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See detailSome simple variance bounds from Stein’s method
Ley, Christophe UL; Daly, Fraser; Ghaderinezhad, Fatemeh et al

in ALEA: Latin American Journal of Probability and Mathematical Statistics (2021), 18

Using coupling techniques based on Stein’s method for probability approximation, we revisit classical variance bounding inequalities of Chernoff, Cacoullos, Chen and Klaassen. Our bounds are immediate in ... [more ▼]

Using coupling techniques based on Stein’s method for probability approximation, we revisit classical variance bounding inequalities of Chernoff, Cacoullos, Chen and Klaassen. Our bounds are immediate in any context wherein a Stein identity is available. After providing illustrative examples for a Gaussian and a Gumbel target distribution, our main contributions are new variance bounds in settings where the underlying density function is unknown or intractable. Applications include bounds for analysis of the posterior in Bayesian statistics, bounds for asymptotically Gaussian random variables using zero-biased couplings, and bounds for random variables which are New Better (Worse) than Used in Expectation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of conformism on firm selection, product quality and home bias
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kichko, Sergey

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021), 185

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their workplaces with private vehicles and exert a local pollution externality on the residents living along the urban transport networks. The spatial location of firms and residents endogenously results from the trade-off between the production and pollution externalities and the commuting costs. The analysis shows that in monocentric cities the benefits associated with a fall in per-vehicle pollution are absorbed by rents paid to absentee landlords. When a city includes business and residential districts as well as a district mixing both agents, a lower per-vehicle pollution enlarges the residential districts and shifts the business districts closer to the geographical center of the city. The paper finally studies the optimal city structure. The first-best policies that fully internalize the externalities still foster business agglomeration. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Design of Sustainable Cities: Local Traffic Pollution and Urban Structure
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kyriakopoulou, Efthymia

in Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2021), 107

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their workplaces with private vehicles and exert a local pollution externality on the residents living along the urban transport networks. The spatial location of firms and residents endogenously results from the trade-off between the production and pollution externalities and the commuting costs. The analysis shows that in monocentric cities the benefits associated with a fall in per-vehicle pollution are absorbed by rents paid to absentee landlords. When a city includes business and residential districts as well as a district mixing both agents, a lower per-vehicle pollution enlarges the residential districts and shifts the business districts closer to the geographical center of the city. The paper finally studies the optimal city structure. The first-best policies that fully internalize the externalities still foster business agglomeration. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Formation Flight using Solar Radiation Pressure
Thoemel, Jan UL; van Dam, Tonie UL

in CEAS Space Journal (2020)

Autonomous formation flight enables new satellite missions for novel applications. The cost and limits of propulsion systems can be overcome if environmental resources are being benefitted of. Currently ... [more ▼]

Autonomous formation flight enables new satellite missions for novel applications. The cost and limits of propulsion systems can be overcome if environmental resources are being benefitted of. Currently, atmospheric drag is used in low Earth orbit to this end. Solar radiation pressure, which is of similar order of magnitude as aerodynamic ram pressure, is, however, always neglected. We introduce this force and show that it can be exploited. We demonstrate through simulations that a formation geometry is established quicker if the solar radiation pressure is modeled. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking History Together: Public Participation in Museums
Cauvin, Thomas UL; Konstantinou, Katerina; Boccalatte, Paola et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 15)

The international online symposium brought together scholars, museum professionals and heritage practitioners to discuss how participatory history is constructed, developed, and implemented in museums ... [more ▼]

The international online symposium brought together scholars, museum professionals and heritage practitioners to discuss how participatory history is constructed, developed, and implemented in museums. 'Making History Together: Public Participation in Museums' took place on 15 December 2020 and has brought together participants and case studies from all over the world. Sessions include discussions on co-creation and co-production, community of interpretation, digital public participatory practices, empowerment, and overall impact on making history in museums. [less ▲]

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See detailPatrice Chéreau en marge de la bienséance classique : Le « Récit de Théramène » dans sa mise en scène de Phèdre de Jean Racine (2003, Ateliers Berthier, Théâtre de l'Odéon, Paris)
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, December 14)

Quand il met en scène, en 2003, aux Ateliers Berthier (Théâtre de l’Odéon, Paris, XVIIème), Phèdre de Jean Racine, Patrice Chéreau revient sur le devant de la scène théâtrale en souhaitant ... [more ▼]

Quand il met en scène, en 2003, aux Ateliers Berthier (Théâtre de l’Odéon, Paris, XVIIème), Phèdre de Jean Racine, Patrice Chéreau revient sur le devant de la scène théâtrale en souhaitant contemporanéiser une œuvre considérée, depuis l’année de sa parution (1677), comme la « quintessence de la tragédie française » . Cette volonté d’inscrire cette pièce dans le présent de la création artistique passe notamment par sa lecture singulière du « Récit de Théramène », lequel narre la mort d’Hippolyte. En effet, Patrice Chéreau entend s’opposer à la tradition littéraire de l’énonciation, sous forme d’hypotypose, par une tierce personne - en l’occurrence Théramène, gouverneur du jeune prince - et proposer ainsi une monstration pleinement assumée du corps ensanglanté, morcelé et déchiqueté du corps d’Hippolyte. Reliquat et objet de tous les désirs, le corps atrophié du jeune prince, autour duquel l’intrigue s’est construite, paraît au vu et au su de tous, acteurs comme spectateurs. À l’égard du texte racinien, ce corps apparaît excessif et en surplus vis-à-vis de l’action scénique. Dès lors, un tel parti pris, en marge de la tradition, mérite d’être interrogé, car il remet entièrement en perspective la question de la bienséance classique. Afin de le démontrer, notre réflexion sera divisée en deux parties. La première s’axera précisément sur la bienséance, caractéristique de l’esthétique classique. Dans le cas de ce récit anthologique, nous verrons que Jean Racine se joue lui-même des codes en se référant davantage à Sénèque qu’à Euripide. Le second temps de notre étude cherchera à appréhender le positionnement radical de Patrice Chéreau face à ces présupposés pour, in fine, tenter de comprendre comment ce metteur en scène rompt avec la doctrine classique et offre, par là même, une vision novatrice et inédite - qui deviendra emblématique - de Phèdre de Jean Racine [less ▲]

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See detailMaking Audits Meaningful: Overseeing the Use of AI in Content Moderation
Bloch-Weba, Hannah; Fernandez, Angelica UL; Morar, David

Report (2020)

While platforms use increasingly sophisticated technology to make content-related decisions that affect public discourse, firms are tight-lipped about exactly how the technologies of content moderation ... [more ▼]

While platforms use increasingly sophisticated technology to make content-related decisions that affect public discourse, firms are tight-lipped about exactly how the technologies of content moderation function. The laconic nature of industry disclosure relating to their use of algorithmic content moderation is thoroughly unacceptable, considering that regulators need to understand the platform ecosystem in order to design evidence-based regulations and monitor risks associated with the use of AI in content moderation. This white paper sets out to explain how and why audits, a specific type of transparency measure, should be mandated by law within the four clear principles of independence, access, publicity, and resources. We go on to unpack the types of transparency, and then contextualize audits in this framework while also describing risks and benefits. The white paper concludes with the explanation of the four principles, as they are derived from the previous sections. [less ▲]

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See detailThinking Outside the (Methodological) Box: Teaching New Dogs Old Tricks
Lichuma, Caroline Omari UL

Article for general public (2020)

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See detailPour une nouvelle pratique de l’appel immédiat !
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Pasicrisie Luxembourgeoise: Recueil Trimestriel de la Jurisprudence Luxembourgeoise (2020), t. 39, 4/2020

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See detailQuantum friction in the Hydrodynamic Model
Wu, Kunmin UL; Schmidt, Thomas UL; Farias, Maria Belen UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We study the phenomenon of quantum friction in a system consisting of a polarizable atom moving at a constant speed parallel to a metallic plate. The metal is described using a charged hydrodynamic model ... [more ▼]

We study the phenomenon of quantum friction in a system consisting of a polarizable atom moving at a constant speed parallel to a metallic plate. The metal is described using a charged hydrodynamic model for the electrons. This model featuring long-range interactions is appropriate for a clean metal in a temperature range where scattering due to Coulomb interactions dominates over the scattering of electron by impurities. We find that a quantum friction force between the atom and the metal surface exists even in the absence of intrinsic damping in the metal, but that it only starts once the velocity of the atom exceeds the effective speed of sound in the metal. We argue that this condition can be fulfilled most easily in metals with nearly empty or nearly filled bands. We make quantitative predictions for the friction force to the second and fourth order in the atomic polarizability, and show that the threshold behavior persists to all orders of the perturbation theory. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Vehicles: Data Protection and Ethical Considerations
Terzidou, Kalliopi UL; Krontiris, Ioannis; Grammenou, Kalliroi et al

in Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (2020, December)

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See detailA transgenic line that reports CSF1R protein expression provides a definitive marker for the mouse mononuclear phagocyte system
Grabert, Kathleen; Sehgal, Anuj; Irvine, Katherine et al

in Journal of Immunology (2020), 205(11), 3154-3166

The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS; progenitors, monocytes, macrophages, and classical dendritic cells) are controlled by signals from the M ... [more ▼]

The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS; progenitors, monocytes, macrophages, and classical dendritic cells) are controlled by signals from the M-CSF receptor (CSF1R). Cells of the MPS lineage have been identified using numerous surface markers and transgenic reporters, but none is both universal and lineage restricted. In this article, we report the development and characterization of a CSF1R reporter mouse. A FusionRed (FRed) cassette was inserted in-frame with the C terminus of CSF1R, separated by a T2A-cleavable linker. The insertion had no effect of CSF1R expression or function. CSF1R-FRed was expressed in monocytes and macrophages and absent from granulocytes and lymphocytes. In bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was absent in lineage-negative hematopoietic stem cells, arguing against a direct role for CSF1R in myeloid lineage commitment. It was highly expressed in marrow monocytes and common myeloid progenitors but significantly lower in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. In sections of bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was also detected in osteoclasts, CD169+ resident macrophages, and, consistent with previous mRNA analysis, in megakaryocytes. In lymphoid tissues, CSF1R-FRed highlighted diverse MPS populations, including classical dendritic cells. Whole mount imaging of nonlymphoid tissues in mice with combined CSF1R-FRed/Csf1r-EGFP confirmed the restriction of CSF1R expression to MPS cells. The two markers highlight the remarkable abundance and regular distribution of tissue MPS cells, including novel macrophage populations within tendon and skeletal muscle and underlying the mesothelial/serosal/capsular surfaces of every major organ. The CSF1R-FRed mouse provides a novel reporter with exquisite specificity for cells of the MPS. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns and Drivers of Extracellular Enzyme Activity in New Zealand Glacier-Fed Streams
Kohler, Tyler J.; Peter, Hannes; Fodelianakis, Stilianos et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2020), 11

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) exhibit near-freezing temperatures, variable flows, and often high turbidities. Currently, the rapid shrinkage of mountain glaciers is altering the delivery of meltwater ... [more ▼]

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) exhibit near-freezing temperatures, variable flows, and often high turbidities. Currently, the rapid shrinkage of mountain glaciers is altering the delivery of meltwater, solutes, and particulate matter to GFSs, with unknown consequences for their ecology. Benthic biofilms dominate microbial life in GFSs, and play a major role in their biogeochemical cycling. Mineralization is likely an important process for microbes to meet elemental budgets in these systems due to commonly oligotrophic conditions, and extracellular enzymes retained within the biofilm enable the degradation of organic matter and acquisition of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). The measurement and comparison of these extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) can in turn provide insight into microbial elemental acquisition effort relative to environmental availability. To better understand how benthic biofilm communities meet resource demands, and how this might shift as glaciers vanish under climate change, we investigated biofilm EEA in 20 GFSs varying in glacier influence from New Zealand’s Southern Alps. Using turbidity and distance to the glacier snout normalized for glacier size as proxies for glacier influence, we found that bacterial abundance (BA), chlorophyll a (Chl a), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and total EEA per gram of sediment increased with decreasing glacier influence. Yet, when normalized by BA, EPS decreased with decreasing glacier influence, Chl a still increased, and there was no relationship with total EEA. Based on EEA ratios, we found that the majority of GFS microbial communities were N-limited, with a few streams of different underlying bedrock geology exhibiting P-limitation. Cell-specific C-acquiring EEA was positively related to the ratio of Chl a to BA, presumably reflecting the utilization of algal exudates. Meanwhile, cell-specific N-acquiring EEA were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and both N- and P-acquiring EEA increased with greater cell-specific EPS. Overall, our results reveal greater glacier influence to be negatively related to GFS biofilm biomass parameters, and generally associated with greater microbial N demand. These results help to illuminate the ecology of GFS biofilms, along with their biogeochemical response to a shifting habitat template with ongoing climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen the score function is the identity function - A tale of characterizations of the normal distribution
Ley, Christophe UL

in Econometrics and Statistics (2020)

The normal distribution is well-known for several results that it is the only to fulfil. Much less well-known is the fact that many of these characterizations follow from the fact that the derivative of ... [more ▼]

The normal distribution is well-known for several results that it is the only to fulfil. Much less well-known is the fact that many of these characterizations follow from the fact that the derivative of the log-density of the normal distribution is the (negative) identity function. This a priori very simple yet surprising observation allows a deeper understanding of existing characterizations and paves the way for an immediate extension of various seemingly normal-based characterizations to a general density by replacing the (negative) identity function in these results with the derivative of that log-density. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of antiepilepitic drug-target interactions in public databases
Zizovic, Milena UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2020)

Epilepsy is affecting people of all age and gender. The disease is traditionally treated with application of antiepileptic drugs. The therapy choice mostly relies on the differential diagnosis which is ... [more ▼]

Epilepsy is affecting people of all age and gender. The disease is traditionally treated with application of antiepileptic drugs. The therapy choice mostly relies on the differential diagnosis which is not always easy to be deducted. The treatment guidelines and antiepileptics are diverged according to major epilepsy types – generalized and focal epilepsy. However, prospective studies of antiepileptic drug effectiveness on the European cohort have shown that pharmacoresponse is patient dependent. In this thesis the antiepileptic drug prescription trend in this cohort in generalized and focal epilepsy patients was investigated. Moreover, the use of antiepileptics in the clinics from the EpiPGX database was compared to the findings of their use in general practices in the UK. To explain the difference in patient response to therapy AED-target interactions were investigated on the level of databases. In addition, with the discovery of new genes implicated in epilepsy and success of drugs of other groups such as quinidine and fampridine in treating the symptoms, the drug-repurposing found its application in epilepsy. In this thesis, quinidine-KCNT1 and fampridine-KCNA2 interactions were investigated in order to estimate the feasibility of using public databases to select drug-target interactions for clinical application. The investigation relied mainly on the ChEMBL database. However, these genes were not found among antiepileptic drug targets in the database. Quinidine and fampridine were assay associated with other AED targets. The results suggest that the therapy choice for treatment of rare forms of epilepsy underlined by channelopathies could be significantly expanded, but that database approach requires high level of drug-target selection criteria and text mining. [less ▲]

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See detailCommunication, public engagement and public history
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 06)

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See detailRound table: Museum of Self-isolation
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 UL)