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See detailThe generalized internal/external frame of reference model with academic self-concepts, interests, and anxieties in students from different language backgrounds
van der Westhuizen, Lindie UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Contemporary Educational Psychology (in press)

Student motivation and affect play an important role in successful language learning. To investigate the formation of language learning motivation and affect, this study extended the generalized internal ... [more ▼]

Student motivation and affect play an important role in successful language learning. To investigate the formation of language learning motivation and affect, this study extended the generalized internal/external frame of reference (GI/E) model framework to multiple languages (German and French, along with math) and multiple motivational-affective outcomes (academic self-concept, interest, and anxiety). We examined whether social and dimensional comparisons play similar roles in the formation of students’ self-concepts, interests, and anxieties concerning different languages and whether dimensional comparisons result in contrast or assimilation effects. Moreover, we tested the generalizability of the GI/E model assumptions across students with different language backgrounds. Using a data set comprising virtually all ninth-grade students (N=6275; 48.0% female) from Luxembourg’s multilingual educational system, our findings indicated (1) clear contrast effects in the formation of self-concept and interest in math, German, and French, and (2) a combination of contrast, assimilation, and no effects in the formation of anxiety in math, German, and French. Using a subsample of 5837 students with valid language information (48.0% female), invariance tests demonstrated that the GI/E achievement–outcome relations operated equivalently across students from different home language backgrounds. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome-related health inequality in urban China (1991-2015): The role of homeownership and housing conditions
Peng, Nie; Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Health and Place (in press)

Unprecedented economic growth has been experienced over the several decades worldwide, but such rapid economic growth wasn’t accompanied by equally-substantial improvement in health, especially health ... [more ▼]

Unprecedented economic growth has been experienced over the several decades worldwide, but such rapid economic growth wasn’t accompanied by equally-substantial improvement in health, especially health inequalities between the rich and poor. This study examines the role of housing in income-related health inequalities (income-health gradient) in urban China. We here analyze 1991-2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey data to ask how housing affects income-related health inequalities in urban China. We find pro-poor inequalities in self-reported bad health but pro-rich inequalities in objective bad health (general overweight/obesity, central obesity and high blood pressure). Housing conditions serve to reduce the health gradient, especially for objective health. On the contrary, homeownership exacerbates the health gradient. Improving housing conditions thus appears to be an effective way of reducing the income-health gradient in urban China. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropäische Grenzraumforschung in Zeiten der Vergrenzung: Problemaufriss und Perspektiven.
Wille, Christian UL

in Brodowski, Dominik; Nesselhauf, Jonas; Weber, Florian (Eds.) Pandemisches Virus – nationales Handeln: Covid-19 und die europäische Idee (in press)

Spätestens seit der Covid-19-Pandemie ist die Rolle von Grenzen, die in den letzten Jahrzehnten an Bedeutung gewonnen haben, nicht mehr zu übersehen. Diese Entwicklung, die sich mühelos auf der globalen ... [more ▼]

Spätestens seit der Covid-19-Pandemie ist die Rolle von Grenzen, die in den letzten Jahrzehnten an Bedeutung gewonnen haben, nicht mehr zu übersehen. Diese Entwicklung, die sich mühelos auf der globalen Ebene rekonstruieren lässt, ist mit dem Virus auch in die europäischen Grenzregionen vorgedrungen. Dort ist die europäische Grenzraumforschung nun mit Phänomenen konfrontiert, mit denen sie sich bisher kaum auseinandergesetzt hat. Der Beitrag wendet sich solchen Phänomenen zu und arbeitet exemplarisch das Zusammenspiel von Ver- und Entgrenzungsprozessen im Kontext des Covidfencing heraus. Dafür werden soziale Aushandlungsprozesse der Grenzschließungen in der Großregion SaarLorLux und im deutsch-polnischen Grenzgebiet als „people’s resilience“ thematisiert. Darauf aufbauend werden Überlegungen vorgestellt, wie sich die europäische Grenzraumforschung für Phänomene und Fragestellungen in Zeiten der Vergrenzungen aufstellen kann. Der internationalen Grenzforschung folgend wird eine Erweiterung der Forschungsagenda um alltagskulturelle Fragen vorgeschlagen, die einen Erkenntnisgewinn versprechen. Außerdem wird eine Justierung des verbreiteten Grenzbegriffs vorgeschlagen, um die Grenze als Gegenstand alltagskultureller Aushandlungen erschließbar zu machen. [less ▲]

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See detailStatus and Enforceability of EU International Agreements within the Domestic Legal Systems of the Member States: Kupferberg
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Wessel, Ramses; Butler, Graham (Eds.) EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context (in press)

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See detailLearning-Assisted User Clustering in Cell-Free Massive MIMO-NOMA Networks
Le; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Dobre, Octavia A. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (in press)

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC ... [more ▼]

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC certainly results in a suboptimal solution while an exhaustive search method comes at the cost of high complexity, especially for systems of medium-to-large size. To address this problem, we develop two efficient unsupervised machine learning based UC algorithms, namely k-means++ and improved k-means++, to effectively cluster users into disjoint clusters in cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CFmMIMO) system. Adopting full-pilot zero-forcing at access points (APs) to comprehensively assess the system performance, we formulate the sum SE optimization problem taking into account power constraints at APs, necessary conditions for implementing successive interference cancellation, and required SE constraints at user equipments. The formulated optimization problem is highly non-convex, and thus, it is difficult to obtain the global optimal solution. Therefore, we develop a simple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solution. In addition, the performance of collocated massive MIMO-NOMA (COmMIMO-NOMA) system is also characterized. Numerical results are provided to show the superior performance of the proposed UC algorithms compared to baseline schemes. The effectiveness of applying NOMA in CFmMIMO and COmMIMO systems is also validated. [less ▲]

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See detailUrbanicity, behavior problems and HPA axis regulation in preschoolers
Effenberger, Pauline; Send, Tabea; Gilles, Maria et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (in press)

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See detailComparative administrative law in the EU: the integration function and its limits
Mendes, Joana UL

in Bartl, Marija; Lawrence, Jessica (Eds.) The Politics of European Legal Research. Behind the Method (in press)

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See detailCommon Universal Meromorphic Functions for Translation and Dilation Mappings
Meyrath, Thierry UL

in Computational Methods and Function Theory (in press)

We consider translation and dilation mappings acting on the spaces of meromorphic functions on the complex plane and the punctured complex plane, respectively. In both cases, we show that there is a dense ... [more ▼]

We consider translation and dilation mappings acting on the spaces of meromorphic functions on the complex plane and the punctured complex plane, respectively. In both cases, we show that there is a dense $G_{\delta}$-subset of meromorphic functions that are common universal for certain uncountable families of these mappings. While a corresponding result for translations exists for entire functions, our result for dilations has no holomorphic counterpart. We further obtain an analogue of Ansari’s Theorem for the mappings we consider, which is used as a key tool in the proofs of our main results. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneral Principles of Procedural Justice
Demkova, Simona UL; Hofmann, Herwig UL

in Ziegler, Katja S.; Jennings, Sir Robert; Neuvonen, Päivi J. (Eds.) et al Research Handbook on General Principles in EU Law: Constructing Legal Orders in Europe (2022)

This chapter addresses general principles of EU law concerning procedural justice. It does so using two sets of procedural rights: first, the right to good administration, and, second, the right to an ... [more ▼]

This chapter addresses general principles of EU law concerning procedural justice. It does so using two sets of procedural rights: first, the right to good administration, and, second, the right to an effective remedy. These procedural rights are central to ensuring the rule of law in the EU legal system and the accountability of the exercise of public functions in the EU. General principles of EU law within this chapter are understood as principles of constitutional character applicable throughout Union policies. In addition, many specific EU policies are governed by principles, which although general in nature, are applicable only to a specific policy sector. The working definition within this chapter is that only the former are general principles of EU law and not the latter, which are merely ‘principles’. This chapter traces the development and role of procedural principles and rights in the EU in very broad strokes. It does so in three steps: the chapter starts by briefly outlining the scope of application of the procedural general principles of EU law to sketch the depth and breadth of rights protected in this context (Section II). It then undertakes a quantitative assessment of references to procedural rights in the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) (Section III). The chapter finally concludes by discussing some possible explanations for the rise of procedural rights in EU law as general principles of procedural justice. We discuss how some of the difficulties arising from the existing situation can be remedied by the introduction of an EU regulation on administrative procedures (Section IV). [less ▲]

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See detailIML-GCN: Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network for Efficient yet Precise Image Classification
Singh, Inder Pal UL; Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL et al

in AAAI-22 Workshop Program-Deep Learning on Graphs: Methods and Applications (2022, February)

In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown great performance, they usually make use of very large architectures. To handle this, we propose to combine the small version of a newly introduced network called TResNet with an extended version of Multi-label Graph Convolution Networks (ML-GCN); therefore ensuring the learning of label correlation while reducing the size of the overall network. The proposed approach considers a novel image feature embedding instead of using word embeddings. In fact, the latter are learned from words and not images making them inadequate for the task of multi-label image classification. Experimental results show that our framework competes with the state-of-the-art on two multi-label image benchmarks in terms of both precision and memory requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailLa voie des réformes de l'UEM: "le futur ancien n'est pas notre avenir"
Allemand, Frederic UL

in Revue des Affaires Européennes (2022)

of a set of reforms in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The economic union is particularly concerned. The reforms implemented so far have been carried out without any change to the substance of the ... [more ▼]

of a set of reforms in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The economic union is particularly concerned. The reforms implemented so far have been carried out without any change to the substance of the EU constitutional framework, given that they made use of both the extensive substantive scope of EU legislative decision-making power in the field of economic union and the development of institutional practices to fill gaps or complement the EU legal framework. In so doing, EMU developments are condemned to take place within the limits of constitutional provisions that are outdated in many respects, increasingly complex, confusing and unreadable. Achieving a genuine EMU means breaking out of this status quo. Constitutional revision is no longer an option: it is a prerequisite for the well functioning of EMU. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of ultra-rare coding variants with genetic generalized epilepsy: A case–control whole exome sequencing study
Koko, Mahmoud; Motelow, Joshua E.; Stanley, Kate E. et al

in Epilepsia (2022)

Abstract Objective We aimed to identify genes associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) by combining large cohorts enriched with individuals with a positive family history. Secondarily, we set ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective We aimed to identify genes associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) by combining large cohorts enriched with individuals with a positive family history. Secondarily, we set out to compare the association of genes independently with familial and sporadic GGE. Methods We performed a case–control whole exome sequencing study in unrelated individuals of European descent diagnosed with GGE (previously recruited and sequenced through multiple international collaborations) and ancestry-matched controls. The association of ultra-rare variants (URVs; in 18 834 protein-coding genes) with epilepsy was examined in 1928 individuals with GGE (vs. 8578 controls), then separately in 945 individuals with familial GGE (vs. 8626 controls), and finally in 1005 individuals with sporadic GGE (vs. 8621 controls). We additionally examined the association of URVs with familial and sporadic GGE in two gene sets important for inhibitory signaling (19 genes encoding γ-aminobutyric acid type A [GABAA] receptors, 113 genes representing the GABAergic pathway). Results GABRG2 was associated with GGE (p = 1.8 × 10−5), approaching study-wide significance in familial GGE (p = 3.0 × 10−6), whereas no gene approached a significant association with sporadic GGE. Deleterious URVs in the most intolerant subgenic regions in genes encoding GABAA receptors were associated with familial GGE (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95 confidence interval [CI] = 1.9–7.8, false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted p = .0024), whereas their association with sporadic GGE had marginally lower odds (OR = 3.1, 95 CI = 1.3–6.7, FDR-adjusted p = .022). URVs in GABAergic pathway genes were associated with familial GGE (OR = 1.8, 95 CI = 1.3–2.5, FDR-adjusted p = .0024) but not with sporadic GGE (OR = 1.3, 95 CI = .9–1.9, FDR-adjusted p = .19). Significance URVs in GABRG2 are likely an important risk factor for familial GGE. The association of gene sets of GABAergic signaling with familial GGE is more prominent than with sporadic GGE. [less ▲]

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See detailIntersectional Inequalities in Science
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Larivière, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2022), 119(2), 2113067119

The US scientific workforce is primarily composed of White men. Studies have demonstrated the systemic barriers preventing women and other minoritized populations from gaining entry to science; few ... [more ▼]

The US scientific workforce is primarily composed of White men. Studies have demonstrated the systemic barriers preventing women and other minoritized populations from gaining entry to science; few, however, have taken an intersectional perspective and examined the consequences of these inequalities on scientific knowledge. We provide a large-scale bibliometric analysis of the relationship between intersectional identities, topics, and scientific impact. We find homophily between identities and topic, suggesting a relationship between diversity in the scientific workforce and expansion of the knowledge base. However, topic selection comes at a cost to minoritized individuals for whom we observe both between- and within-topic citation disadvantages. To enhance the robustness of science, research organizations should provide adequate resources to historically underfunded research areas while simultaneously providing access for minoritized individuals into high-prestige networks and topics. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Detective Work: Environmental Cheminformatics and the Exposome
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2022, January 10)

The multitude of chemicals to which we are exposed is ever increasing, with over 110 million chemicals in the largest open chemical databases, over 350,000 in global use inventories, and over 70,000 ... [more ▼]

The multitude of chemicals to which we are exposed is ever increasing, with over 110 million chemicals in the largest open chemical databases, over 350,000 in global use inventories, and over 70,000 estimated to be in household use alone. Detectable molecules in exposomics can be captured using non-target high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), but despite the size of the chemical space, scientists cannot yet identify most of the tens of thousands of features in each sample, leading to critical bottlenecks in identification and data interpretation. This talk will cover European and worldwide community initiatives and resources to help connect environmental expert knowledge and observations towards a better understanding of the exposome, including various open cheminformatics and computational mass spectrometry approaches such as the NORMAN Suspect List Exchange, MassBank, MetFrag and PubChemLite for Exposomics. [less ▲]

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See detailDairy Intake and Parkinson's Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study
Domenighetti, Cloé; Sugier, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ashok Kumar Sreelatha, Ashwin et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Abstract Background Previous prospective studies highlighted dairy intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in men. It is unclear whether this association is causal or explained ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Previous prospective studies highlighted dairy intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in men. It is unclear whether this association is causal or explained by reverse causation or confounding. Objective The aim is to examine the association between genetically predicted dairy intake and PD using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods We genotyped a well-established instrumental variable for dairy intake located in the lactase gene (rs4988235) within the Courage-PD consortium (23 studies; 9823 patients and 8376 controls of European ancestry). Results Based on a dominant model, there was an association between genetic predisposition toward higher dairy intake and PD (odds ratio [OR] per one serving per day = 1.70, 95 confidence interval = 1.12–2.60, P = 0.013) that was restricted to men (OR = 2.50 [1.37–4.56], P = 0.003; P-difference with women = 0.029). Conclusions Using MR, our findings provide further support for a causal relationship between dairy intake and higher PD risk, not biased by confounding or reverse causation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2022 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society [less ▲]

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See detailInterpolating Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics Hamiltonian with Artificial Neural Networks
Bipeng Wang; Weibin Chu; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2022)

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See detailMAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ENHANCED ENTRY SYSTEM FOR SPACE TRANSPORTATION (MEESST) AS A KEY BUILDING BLOCK FOR LOW-COST INTERPLANETARY MISSIONS
La Rosa Betancourt, Manuel; Collier-Wright, Marcus; Boegel, Elias et al

in Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (2022), 74(12), 448-453

Aside from the launch environment, atmospheric re-entry imposes one of the most demanding environments which a spacecraft can experience. The combination of high spacecraft velocity and the presence of ... [more ▼]

Aside from the launch environment, atmospheric re-entry imposes one of the most demanding environments which a spacecraft can experience. The combination of high spacecraft velocity and the presence of atmospheric particles leads to partially ionised gas forming around the vehicle, which significantly inhibits radio communications, and leads to the generation of high thermal loads on the spacecraft surface. Currently, the latter is solved using expensive, heavy, and often expendable thermal protection systems (TPS). The use of electromagnetic fields to exploit Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles has long been considered as an attractive solution for this problem. By displacing the ionised gas away from the spacecraft, the thermal loads can be reduced, while also opening a magnetic window for radio waves, mitigating the blackout phenomenon. The application of this concept has to date not been possible due to the large magnetic fields required, which would necessitate the use of exceptionally massive and power-hungry copper coils. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) have now reached industrial maturity. HTS coils can now offer the necessary low weight and compactness required for space applications. The MEESST consortium the has been awarded a grant from the EU Horizon 2020 programme for the development and demonstration of a novel HTS-based re-entry system based with its foundation on MHD principles. The project will first harmonize existing numerical codes, and then design, manufacture, and test a HTS magnet. The study shows that the use of MEESST technology can have a positive impact on the cost-effectiveness and available payload of interplanetary missions. [less ▲]

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