these activities and projects while also delving into more technical aspects. In doing so the chapter focuses on open source systems which can be used by any scholar without incurring licensing fees, and are often supported by large user communities. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction: Handbook of Digital Public History
Noiret, Serge; Tebeau, Mark; Zaagsma, Gerben UL

in Noiret, Serge; Tebeau, Mark; Zaagsma, Gerben (Eds.) Handbook of Digital Public History (2022)

This handbook provides a systematic overview of the present state of international research in digital public history (DPH). Detailed individual studies by internationally renowned public historians ... [more ▼]

This handbook provides a systematic overview of the present state of international research in digital public history (DPH). Detailed individual studies by internationally renowned public historians, digital humanists and digital historians elucidate central issues in the field and present a critical account of the major public history accomplishments, research activities, practices with the public and of their digital context. The handbook applies an international and comparative public history approach, looks at its historical development, focuses on technical background and on the use of specific digital media, software’s and digital tools. It offers a bibliography adapted to each chapter. The Handbook analyses connections with local communities and different publics worldwide when engaging in digital activities with the past, and indicate directions for future research, practices and teaching activities. Its aim is to delimit the field as it is situated between digital humanities, digital history and public history. [less ▲]

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See detailHandbook of Digital Public History
Noiret, Serge; Tebeau, Mark; Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Book published by De Gruyter Oldenbourg (2022)

This handbook provides a systematic overview of the present state of international research in digital public history. Individual studies by internationally renowned public historians, digital humanists ... [more ▼]

This handbook provides a systematic overview of the present state of international research in digital public history. Individual studies by internationally renowned public historians, digital humanists, and digital historians elucidate central issues in the field and present a critical account of the major public history accomplishments, research activities, and practices with the public and of their digital context. The handbook applies an international and comparative approach, looks at the historical development of the field, focuses on technical background and the use of specific digital media and tools. Furthermore, the handbook analyzes connections with local communities and different publics worldwide when engaging in digital activities with the past, indicating directions for future research, and teaching activities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of dataset confounding on predictions of deep neural networks for medical imaging
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Husch, Andreas UL; Hertel, Frank UL

in Vol. 3 (2022): Proceedings of the Northern Lights Deep Learning Workshop 2022 (2022, April 18)

The use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in medical imaging has often outperformed previous solutions and even specialists, becoming a promising technology for Computer-aided-Diagnosis (CAD) systems ... [more ▼]

The use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in medical imaging has often outperformed previous solutions and even specialists, becoming a promising technology for Computer-aided-Diagnosis (CAD) systems. However, recent works suggested that CNN may have poor generalisation on new data, for instance, generated in different hospitals. Uncontrolled confounders have been proposed as a common reason. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the impact of confounding data in unknown scenarios. We assessed the effect of four confounding configurations: total, strong, light and balanced. We found the confounding effect is especially prominent in total confounder scenarios, while the effect on light and strong confounding scenarios may depend on the dataset robustness. Our findings indicate that the confounding effect is independent of the architecture employed. These findings might explain why models can report good metrics during the development stage but fail to translate to real-world settings. We highlight the need for thorough consideration of these commonly unattended aspects, to develop safer CNN-based CAD systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and Application of an LC-MS/MS Untargeted Exposomics Method with a Separated Pooled Quality Control Strategy
Frigerio, Gianfranco UL; Moruzzi, Camilla; Mercadante, Rosa et al

in Molecules (2022), 27(8), 2580

Pooled quality controls (QCs) are usually implemented within untargeted methods to improve the quality of datasets by removing features either not detected or not reproducible. However, this approach can ... [more ▼]

Pooled quality controls (QCs) are usually implemented within untargeted methods to improve the quality of datasets by removing features either not detected or not reproducible. However, this approach can be limiting in exposomics studies conducted on groups of exposed and nonexposed subjects, as compounds present at low levels only in exposed subjects can be diluted and thus not detected in the pooled QC. The aim of this work is to develop and apply an untargeted workflow for human biomonitoring in urine samples, implementing a novel separated approach for preparing pooled quality controls. An LC-MS/MS workflow was developed and applied to a case study of smoking and non-smoking subjects. Three different pooled quality controls were prepared: mixing an aliquot from every sample (QC-T), only from non-smokers (QC-NS), and only from smokers (QC-S). The feature tables were filtered using QC-T (T-feature list), QC-S, and QC-NS, separately. The last two feature lists were merged (SNS-feature list). A higher number of features was obtained with the SNS-feature list than the T-feature list, resulting in identification of a higher number of biologically significant compounds. The separated pooled QC strategy implemented can improve the nontargeted human biomonitoring for groups of exposed and nonexposed subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg and the creation of the European single currency - Lessons from the History
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2022, April 15)

In political terms, European integration and multilateral cooperation enabled Luxembourg to become an equal partner in the decision-making processes and leadership of European organizations. In economic ... [more ▼]

In political terms, European integration and multilateral cooperation enabled Luxembourg to become an equal partner in the decision-making processes and leadership of European organizations. In economic terms, these features gave the country the tools it needed to forge a development model that could underpin the creative growth of its social market economy, while preserving the majority of its vital interests—particularly the steel industry and the financial centre—over the long term. Focusing primarily on the 1970 Werner Report, which served as a blueprint for the European single currency - the euro - the presentation examines a key period in European integration history and one of the major European achievements of Luxembourg and of Pierre Werner (29 December 1913– 24 June 2002), former Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Foreign Minister of Luxembourg, who left his mark on the future of his country and is unanimously recognised as one of the architects of Economic and Monetary Union. [less ▲]

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See detailReplicating the Kinora: 3D Modelling and Printing as Heuristics in Digital Media History
Van der Heijden, Tim; Wolf, Claude UL

in Journal of Digital History (2022)

This article reflects on the Kinora replica project, an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) and the Department of Engineering (DoE) of ... [more ▼]

This article reflects on the Kinora replica project, an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) and the Department of Engineering (DoE) of the University of Luxembourg. Combining historical inquiry with a hands-on and technical approach – involving the latest 3D modelling and desktop manufacturing engineering techniques – it provides insights into the process of making a working replica of the Kinora motion picture technology from the early 1900s. [less ▲]

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See detailConciliatory views, higher-order disagreements, and defeasible logic
Knoks, Aleks UL

in Synthese (2022), 200(2), 1-23

Conciliatory views of disagreement say, roughly, that it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case you find out that an epistemic peer’s take on it is the opposite ... [more ▼]

Conciliatory views of disagreement say, roughly, that it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case you find out that an epistemic peer’s take on it is the opposite. Their intuitive appeal notwithstanding, there are well-known worries about the behavior of conciliatory views in scenarios involving higher-order disagreements, which include disagreements over these views themselves and disagreements over the peer status of alleged epistemic peers. This paper does two things. First, it explains how the core idea behind conciliatory views can be expressed in a defeasible logic framework. The result is a formal model that’s particularly useful for thinking about the behavior of conciliatory views in cases involving higher-order disagreements. And second, the paper uses this model to resolve three paradoxes associated with disagreements over epistemic peerhood. [less ▲]

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