Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailContext Stability in Habit Building Increases Automaticity and Goal Attainment
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (2022)

In this paper, we investigate the effects of context stability on automaticity and goal attainment in intentional habit building. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the effects of context stability on automaticity and goal attainment in intentional habit building. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses on two datasets. In Study 1, N = 95 university students (N = 2,482 habit repetitions) built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks with manipulated context stability. One group was instructed to constantly vary the context of their habit repetitions by changing rooms and times and the other group was instructed to keep the context of habit performance stable. In Study 2, N = 308 habits (N = 2,368 habit repetitions) from N = 218 users of a published habit building app were analyzed without manipulating but measuring context stability. We found the same pattern in both datasets: Context stability predicted more automaticity and higher habit repetition goal attainment. We also found that the effect of context stability on habit repetition goal attainment was partially mediated by automaticity in both datasets. These results show that context does not only act as a trigger for habit instigation but also has an ongoing effect on habit execution. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhen Cryptographic Ransomware Poses Cyber Threats: Ethical Challenges and Proposed Safeguards for Cybersecurity Researchers
Botes, Wilhelmina Maria UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 10)

Cryptographic ransomware, a malware capable of destroying data, is a serious threat if used against providers of critical infrastructures such as healthcare, energy supply chains, banking services, and ... [more ▼]

Cryptographic ransomware, a malware capable of destroying data, is a serious threat if used against providers of critical infrastructures such as healthcare, energy supply chains, banking services, and transport systems. Used as such, ransomware may qualify as cyber weapon, but the current discussion around cyber and information warfare is not sufficiently legally regulated. This delegates the safe governance thereof to the application of ethical principles but leaves researchers working on ransomware in doubt about the double-use nature of their work and what code of conduct to follow. Although some existing biomedical research ethical principles have been repurposed for ICT research, in the context of recent threats posed by ransomware attacks, these efforts need an urgent rethink, especially when it involves the research of cybersecurity researchers dealing specifically with ransomware. This paper does not offer solutions, but rather describes the complexity, nature and extent of ethical challenges raised by cybersecurity research and invites the cybersecurity research community to enter into active discussions around the need to consider the development of an appropriate research ethics framework in the domain of cybersecurity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailA Mechanistic Multiscale Metabolic Model in Human Astrocytes
Farina, Sofia UL

Presentation (2022, June 10)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTélétravail et mobilités dans un contexte transfrontalier
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 09)

La Grande Région SaarLorLux se caractérise par d’intenses flux de travailleurs frontaliers qui représentent près d’un quart des flux de travail frontalier de l’ensemble de l’UE. La pandémie de Covid-19 et ... [more ▼]

La Grande Région SaarLorLux se caractérise par d’intenses flux de travailleurs frontaliers qui représentent près d’un quart des flux de travail frontalier de l’ensemble de l’UE. La pandémie de Covid-19 et le confinement total débuté en mars 2020 ont eu pour conséquence de développer le recours massif au télétravail y compris dans cet espace traversé par plusieurs frontières. Cette plongée brutale et soudaine dans le télétravail a attiré l’attention sur cette forme d’organisation du travail, assez peu utilisée et étudiée jusqu’alors. La question se pose désormais de voir comment va évoluer cette forme de travail dans un contexte transfrontalier, compte tenu des multiples règlementations en vigueur (fiscales, sécurité sociale…), par ailleurs diverses selon les pays concernés (de travail comme de résidence). Le débat a notamment été relancé avec la récente résolution européenne déposée à l’Assemblée Nationale française visant à l’augmentation du télétravail des travailleurs frontaliers et à mener une réflexion européenne sur leur statut (texte adopté n°819). Il importe alors de tenir compte des effets du télétravail sur les travailleurs frontaliers en place mais aussi sur les évolutions du travail frontalier. Doit-on s’attendre à une forte hausse du travail frontalier si le télétravail se généralise ? Comment seront alors impactées les mobilités des frontaliers ? L’objectif de la présente communication est de dresser une liste des effets potentiels du télétravail sur les mobilités (quotidiennes et résidentielles) dans un contexte transfrontalier. Comment le télétravail peut-il impacter les pratiques de mobilités des frontaliers ? constitue-t-il une solution envisageable et réaliste face aux problèmes de congestion autour du Luxembourg ? ou y a-t-il des effets-rebonds qui nuanceraient cet impact du télétravail sur les mobilités? Autant de questions qui constituent une étape préliminaire avant toute tentative de mesure ou de prise en compte de l’effet télétravail dans l’analyse du marché du travail transfrontalier dans la Grande Région. Méthodologie En partant d’une analyse de la littérature sur le sujet, souvent abordé de manière « nationale » donc sans tenir compte des particularités liées aux frontières, nous complèterons ce tour d’horizon par nos propres travaux sur la question et notre connaissance du contexte transfrontalier. Principaux résultats obtenus ou attendus Une réflexion générale sera engagée quant aux effets attendus du télétravail sur les mobilités transfrontalières, à la fois au niveau macro, meso et micro. Il importera de distinguer les impacts sur les travailleurs frontaliers déjà en place et sur ceux qui sont potentiellement candidats à un emploi transfrontalier, mais aussi de tenir compte du fait que tous les emplois ne sont pas télétravaillables par exemple (selon le secteur ou le type d’emploi). Cet inventaire détaillé nous permettra de conclure sur l’intérêt de la prise en compte de la variable télétravail dans les futures analyses du travail frontalier, mais également nous fournira des pistes d’études concrètes à réaliser. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA survey of EMI lecturer training programmes: content, delivery, ways forward.
Deroey, Katrien UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 09)

This talk will provide insights into designing and delivering English Medium Instruction (EMI) lecturer training by surveying published initiatives worldwide (Deroey, 2021). Although EMI is not a recent ... [more ▼]

This talk will provide insights into designing and delivering English Medium Instruction (EMI) lecturer training by surveying published initiatives worldwide (Deroey, 2021). Although EMI is not a recent phenomenon, many higher education institutions are only now beginning to organize specific support for EMI lecturers. EAP practitioners are often tasked with providing such support, since the perception commonly is that language is the main issue requiring improvement. However, the efficient design and delivery of EMI lecturing training and support is a complex challenge. First, most literature highlights the need for pedagogical and communication training in addition to language work. Second the varied EMI context means training should be adapted to the local cultural, educational, linguistic and institutional contexts (Herington, 2020; Martinez & Fernandes, 2020; Tuomainen, 2018). Third, we need to be sensitive to lecturers’ attitudes towards EMI and EMI training (Tsui, 2018). Fourth, there are practical considerations such as the timely provision of support (Guarda & Helm, 2017); promoting participation; facilitating learning transfer to lectures; and working with what are usually heterogeneous participant groups in terms of English proficiency, (EMI) lecturing experience and discipline (Ball & Lindsay, 2013). Finally, the design of these programmes typically needs to happen with very limited institutional resources, few (if any) published materials and relatively little published research on lecture discourse and EMI lecturer training. Having surveyed the main components, formats and work forms of the programmes, the conclusion highlights ways forward in EMI lecturer training that emerge from this analysis. References Ball, P., & Lindsay, D. (2013). Language demands and support for English-medium instruction in tertiary education. Learning from a specific context In A. Doiz, D. Lasagabaster, & J. M. Sierra (Eds.), English-medium instruction at universities: Global challenges (pp. 44-61). Multilingual Matters. Deroey, K. L. B. (2021). Lecturer training for English Medium Instruction: what and how? In B. D. Bond, A. & M. Evans (Ed.), Innovation, exploration and transformation. Proceedings of the 2019 BALEAP Conference (pp. 245-253). Garnet. Guarda, M., & Helm, F. (2017). A survey of lecturers’ needs and feedback on EMI training. In K. Ackerley, M. Guarda, & F. Helm (Eds.), Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction (pp. 167-194). Peter Lang. Herington, R. (2020). Observation as a tool to facilitate the professional development of teaching faculty involved in English as a Medium of Instruction: trainer and trainee perspectives. In M. L. Carrió-Pasto (Ed.), Internationalising Learning in Higher Education (pp. 65-82). IGI Global. Martinez, R., & Fernandes, K. (2020). Development of a teacher training course for English medium instruction for higher education professors in Brazil. In M. Del Mar Sánchez-Pérez (Ed.), Teacher Training for English-Medium Instruction in Higher Education (pp. 125-152). IGI Global. Tuomainen, S. (2018). Supporting non-native university lecturers with English-medium instruction. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 10(3), 230-242. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUnsupervised Learning for User Scheduling in Multibeam Precoded GEO Satellite Systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 09)

Future generation SatCom multibeam architectures will extensively exploit full-frequency reuse schemes together with interference management techniques, such as precoding, to dramatically increase ... [more ▼]

Future generation SatCom multibeam architectures will extensively exploit full-frequency reuse schemes together with interference management techniques, such as precoding, to dramatically increase spectral efficiency performance. Precoding is very sensitive to user scheduling, suggesting a joint precoding and user scheduling design to achieve optimal performance. However, the joint design requires solving a highly complex optimization problem which is unreasonable for practical systems. Even for suboptimal disjoint scheduling designs, the complexity is still significant. To achieve a good compromise between performance and complexity, we investigate the applicability of Machine Learning (ML) for the aforementioned problem. We propose three clustering algorithms based on Unsupervised Learning (UL) that facilitate the user scheduling decisions while maximizing the system performance in terms of throughput. Numerical simulations compare the three proposed algorithms (K-means, Hierarchical clustering, and Self-Organization) with the conventional geographic scheduling and identify the main trade-offs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (7 UL)
See detailBetween fulfilling the legal mandate and clarifying the fate of dead soldiers of World War II - The efforts of a private association to exhume and identify German war dead
Janz, Nina UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Over one million German military dead of the Second World War are missing. The private association VDK Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e.V. (VDK) is, as the German War Graves Commission the official ... [more ▼]

Over one million German military dead of the Second World War are missing. The private association VDK Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e.V. (VDK) is, as the German War Graves Commission the official representative of the German government responsible for the localisation and exhumation of German military graves, the identification of the dead, the reburial and the maintenance of military cemeteries worldwide. More than 75 years after the end of the violent conflict, the VDK has completed its work in Western Europe, but has continued its systematic search for graves and remains of German Wehrmacht soldiers in Eastern Europe, especially in the Russian Federation. The paper presents the localisation, recovery and identification of remains and uses a case study in Russia to discuss the complexity of German remains both in German society and politics and in the host country Russia. The difficulty in dealing with dead bodies marked as perpetrators and held responsible for inhumane crimes is only one challenge for the VDK. In addition, the paper reviews the hesitant use of DNA identification, the lack of interest in clarifying the fate of MIA soldiers in German post-war politics and the existing resentment towards Nazi dead, which delays or ignores the forensic processing of German war dead. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLanguage beyond flags: Teachers misunderstanding of translanguaging in preschools
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (2022)

Based on an analysis of the video recording and transcript of one lesson chosen by preschool teachers in Luxembourg as an example of translanguaging pedagogy, this article shows the teachers’ limited ... [more ▼]

Based on an analysis of the video recording and transcript of one lesson chosen by preschool teachers in Luxembourg as an example of translanguaging pedagogy, this article shows the teachers’ limited understandings of translanguaging. As a result of a new 2017 multilingual education policy for early childhood, the first author designed a professional development project in which the teachers in this preschool participated. During a lesson, the teachers insisted that these young children had a home language associated with a national affiliation depicted by a flag, despite the children themselves telling them repeatedly that their home language practices were complex and included Luxembourgish, which was part of their identity. The teachers’ actions and discourse reveal raciolinguistic ideologies and misappropriation of the term translanguaging to simply implement what could be better described as a multilingual awareness activity. On the surface, the teachers have shifted from monolingual instruction to one that recognizes the children’s multilingualism. Yet, teachers continue to associate the notion of language with flags and political states, instead of taking up an inside-view of the bilingual speaker, the kernel of translanguaging theory. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailData Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms: Current Proposals and Challenges
Human, Soheil; Degeling, Martin; Santos, Christiana et al

in IEEE eXplore (2022, June 06)

Data Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms (DPCCMs) have the potential of becoming one of the most fundamental means of protecting humans’ privacy and agency. However, they are yet to be ... [more ▼]

Data Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms (DPCCMs) have the potential of becoming one of the most fundamental means of protecting humans’ privacy and agency. However, they are yet to be improved, adopted and enforced. In this paper, based on the results of a technical document analysis and an expert study, we we identify some of the main technical factors that can be comparison factors between some of the main interdisciplinary challenges of a Human-centric, Accountable, Lawful, and Ethical practice of personal data processing on the Internet and discuss whether the current DPCCMs proposal can contribute towards their resolution. In particular, we discuss the two current open specifications, i.e. the Advanced Data Protection Control (ADPC) and the Global Privacy Control (GPC) based on the identified challenges. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (6 UL)
Full Text
See detailHERO? TRAITOR? VICTIM? AMBIGUITY OF DATA IN WAR BIOGRAPHIES
Janz, Nina UL

Presentation (2022, June 04)

Project WARLUX - Soldiers and their Communities in WWII: The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg", at the Luxembourg Centre for Digital and Contemporary History (C²DH) of the University of ... [more ▼]

Project WARLUX - Soldiers and their Communities in WWII: The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg", at the Luxembourg Centre for Digital and Contemporary History (C²DH) of the University of Luxembourg researches the personal side of the history of Luxembourgish youth born between 1920 and 1927 who were enrolled into German services under the Nazi occupation of Luxembourg during World War II. The research focuses on personal testimonies and their individual war experience to uncover these men, women, and families' individual experiences. The Methodology includes a biographical approach to offer a micro-historical perspective on single actors to link individual life stories to home communities. WARLUX will analyse the individuals from their social environments, social background, or trajectories during the war and their life in the post-war period based on their biographies. But this is almost where the most significant challenge lies in avoiding pre-existing terminologies, e.g. Nazi terms. When analysing the dataset of contemporary Nazi documents and post-war documents, the sources describe the same objects and elements but require a different interpretation. When building a dataset for independent and objective research, it is crucial to distinguish between the various sources and make the data entries comprehensible. While for the Nazis, volunteers in the Waffen-SS were "exemplary fighters", in post-war Luxembourg, they were "traitors to the fatherland". The young men who deserted from the Wehrmacht during the war, "cowards" and "Wehrkraftzersetzer" for the Nazis, in peacetime "heroes" of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The project has worked with a relational database (nodegoat) so far but is reaching its limits. This database's strength lies in linking objects while assigning strict categories and dates but fails when it comes to flexible and uncertain or ambiguous data. In many sources, there are different variations of dates and circumstances of the targets under study. For example, the Nazi authorities introduced the conscription law in Luxembourg on 30 August 1942. Every man born between 1920 and 1927 was called to register on the conscription lists. Therefore, men who enlisted in the Wehrmacht before this date are considered volunteers, which completely changed their status as mentioned during the war and after returning home. Mapping this scheme in a data model seems "easy" - date of enlistment XX, and then building the category of volunteer yes/no. But as the data repeatedly shows, it is more complex than expected. Volunteers who joined the German forces before August 1942 tried to avoid their "real" enlistment and changed it to an earlier date (reporting to the authorities) because they were aware of the severe consequences they and their families faced after the surrender of the Nazi forces. There are now two dates in the dataset. The relational structure only allows one date for the volunteer "tab". If I had chosen only one date, this case would have been overlooked. The analysis requires a flexible and changeable dataset where the fixed points can be changed depending on the research question. It is always a challenge in historical research. Still, due to the mass data (10,000 objects/persons) that WARLUX uses, it needs a flexible and smooth data structure and, on the other hand, one that is as stringent and reliable as possible. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 UL)
See detail"Hybrid is the new normal." Einblicke in die Projekte des Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History am Beispiel der virtuellen Ausstellungen ww1.lu, zeitschichten.be und minett-stories.lu
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 03)

Seinen Forschungsschwerpunkt in der digitalen Geschichte trägt das 2017 gegründete C²DH bereits im Namen. Überlegungen zu den methodologischen Herausforderungen des Digitalen für die ... [more ▼]

Seinen Forschungsschwerpunkt in der digitalen Geschichte trägt das 2017 gegründete C²DH bereits im Namen. Überlegungen zu den methodologischen Herausforderungen des Digitalen für die Geschichtswissenschaft stehen bei seiner Arbeit genauso im Mittelpunkt wie das Nachdenken über den Einsatz digitaler Mittel bei der Vermittlung von Zeitgeschichte. Bei dieser Digital Public History spielen besonders die so genannten virtuellen Ausstellungen eine große Rolle. Der Vortrag bettet diese in einem ersten Teil in die konzeptionelle Ausrichtung des C²DH ein, bevor im zweiten Teil drei Ausstellungen vorgestellt werden: zum Ersten Weltkrieg in Luxemburg (2018), zur Geschichte Ostbelgiens seit 1920 (2020) und zur Sozial- und Industriegeschichte im luxemburgisch-französischen Grenzgebiet (2022). Besondere Aufmerksamkeit kommt der Problematisierung der Nutzung von Archivquellen in diesen Ausstellungen zu – sowohl im Zusammenspiel mit anderen (v.a. audiovisuellen) Quellen als auch aus methodischer und didaktischer Perspektive. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailFirst-principles investigation of ferroelectricity and related properties of HfO2
Dutta, Sangita UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Nonvolatile memories are in increasing demand as the world moves toward information digitization. The ferroelectric materials offer a promising alternative for this. Since the existing perovskite ... [more ▼]

Nonvolatile memories are in increasing demand as the world moves toward information digitization. The ferroelectric materials offer a promising alternative for this. Since the existing perovskite materials have various flaws, including incompatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes in memory applications, the discovery of new optimized FE thin films was necessary. In 2011, the disclosure of ferroelectricity in hafnia (HfO$_2$) reignited interest in ferroelectric memory devices because this material is well integrated with CMOS technology. Although the reporting of ferroelectricity in HfO$_2$ has been a decade, researchers are still enthralled by this material's properties as well as its possible applications. The ferroelectricity in HfO$_{2}$ has been attributed to the orthorhombic phase with spacegroup $Pca2_1$. This phase is believed to be the metastable phase of the system. Many experimental and theoretical research groups joined the effort to understand the root causes for the stability of this ferroelectric phase of HfO$_{2}$ by considering the role of the surface energy effects, chemical dopants, local strain, oxygen vacancies. However, the understanding was not conclusive. In this part of this work, we will present our first-principles results, predicting a situation where the ferroelectric phase becomes the thermodynamic ground state in the presence of a ordered dopant forming layers. Since the main focus was on understanding and optimizing the ferroelectricity in HfO$_{2}$, we observed that the electro-mechanical response of the system has garnered comparatively less attention. The recent discovery of the negative longitudinal piezoelectric effect in HfO$_2$ has challenged our thinking about piezoelectricity, which was molded by what we know about ferroelectric perovskites. In this work, we will discuss the atomistic underpinnings behind the negative longitudianl piezoelectric effect in HfO$_{2}$. We will also discuss the behavior of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient ($e_{33}$) under the application of epitaxial strain, where we find that $e_{33}$ changes sign even though the polarization does not switch. Aside from a basic understanding of piezoelectric characteristics in HfO$_2$, the application aspect is also worth considering. The piezoelectric properties of the material can be tuned to meet the needs of the applications. In this work, we will describe our findings on how the piezoelectric characteristics of the material change as a function of isovalent dopants. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL)