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Peer Reviewed
See detailFeasibility of Advanced Oxidation Processes as an upgrade for Microcontaminants removal at municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants
Salmeron Garcia, Irene UL; Nunez Tafalla, Paula UL; Venditti, Silvia UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June)

Benzotriazole, carbamazepine, clarithromycin and diclofenac have been identified as microcontaminants of concern in Luxembourgish wastewaters, thus the implementation of photo-Fenton processes at natural ... [more ▼]

Benzotriazole, carbamazepine, clarithromycin and diclofenac have been identified as microcontaminants of concern in Luxembourgish wastewaters, thus the implementation of photo-Fenton processes at natural pH has been proposed for their removal. In the present work, the effectiveness of a pilot scale photo-Fenton system (500W Medium Pressure) has been evaluated according to the reagent dosage and toxicity of the treated effluent. With this treatment, 80% degradation is achieved in 15 minutes even with 5 and 3 mg/L of iron (40 mg/L H2O2), but 5 mg/L can have a negative effect on the growth of Sorghum saccharatum in Phytotoxicity tests. In comparison UV-C/H2O2 (40W Low Pressure; 40 mg/L H2O2) process needs longer treatment time and generates degradation by-products causing a growth inhibition of Sorghum saccharatum. The combination of both lamps can lead to a better performance of the reagents allowing to reach the 80% target in less time and to reduce the dosage. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of UVC and Solar-based Processes for the Simultaneous Removal of Microcontaminants and Microorganism from Urban Wastewater Effluents I.
Salmeron Garcia, Irene UL; Sánchez-Montes, Isaac; Ruiz-Delgado, Ana et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June)

Currently, the presence of microcontaminats (MCs) and pathogens in secondary municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents entails a challenge to be addressed before water discharge or reuse. In this ... [more ▼]

Currently, the presence of microcontaminats (MCs) and pathogens in secondary municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents entails a challenge to be addressed before water discharge or reuse. In this work UVC (UVC/S2O82-, UVC/H2O2) and solar-based processes (solar/S2O82- and solar/H2O2) are proposed as tertiary treatments for the simultaneous removal of both, MCs and pathogens, comparing their efficiency aiming to find the most suitable solution. The microorganisms studied were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella enteritidis in a concentration of 103 CFU mL-1 each and a mixture of 6 MCs (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac) each at 100 μg L-1 of initial concentration, using simulated wastewater treatment plant effluent as water matrix. The concentrations of oxidants studied were 25 and 50 mg L-1 of each, respectively. Results revealed that UVC/H2O2 at 25 mg L-1 presented the most satisfactory solution considering treatment time and addition of reagents for complete inactivation of target pathogens and 80% removal of the sum of MCs. [less ▲]

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See detailApproximating WCRT through the aggregation of short simulations with different initial conditions: application to TSN
Keller, Patrick UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in 30th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS ’22) (2022, June)

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of ... [more ▼]

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of critical systems. There are however contexts where it is not economically or technically feasible to develop one, typically when the software and hardware components have not been designed with predictability in mind, e.g. as soon as TCP-based traffic is involved in network communication or when the hardware platform is too complex (e.g. heterogeneous System-on-Chips). In this paper, we study if it is possible to improve the ability of simulation to observe large traversal times, by running many short simulations with appropriately chosen simulation time and varying initial offsets of the stations on the network. The de-facto standard approach to assess maximal traversal times is to run a single long simulation with synchronized node start offsets and to use randomized node clock drifts inside an acceptable range. This approach is known to yield high traversal times but is not parallelizable. We propose an alternative approach consisting in splitting the simulation time over multiple shorter simulations with, optionally, randomized node start offsets. We evaluate the optimization potential of this simple approach on several realistic network configurations by comparing long simulations to aggregated short simulations, with and without synchronized node start offsets. We observe, considering all flows, that this allows a median improvement of up to 21.3% in terms of maximum traversal time observed, for the same simulation time budget. Additional randomization of the node start offsets showed further improvements of up to 4.8% in our experiments. Results from this line of work can be used to estimate the pessimism of schedulability analyses and verify systems for which no analysis is available. [less ▲]

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See detailTriggerZoo: A Dataset of Android Applications Automatically Infected with Logic Bombs
Samhi, Jordan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Klein, Jacques UL

in 19th International Conference on Mining Software Repositories, Data Showcase, (MSR 2022) (2022, May 23)

Many Android apps analyzers rely, among other techniques, on dynamic analysis to monitor their runtime behavior and detect potential security threats. However, malicious developers use subtle, though ... [more ▼]

Many Android apps analyzers rely, among other techniques, on dynamic analysis to monitor their runtime behavior and detect potential security threats. However, malicious developers use subtle, though efficient, techniques to bypass dynamic analyzers. Logic bombs are examples of popular techniques where the malicious code is triggered only under specific circumstances, challenging comprehensive dynamic analyses. The research community has proposed various approaches and tools to detect logic bombs. Unfortunately, rigorous assessment and fair comparison of state-of-the-art techniques are impossible due to the lack of ground truth. In this paper, we present TriggerZoo, a new dataset of 406 Android apps containing logic bombs and benign trigger-based behavior that we release only to the research community using authenticated API. These apps are real-world apps from Google Play that have been automatically infected by our tool AndroBomb. The injected pieces of code implementing the logic bombs cover a large pallet of realistic logic bomb types that we have manually characterized from a set of real logic bombs. Researchers can exploit this dataset as ground truth to assess their approaches and provide comparisons against other tools. [less ▲]

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See detailDifuzer: Uncovering Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations in Android Apps
Samhi, Jordan UL; Li, Li; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)

One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied ... [more ▼]

One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied. Defusing logic bombs remains an unsolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to investigate Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations (SHSOs) as a step towards triaging logic bombs. To that end, we develop a novel hybrid approach that combines static analysis and anomaly detection techniques to uncover SHSOs, which we predict as likely implementations of logic bombs. Concretely, Difuzer identifies SHSO entry-points using an instrumentation engine and an inter-procedural data-flow analysis. Then, it extracts trigger-specific features to characterize SHSOs and leverages One-Class SVM to implement an unsupervised learning model for detecting abnormal triggers. We evaluate our prototype and show that it yields a precision of 99.02% to detect SHSOs among which 29.7% are logic bombs. Difuzer outperforms the state-of-the-art in revealing more logic bombs while yielding less false positives in about one order of magnitude less time. All our artifacts are released to the community. [less ▲]

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See detailJuCify: A Step Towards Android Code Unification for Enhanced Static Analysis
Samhi, Jordan UL; Gao, Jun UL; Daoudi, Nadia UL et al

in 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)

Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art ... [more ▼]

Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art static analysis approaches have mostly overlooked the presence of such native code, which, however, may implement some key sensitive, or even malicious, parts of the app behavior. This limitation of the state of the art is a severe threat to validity in a large range of static analyses that do not have a complete view of the executable code in apps. To address this issue, we propose a new advance in the ambitious research direction of building a unified model of all code in Android apps. The JuCify approach presented in this paper is a significant step towards such a model, where we extract and merge call graphs of native code and bytecode to make the final model readily-usable by a common Android analysis framework: in our implementation, JuCify builds on the Soot internal intermediate representation. We performed empirical investigations to highlight how, without the unified model, a significant amount of Java methods called from the native code are ``unreachable'' in apps' call-graphs, both in goodware and malware. Using JuCify, we were able to enable static analyzers to reveal cases where malware relied on native code to hide invocation of payment library code or of other sensitive code in the Android framework. Additionally, JuCify's model enables state-of-the-art tools to achieve better precision and recall in detecting data leaks through native code. Finally, we show that by using JuCify we can find sensitive data leaks that pass through native code. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (8 UL)
See detailLes archives du Web, des sources aux données
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 20)

This keynote during Humanistica 2022 aimed to retrace 15 years of evolution of web archiving and web archives' studies. It also presented some research projects like the current Hivi, WARCnet and AWAC2 ... [more ▼]

This keynote during Humanistica 2022 aimed to retrace 15 years of evolution of web archiving and web archives' studies. It also presented some research projects like the current Hivi, WARCnet and AWAC2 projects. [less ▲]

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See detailFRACTAL DIMENSION AND POINT-WISE PROPERTIES OF TRAJECTORIES OF FRACTIONAL PROCESSES
Daw, Lara UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The topics of this thesis lie at the interference of probability theory with dimensional and harmonic analysis, accentuating the geometric properties of random paths of Gaussian and non-Gaussian ... [more ▼]

The topics of this thesis lie at the interference of probability theory with dimensional and harmonic analysis, accentuating the geometric properties of random paths of Gaussian and non-Gaussian stochastic processes. Such line of research has been rapidly growing in past years, paying off clear local and global properties for random paths associated to various stochastic processes such as Brownian and fractional Brownian motion. In this thesis, we start by studying the level sets associated to fractional Brownian motion using the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension. Then as a preliminary step, we establish some technical points regarding the distribution of the Rosenblatt process for the purpose of studying various geometric properties of its random paths. First, we obtain results concerning the Hausdorff (both classical and macroscopic), packing and intermediate dimensions, and the logarithmic and pixel densities of the image, level and sojourn time sets associated with sample paths of the Rosenblatt process. Second, we study the pointwise regularity of the generalized Rosenblatt and prove the existence of three kinds of local behavior: slow, ordinary and rapid points. In the last chapter, we illustrate several methods to estimate the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension, which played a key role in our results. In particular, we build the potential theoretical methods. Then, relying on this, we show that the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension of the projection of a set E ⊂ R^2 onto almost all straight lines passing through the origin in R^2 depends only on E, that is, they are almost surely independent of the choice of straight line. [less ▲]

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See detailModèles participatifs pour interpréter le passé
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Project description Ecole d’été « Participation & Démocratie » 16-20 Mai (Esch-Belval ; Esch-sur-Alzette; Dudelange) La plateforme de la démocratie participative/Université du Luxembourg a le grand ... [more ▼]

Project description Ecole d’été « Participation & Démocratie » 16-20 Mai (Esch-Belval ; Esch-sur-Alzette; Dudelange) La plateforme de la démocratie participative/Université du Luxembourg a le grand plaisir d’accueillir la cinquième édition de l’école d’été internationale (International Summer School) “Participation et démocratie”. Dans le prolongement des précédentes éditions, l’école d’été vise à approfondir les réflexions sur le fonctionnement de nos démocraties représentatives et sur les différents processus démocratiques – plus ou moins innovants – visant à promouvoir une participation plus directe et délibérative des citoyens. S’adressant aux étudiant·e·s en sciences politiques et sociales, ainsi qu’aux praticien·ne·s souhaitant renforcer leurs compétences, l’École d’été offre une semaine de formation interactive et personnalisée avec des enseignant·e·s reconnu·e·s internationalement. Elle propose un encadrement adapté aux étudiant·e·s en fin de master et aux doctorant·e·s à différents stades de leur avancement. Elle propose aussi aux praticien·ne·s de mettre en dialogue leur pratiques avec les évolutions de la gouvernance et de la participation citoyenne. L’ambition est de confronter les participant·e·s aux pratiques de recherche de chercheurs·euses confirmé·e·s, tout en donnant une opportunité de présenter ses travaux et de recevoir les commentaires et recommandations de des intervenant·e·s invité·es, mais aussi des autres participant·e·s. Cette école d’été est le fruit d’une collaboration forte entre cinq universités francophones d’excellence : Sciences Po Bordeaux, l’Université Laval, l’Université libre de Bruxelles, l’Université de Lausanne et l’Université du Luxembourg. Cela en fait une école unique dans le champ des sciences sociales et de la science politique francophone notamment par sa capacité à comparer les approches, les cas nationaux et leurs transformations. La spécificité de cette école est d’être l’une des rares en Europe à faire du français la langue de travail principale, même si l’anglais est utilisé pour certaines interventions. La présente édition marque la première édition de l’école à Luxembourg après que celle-ci se soit tenue à deux reprises à Bordeaux en 2016 et 2021, à Laval en 2017, à Bruxelles en 2018 et à Lausanne en 2020. Cette édition sera aussi l’occasion d’ouvrir un regard sur les nombreuses expériences participatives du Luxembourg et de saluer la collaboration fructueuse entre quatre acteurs engagés dans la l’étude et la promotion de la démocratie à Luxembourg : la Plateforme Luxembourgeoise de la Démocratie Participative (PLDP), la Chaire de Recherche en Études Parlementaires, ETICC et la ville de Dudelange en tant que ville pilote dans la démocratie participative. L’école sera organisée autour des thématiques suivantes : Y-a-t-il une demande pour plus de participation à l’ère de la désinformation ? Etat des lieux des consultations citoyennes Participation des jeunes et budget participatif Participation citoyenne dans les tiers lieux : le cas de Esch2022 Capitale européenne de la culture Digitalisation des campagnes politiques et effets sur la participation [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmarking Low-Frequency Variant Calling With Long-Read Data on Mitochondrial DNA
Lüth, Theresa; Schaake, Susen; Grünewald, Anne UL et al

in Frontiers in Genetics (2022), 13

Background: Sequencing quality has improved over the last decade for long-reads, allowing for more accurate detection of somatic low-frequency variants. In this study, we used mixtures of mitochondrial ... [more ▼]

Background: Sequencing quality has improved over the last decade for long-reads, allowing for more accurate detection of somatic low-frequency variants. In this study, we used mixtures of mitochondrial samples with different haplogroups (i.e., a specific set of mitochondrial variants) to investigate the applicability of nanopore sequencing for low-frequency single nucleotide variant detection.Methods: We investigated the impact of base-calling, alignment/mapping, quality control steps, and variant calling by comparing the results to a previously derived short-read gold standard generated on the Illumina NextSeq. For nanopore sequencing, six mixtures of four different haplotypes were prepared, allowing us to reliably check for expected variants at the predefined 5%, 2%, and 1% mixture levels. We used two different versions of Guppy for base-calling, two aligners (i.e., Minimap2 and Ngmlr), and three variant callers (i.e., Mutserve2, Freebayes, and Nanopanel2) to compare low-frequency variants. We used F<sub>1</sub> score measurements to assess the performance of variant calling.Results: We observed a mean read length of 11 kb and a mean overall read quality of 15. Ngmlr showed not only higher F<sub>1</sub> scores but also higher allele frequencies (AF) of false-positive calls across the mixtures (mean F<sub>1</sub> score = 0.83; false-positive allele frequencies < 0.17) compared to Minimap2 (mean F<sub>1</sub> score = 0.82; false-positive AF < 0.06). Mutserve2 had the highest F<sub>1</sub> scores (5% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.99, 2% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.54, and 1% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.70) across all callers and mixture levels.Conclusion: We here present the benchmarking for low-frequency variant calling with nanopore sequencing by identifying current limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic History: A Textbook of Practice
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Book published by Routledge - 2nd ed. (2022)

Book Description The second edition of Public History: A Textbook of Practice offers an updated guide to the many opportunities and challenges that public history practitioners can encounter in the field ... [more ▼]

Book Description The second edition of Public History: A Textbook of Practice offers an updated guide to the many opportunities and challenges that public history practitioners can encounter in the field. Historians can play a dynamic and essential role in contributing to public understanding of the past, and those who work in historic preservation, in museums and archives, in government agencies, as consultants, as oral historians, or who manage crowdsourcing projects need very specific skills. This book links theory and practice and provides students and practitioners with the tools to do public history in a wide range of settings. This new edition reflects how much the field of public history has changed in the past few years, with public history now being more established and international. New chapters have therefore been added on the definition, history, and international scope of public history, as well as on specific practices and theories such as historical fictions, digital public history, and shared authority. Split into four sections, this textbook provides approaches, methodologies, and tools for historians and other public history practitioners to play a bigger role in public debates and public productions of historical interpretations: Part I focuses on the past, present, and future of public history. Part II explores public history sources, and offers an overview of the creation, collection, management, and preservation of materials (archives, material culture, oral history, or historical sites). Part III deals with the different ways in which public history practitioners can produce historical narratives through different media (including texts, fictions, audio-visual productions, exhibitions, and performances). Part IV discusses the opportunities and challenges that public history practitioners encounter when working with different collaborators. Whether in public history methods courses or as a resource for practicing public historians, this book lays the groundwork for making meaningful connections between historical sources and popular audiences. Table of Contents 0. Introduction Part I, Public history: Past, present, and future of the field 1. Defining public history 2. A long history of public history 3. Internationalization of public history 4. Collaboration, expertise, and authority: History with publics 5. Digital public history: a promising future Part II, Public history and sources 6. Museums and collections 7. Archiving 8. Historic preservation 9. Oral history Part III, Making public history 10. Public history writing 11. Historical fictions 12. Radio and audio-visual production 13. Exhibiting history 14. Immersion and performance Part IV, Collaboration, uses, and applications of public history 15. Public history teaching 16. Working with under-represented groups and communities 17. Public history, conflicts, and competing narratives 18. Business, policy, justice: Consulting and service Author(s) Biography Thomas Cauvin is ATTRACT-Fellow and Associate Professor of Public History at the Centre for Contemporary and Digital History, University of Luxembourg. He leads the Public History as the New Citizen Science of the Past project (2020–2025) and was the President of the International Federation for Public History from 2018 to 2021. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Investment Law in US Courts
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

in Ruiz Fabri, Helene; Stoppioni, Edoardo (Eds.) International Investment Law: An Analysis of the Major Decisions (2022)

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See detailThe impact of parental migration on psychological well-being of children in Ghana
Raturi, Radhika; Cebotari, Victor UL

in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2022)

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See detailMasse des archives du web et circulation des contenus
Pailler, Fred UL

Presentation (2022, May 13)

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See detailTeaching Public History in UK Higher Education
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

About this event Welcome: The AHRC-funded 'What is Public History Now?' Network is thrilled to invite you to our first workshop 'Teaching Public History in UK Higher Education'. We hope you'll join us for ... [more ▼]

About this event Welcome: The AHRC-funded 'What is Public History Now?' Network is thrilled to invite you to our first workshop 'Teaching Public History in UK Higher Education'. We hope you'll join us for a day of discussions on public history in higher education, ranging from intellectual traditions to pedagogy and programme design. Schedule: 13 May, 10am-12am; 2pm-4pm; 4:30-6:00pm. 10am-11am: Intellectual traditions and the history of UK public history 11am-12pm: Public history in the UK and in International Context What is distinct about public history in the UK? What are the particular dynamics of regions/smaller nations? How does this sit within the international context? 2pm-4pm: Pedagogy and Programme Design What are we teaching? Who are we teaching? How are we teaching? Why are we teaching it? The growth of public history programmes and the inflection of wider history teaching with public history. The relationship of public history and heritage programmes. Break out rooms to discuss and compare modules and programmes. 4:30pm-5:30pm: Policy and Institutional Support Why now? The impact agenda and the neoliberal university. What resources are we being given or not given? 5:30pm-6:00pm: Final Thoughts and Plans for the Next Workshop [less ▲]

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