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See detailWhy is Everyone Training Very Deep Neural Network with Skip Connections?
Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Al Ismaeil, Kassem; Aouada, Djamila UL

in IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems (2021)

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See detailFactors Affecting the Implementation of Computational Thinking in the Curriculum
Hennico, Jeff; Reuter, Robert UL; Weinberger, Armin

Scientific Conference (2021, November 24)

Computational thinking (CT) in fundamental education is an emerging topic in research about educational policies and practices around the globe. In Luxembourg, CT was introduced as a learning topic in ... [more ▼]

Computational thinking (CT) in fundamental education is an emerging topic in research about educational policies and practices around the globe. In Luxembourg, CT was introduced as a learning topic in fundamental schools in 2020. This situation offers a unique opportunity to investigate how various factors influence emerging CT teaching practices. Based on a revised version of the Technology Acceptance Model (Inan & Lowther, 2010), a research-based path model of CT teaching was developed, emphasising the influence of teachers’ beliefs and readiness on CT teaching practices. It investigated the effects of demographic factors, teaching approaches, ICT proficiency, previous CT experience, and overall support for technology integration on readiness, beliefs, and CT teaching practices. The current study reveals that teachers are interested in teaching CT. However, they hold a widespread misconception (Fessakis & Prantsoudi, 2019), confusing CT with programming or technology use. ICT proficiency is indeed associated with beliefs about CT and readiness for teaching CT. Readiness for teaching CT, beliefs about CT, and previous CT experience are the strongest predictors for CT teaching practices. In line with Cuny et al. (2010), the current study highlights the importance of training teachers to accurately define CT and to identify good practices. [less ▲]

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See detail5G AND BEYOND NETWORKS WITH UAV: TRAJECTORY DESIGN AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION
Tran Dinh, Hieu UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Over the past few years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-enabled wireless communications have attracted considerable attention from both academia and industry due to their high mobility, low cost, strong ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-enabled wireless communications have attracted considerable attention from both academia and industry due to their high mobility, low cost, strong light-of-sight communication links, and ease of deployment. Specifically, UAVs can be deployed to serve as aerial base stations (BSs), relays, power sources, etc., to support ground users (GUs) in various scenarios such as surveillance missions, search and rescue, crop monitoring, delivery of goods, data collection, emergency communications, secrecy communications, space-air-ground communications, etc. Despite many advantages, UAV-enabled communications are not without limitations. The limitations of UAVs have imposed technical restrictions on weight, size, and energy capability, thereby affecting the durability and performance of UAVs. The key goal of this dissertation is to propose and develop new frameworks and efficient optimization algorithms to solve novel challenging problems, facilitate the design and deployment of UAV-enabled communications. Consequently, these proposed algorithms can become one of the foundations for deploying UAVs in future wireless systems. Specifically, this dissertation investigates different UAV communication systems by addressing several important research problems through four emerging scenarios: 1) Design UAV trajectory based on traveling salesman problem with time window (TSPTW); 2) Full-duplex (FD) UAV relay-assisted emergency communications in Internet of Things (IoT) networks; 3) Backscatter- and cache-assisted UAV communications; and 4) Satellite- and cache-assisted UAV communications in 6G aerial networks. In the first scenario, we provide the coarse trajectory for the UAV based on TSPTW, which has not been investigated in UAV communications yet. Concretely, we propose two trajectory design algorithms based on TSPTW, namely heuristic algorithm and dynamic programming (DP)-based algorithm, and they are compared with exhaustive search and traveling salesman problem (TSP)-based methods. Based on the feasible path obtained from proposed algorithms, we minimize the total UAV’s energy consumption for each given path via a joint optimization of the UAV velocities in all hops. Simulation results show that the energy consumption value of DP is very close to that of the exhaustive algorithm with greatly reduced complexity. Based on this work, an efficient TSPTW-based algorithm can be used as an initialized trajectory for designing a joint problem of UAV trajectory and other communications factors (e.g., communication scheduling, transmit power allocation, time allocation), which are challenges. We then study the case of a FD UAV relaying system in IoT networks. Specifically, a UAV can be deployed as a flying base station (BS) to collect data from time-constrained IoT devices and then transfer it to a ground gateway (GW). Especially, the impact of latency constraint for the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) transmission utilizing FD or half-duplex (HD) mode is investigated. Using the proposed system model, we aim to maximize the total number of served IoT devices subject to the maximum speed constraint of the UAV, total traveling time constant, UAV trajectory, maximum transmit power at the devices/UAV, limited cache size of the UAV, and latency constraints for both UL and DL. Next, we attempt to maximize the total throughput subject to the number of served IoT devices. The outcome of this work will motivate a new framework for UAV-aided communications in disaster or emergency communications. Next, a novel system model that considers SWIPT, backscatter and caching in UAV wireless networks is developed. Based on this model, we aim to maximize the system throughput by jointly optimizing the dynamic time splitting (DTS) ratio and the UAV’s trajectory with caching capability at the UAV. This is the first work that jointly considers wireless power transfer (WPT), caching, and BackCom in UAV communications, which provides a potential solution for a battery-free drone system that can fly for a long period in the sky to support the terrestrial communication systems. Finally, a novel system model for effective use of LEO satellite- and cache-assisted UAV communication is proposed and studied. Specifically, caching is provided by the UAV to reduce backhaul congestion, and the LEO satellite assists the UAV’s backhaul link. In this context, we aim to maximize the minimum achievable throughput per ground user (GU) by jointly optimizing cache placement, the UAV’s transmit power, bandwidth allocation, and trajectory with a limited cache capacity and operation time. The outcomes of this work can provide a new design framework for Satellite-UAV-terrestrial communications that includes two tiers, i.e., the backhaul link from satellite to UAV and the access link from UAV to ground users, which imposes new challenges and was not investigated before. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Standard Errors
Wolff, Christian UL; Zhang, Lu UL; Holzmeister, Felix

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailThe antioxidant glutathione as a regulator of natural killer cell immunity
Frias Guerra, Luana UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that belong to the innate branch of the immune system. Regulation of NK cell activity relies on the expression and engagement of a wide range of ... [more ▼]

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that belong to the innate branch of the immune system. Regulation of NK cell activity relies on the expression and engagement of a wide range of inhibitory and activating receptors that detect signals arising from cells in distress. Besides their cytotoxic function, NK cells are effective producers of cytokines that participate in the regulation of other immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells. These innate lymphocytes control microbial infections and malignant cell growth, which are pathological conditions where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role. ROS participate in cell signaling events and constitute important secondary messengers for immune cell proliferation and growth. However, when accumulated, their presence leads to oxidative stress due to their high reactivity against biomolecules. In order to ensure coordinated levels of ROS, cells are endowed of antioxidant systems that allow for ROS detoxification. One of the most important intracellular antioxidants is glutathione (GSH). Given the subset specificity of GSH regulation in immunity, we aimed to investigate the role of this antioxidant in NK cells. Using a genetic-based approach, through a flox-Cre system, we specifically abrogated GSH production in NK cells. Mutant mice had a reduced abundance of NK cells, when compared to controls. Furthermore, in vitro stimulation of NK cells with IL-15, showed that ablation of GSH production renders NK cells unable to proliferate and these cells were less cytotoxic. NK cells lacking GSH accumulated mitochondrial ROS, resulting in reduced mitochondrial fitness. This was paralleled by a general metabolic shutdown, and reduced mTOR and STAT5 signaling. In vivo, GSH and redox regulation were demonstrated to be key for NK cell-mediated regulation of T cells, in a viral model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Moreover, in an experimental tumor model, deletion of GSH resulted in an NK cell intrinsic impairment of tumor dissemination and increased exhaustion. Taken together, our results indicate GSH as a key checkpoint for NK cell homeostasis and function. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dernier chant du Paradis de Dante
Cicotti, Claudio UL

Presentation (2021, November 22)

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See detailLa cuisine italienne dans le contexte du Street food global
Cicotti, Claudio UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 UL)
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See detailDeep Learning for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration
Duque, Nicolas; Mejia, Lina; Martinez Luna, Carol UL et al

in Advances in Automation and Robotics Research (2021, November 21)

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See detailPauvre Luxembourg
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailThe decisional value of information in semi-automated decision-making
Demkova, Simona UL

Article for general public (2021)

We live in the age of information. Information is accessible, fast and empowering. By automatically processing and analysing large amounts of information, the governance of modern society has become more ... [more ▼]

We live in the age of information. Information is accessible, fast and empowering. By automatically processing and analysing large amounts of information, the governance of modern society has become more efficient and reliable. The large extent to which novel forms of information processing are being relied on, is changing the very nature of the act of decision-making. This contribution defines such decision-making as ‘semi-automated’ because of the decisional value of the automatically generated information source. This article (see the full version here) starts with a brief background to the European initiatives, introducing automation in information processing, before outlining the impact of such initiatives on the decision-making conduct and the take-overs for the Union legal order at large. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic support for tax policies in COVID-19 times: Evidence from Luxembourg
Olivera, Javier; van Kerm, Philippe UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the ... [more ▼]

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the agreement of respondents over: a one-time net wealth tax, an inheritance tax, a temporary solidarity income tax, and a temporary increase in VAT. All questions include different and randomly assigned tax attributes (tax rates and exemption amounts). We find a clear divide with relativelyhigh support for new wealth and inheritance taxes on the one hand and a low support for increases in VAT and income taxes on the other hand. While 58% of respondents agree or strongly agree with a one-time tax levied on net worth, only24% are in favor of a small increase in VAT. Support for any tax is however negatively associated with the size of the tax as measured by the predicted revenues. Our results indicate that a one-time wealth tax could raise substantial revenues andstill garner public support. [less ▲]

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See detailINTERFACE OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE DEFICIT IN CU(IN,GA)S2 SOLAR CELL: CHARACTERIZATION, SIMULATION AND MITIGATION
Sood, Mohit UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Current commercial photovoltaic technologies are close to their practical limits, and enhancing their power conversion efficiency (PCE) requires a paradigm shift to tandem approaches. Tandem solar cells ... [more ▼]

Current commercial photovoltaic technologies are close to their practical limits, and enhancing their power conversion efficiency (PCE) requires a paradigm shift to tandem approaches. Tandem solar cells can exceed the single junction practical and thermodynamic limits. The desired top cell bandgap to enhance PCE of current photovoltaic technologies is ~1.6 1.7 eV. The bandgap tunability from 1.5 eV to 2.5 eV positions Cu(In,Ga)S2 as a prime top cell candidate for next generation low-cost tandem cells. However, they are limited by a low external open circuit voltage (VOC,ex). In this thesis, we have studied the interface recombination and found it to cause a difference between VOC,ex and internal open-circuit voltage (VOC,in) in Cu(In,Ga)S2 solar cell. We have introduced a quantifiable metric that has not been used before for Cu(In,Ga)S2, to evaluate VOC disparity in terms of “interface VOC deficit” defined as (VOC,in – VOC,ex). The temperature dependent current-voltage measurement allows to investigate the activation energy (Ea) of the dominating recombination path in the device, uncovering the cause of interface VOC deficit in Cu poor and Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices. We find that negative conduction band offset (CBO) at the absorber/buffer interface results in interface VOC deficit in Cu poor Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices. Although the interface VOC deficit can be reduced by replacing the buffer for favorable band alignment at the absorber/buffer interface, a substantial deficiency still exists. We observe that the CBO not only at the absorber/buffer interface but also at the buffer/i-layer interface leads to an interface VOC deficit in devices. This, in general, is not an issue in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices. By optimizing buffer and i-layer, we mitigate and overcome buffer/i-layer losses to get Cu poor Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices with consistently low interface VOC deficit. As a result, an in-house PCE of 15.1 % is achieved together with an externally certified PCE of 14 %. This is, by far, the best Cu(In,Ga)S2 device performance except for the record PCE device. In contrast, the interface VOC deficit and the interface recombination persists in Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices and is not resolved by alternative buffers. To identify the possible origin of the interface VOC deficit, we characterize two sister systems CuInS2 and CuInSe2, which offer reduced complexity due to Ga exclusion. The Cu-rich devices of these systems are also known to suffer from interface recombination, and for CuInSe2, it has been linked to the “200 meV” defect. However, the underlying mechanism of how this defect leads to interface recombination remains unknown. Through results obtained from photoelectron spectroscopic measurements, we exclude the possibility of two commonly evoked causes of interface recombination: negative CBO and Fermi-level pinning. Sulfur-based post-deposition treatments on KCN etched Cu-rich CuInS2 absorbers reveal near interface defects as a possible alternative cause of interface VOC deficit. The treatment increases the VOC,ex, which originates from improved Ea and interface VOC deficit in treated devices. The capacitance transient measurements further reveal that slow metastable defects are present in the untreated sample. The treated samples show that the slow transient is suppressed, suggesting the passivation of slow metastable defects. The treatment adapted to Cu rich CuInSe2 displays a reduction in the deep defect signature in admittance spectra, which explains the observed improvement in interface VOC deficit. This indicates that the defects near the absorber/buffer interface, acting as non-radiative recombination centers, as the source of interface VOC deficit. Finally, to understand how the defect leads to interface recombination, a new model based on near interface defects is offered using the holistic analysis and evaluation of the defect characteristics. We can reproduce an interface VOC deficit with all the signatures of an interface recombination-dominated device using numerical simulations. This model provides a solution for the consideration of interface recombination by defects distributed in a thin layer within the bulk absorber, an explanation beyond classical models. The near interface defect model finally explains why Cu rich chalcopyrite solar cells are limited in their VOC,ex despite a good VOC,in, which was not discovered before. The model thus forms a new third explanation for interface recombination signature in devices and is applicable to any device with highly recombinative defects near the interface. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional coatings based on MWCNT-Metal oxide nanocomposite for solar energy harvester application.
Prasadam, Vasu Prasad UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Global energy demand propelled humankind in search of clean and renewable energy sources. Among them, solar energy outstands all the available renewable sources. In this context, concentrated solar ... [more ▼]

Global energy demand propelled humankind in search of clean and renewable energy sources. Among them, solar energy outstands all the available renewable sources. In this context, concentrated solar thermal technology (CST) and hydrogen storage via solar water splitting significant feature contributions in global power generation. Nevertheless, the major challenge in CST technology is achieving a high solar absorption selectivity with thermal stability above 923 K. Whereas the limited chemical stability and low performance remain significant challenges in solar water-splitting technology. We address these technologies' critical issues through multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-metal oxide hybrid materials. MWCNTs are known for their high solar absorption, thermal and electrical conductivity. While metal oxides such as VO2, Al-doped ZnO are known for their infrared reflecting properties with high transparency in the visible region. TiO2 and ZnO have appropriate band positions for water splitting reactions. Here, combining CNTs and metal oxides at the nanoscale leads to unique properties not present in individual constituents. We fabricate the MWCNT-metal oxide through the hybrid chemical vapour deposition-atomic layer deposition (CVD-ALD) process. Here the CVD is implemented to grow MWCNTs, while ALD is used to produce conformal metal oxide shells on the 3D porous MWCNT structures. The MWCNT-VO2 nanostructures performed in this study feature a solar selectivity modulation across the semiconductor-metal transition temperature of VO2, i.e., 67˚C. The thermally induced optical modulation was investigated as a function of the morphology of VO2 phase. The grown VO2 nanoparticles on MWCNT illustrate an enhancement in the spectral emissivity across the SMT temperature. A contrasting optical modulation is displayed by the continuous VO2 layer on MWCNT. Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer (4.7 at %) illustrated solar absorbance of 0.96 and thermal emittance of 0.6. The limited thermal stability of the engineered MWCNT-AZO was enhanced by the deposition of a thin Al2O3 layer at the MWCNT-AZO interface. A core-double shell structure, i.e., CNT-Al2O3-AZO, withstands thermal treatment at 1000 K for 72 h. Solar water splitting study on MWCNT-TiO2 and MWCNT-ZnO nanostructures revealed a significant performance improvement relative to the respective oxides. For MWCNT-TiO2 core-shell structure, an enhancement of photocurrent by 400 % was observed relative to planar Si-TiO2. While in MWCNT-ZnO core-shell structure, similar results as CNT-TiO2 is observed but with higher photocurrent density because of better electrical properties of ZnO. We observed an increase of 458 % of the photocurrent density relative to Si-ZnO. The difference in performance between Si-ZnO/TiO2 and MWCNT-ZnO/TiO2 was associated with the diminished electron-hole recombination, efficient electron collection and increased relative surface in the core-shell structure. [less ▲]

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See detailD´Wuelbefanne vu Kanner a Pandemie-Zäiten. Resultater a Perspektiven
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Presentation (2021, November 18)

Das internationale Forschungsprojekt „COVID-Kids“ der Universität Luxemburg untersuchte die Erfahrungen und das Wohlbefinden von Kindern und Jugendlichen zwischen 6 und 16 Jahren während der ersten Welle ... [more ▼]

Das internationale Forschungsprojekt „COVID-Kids“ der Universität Luxemburg untersuchte die Erfahrungen und das Wohlbefinden von Kindern und Jugendlichen zwischen 6 und 16 Jahren während der ersten Welle der Pandemie. Die Forscherinnen boten Teilnehmern eine Umfrage von Mai bis Juli 2020 an und führten Interviews mit 22 Kindern aus Luxemburg durch. In diesem Vortrag werden die Hauptergebnisse der Studie vorgestellt. Die Pandemie führte zu einschneidenden Veränderungen im Alltag der Kinder, von denen viele Lebensbereiche betroffen waren. Schon zu Beginn der Pandemie äußerten die Teilnehmer ausgeprägte Ängste und Sorgen, die je nach Alter, Geschlecht und sozioökonomischen Status variierten. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to catch a space debris
Yalcin, Baris Can UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Delisle, Maxime Hubert et al

Poster (2021, November 18)

The partnership between SpaceR and Spacety Luxembourg aims to develop cutting edge active space debris removal solutions that can be implemented into small cube sats The solution will take the advantage ... [more ▼]

The partnership between SpaceR and Spacety Luxembourg aims to develop cutting edge active space debris removal solutions that can be implemented into small cube sats The solution will take the advantage of latest advancements in many tech domains, such as gecko like sticky adhesives and energy efficient shape memory alloy materials. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Euro: opportunity or (legal) challenge?
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

in Ianus: Diritto e Finanza (2021), (22), 27

In the euro area today, there are two ways in which the central bank provides money to its economy. The first consists in the issue of physical banknotes, while the second is expressed through the ... [more ▼]

In the euro area today, there are two ways in which the central bank provides money to its economy. The first consists in the issue of physical banknotes, while the second is expressed through the electronic accreditation of deposits on current accounts that credit institutions hold at the central bank. In the last five years, following both the increase in the digitalisation of the modern economy and the example of hegemonic economies (such as China), the possible introduction of a new form of currency to provide a safe and stable mean of payment to citizens of the euro area has had the power to create a growing interest towards such ambitious solutions. As a result, in the very near future we could experience a different way in which money works. We refer to the uncharted world of central bank digital currencies (CBDC). While projects for the creation of central bank digital currencies are booming all around the world, such interest is driven by various reasons that will be analysed in this paper, including the need to react to private initiatives for the creation of cryptocurrencies and stablecoins and, an increasing demand for fast and interconnected digital financial instruments and products. In the euro area, even if the debate for the creation of a Digital Euro has recently started, the ECB has proven to be already engaged in investigations, public consultations, and discussions with focus groups with the aim to provide European citizens, firms, and intermediaries with a “public” payment instrument suitable for a new digital era. In this framework, the role of a Eurosystem central bank digital currency will be analysed from a legal perspective. First, apart from the abovementioned reasons leading to the creation of a CBDC, it will be crucial to examine the structure and design of the Digital Euro, together with its objectives and the needs of its users. Consequently, while investigating on the legal framework which will permit the introduction of this digital currency, through a light review of similar models adopted (or in adoption) by other countries, we will seek to assess whether legal issues might hinder the realisation of this project or its actual implementation, especially concerning the impact on monetary policy, the international role of the euro and the banking sector. [less ▲]

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See detailParent Hamiltonians of Jastrow wavefunctions
Beau, Mathieu; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in SciPost Physics (2021)

We find the complete family of many-body quantum Hamiltonians with ground-state of Jastrow form involving the pairwise product of a pair function in an arbitrary spatial dimension. The parent Hamiltonian ... [more ▼]

We find the complete family of many-body quantum Hamiltonians with ground-state of Jastrow form involving the pairwise product of a pair function in an arbitrary spatial dimension. The parent Hamiltonian generally includes a two-body pairwise potential as well as a three-body potential. We thus generalize the Calogero-Marchioro construction for the three-dimensional case to an arbitrary spatial dimension. The resulting family of models is further extended to include a one-body term representing an external potential, which gives rise to an additional long-range two-body interaction. Using this framework, we provide the generalization to an arbitrary spatial dimension of well-known systems such as the Calogero-Sutherland and Calogero-Moser models. We also introduce novel models, generalizing the McGuire many-body quantum bright soliton solution to higher dimensions and considering ground-states which involve e.g., polynomial, Gaussian, exponential, and hyperbolic pair functions. Finally, we show how the pair function can be reverse-engineered to construct models with a given potential, such as a pair-wise Yukawa potential, and to identify models governed exclusively by three-body interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailSpotlight on Preschoolers: Early Flexibility in Problem Solving
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL

Presentation (2021, November 18)

In this paper, a novel theoretical framework is proposed to organize and integrate previous empirical findings on early development of analogical transfer. Transferring knowledge across situations is a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a novel theoretical framework is proposed to organize and integrate previous empirical findings on early development of analogical transfer. Transferring knowledge across situations is a pivotal skill in dynamically changing environments that humans inhabit and shape. This ability drives human problem solving and innovativeness, as it allows for generalizing knowledge acquired in familiar, past solutions to any unfamiliar, present situation. The ability to detect common functional features and disregard other, functionally irrelevant information begins to develop in the first year of life, and markedly improves in toddlerhood and the preschool years. Although the ability to transfer knowledge across situations has been repeatedly investigated in toddlers and preschoolers over the last decades, these investigations lacked a unifying framework, obscuring the developmental timing of flexible problem solving. In this paper, a unifying framework is proposed and discussed in relation to previous findings, gaps in current state of knowledge and implications for concrete educational interventions. This framework builds on a distinction between “simple” and “complex” transfers. Although all generalization tasks require prioritizing relevant information over irrelevant information, the irrelevant information may play two different roles in transferring knowledge, namely, a distracting or a misleading one. Distracting information was consistently irrelevant under similar past circumstances and remains irrelevant in the present. Misleading information was relevant under similar past circumstances but is now irrelevant and therefore competes with the truly relevant information. Previous research suggests that the ability to disregard misleading information is more difficult, draws differently on executive functions and most likely develops later than the ability to disregard distracting information. The current paper furthers current understanding of how early the abilities critical to human behavioural flexibility develop. In the era of individual engagement in politics and social media, the ability to disregard misleading information is perhaps more important than ever before. Furthermore, focusing on individual problem-solving flexibility, promoted in the current project, has implications for changes in assessment of child’s achievement and progress in the schooling system. Since accumulating information is somewhat prioritized over operating on such information, continuity between problem solving at the preschool level and critical thinking in adolescence may not be secured. There is also little space for assessment of individual, not standardized development. Shifting the current emphasis toward individual flexibility could, at least to some extent, hinder grouping children into performing below, on and above average and promote focusing on individual course of development, both in typically and atypically developing children. [less ▲]

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