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See detailNetwork diplomacy in shaping European economic and monetary integration in the 1970s
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2022, March 09)

The Werner Committee's work was characterised by political and doctrinal differences between “economists” (the countries with weak currencies – France, Belgium and, to a certain extent, Italy) and ... [more ▼]

The Werner Committee's work was characterised by political and doctrinal differences between “economists” (the countries with weak currencies – France, Belgium and, to a certain extent, Italy) and “monetarists” (the countries with strong currencies – Germany and the Netherlands)– namely, those who saw monetary integration as a means of economic integration and those for whom it was the ultimate goal. The conflict was ultimately resolved by the adoption of a parallel approach between economic cooperation and monetary coordination in the Member States, a principle of equilibrium on the basis of which Pierre Werner was able to secure a consensus. This paper makes extensive use of Pierre Werner’s previously unpublished archives and a collection of original oral history accounts with key players of European monetary integration. An interdisciplinary approach, together with digital methodologies (network analysis and the TXM corpus analysis framework), will be used to explore the negotiations within the Werner Committee by examining the dynamics between group members, their emerging views on EMU, their political commitment to a European currency, the similarities and differences between their ideas, their personal networks, the influence of their respective countries, their theoretical and methodological input and their contribution to the political agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailRadio - Talk Die Denazifizierung der Ukraine?
Jaschik, Johanna Maria UL; Janz, Nina UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

n Europa ist ein Angriffskrieg ausgebrochen. Der Angriff auf einen souveränen und demokratischen Staat stellt einen Verstoß gegen das Völkerrecht dar. In einer Rede vom 24. Februar 2022 nimmt Wladimir ... [more ▼]

n Europa ist ein Angriffskrieg ausgebrochen. Der Angriff auf einen souveränen und demokratischen Staat stellt einen Verstoß gegen das Völkerrecht dar. In einer Rede vom 24. Februar 2022 nimmt Wladimir Putin, Präsident der Russischen Föderation, die Vergangenheit zum Anlass, den souveränen Staat Ukraine anzugreifen. Neben machtpolitischen Argumenten wie der Bedrohung durch die NATO wird die historische Vergangenheit der Ukraine und Russlands instrumentalisiert, um Putins politisches Handeln zu rechtfertigen. Die Historikerinnen der Universität Luxemburg, Johanna Jaschik und Nina Janz, verurteilen diese Falschaussagen und Putins freie Geschichtsinterpretation aufs Schärfste. [less ▲]

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See detail"De Putin huet mech maaslos enttäuscht"
Lemmer, Carine; Ganschow, Inna UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

D’Historikerin Inna Ganschow, déi an der Sowjetunioun gebuer ass, elo hei am Land lieft an op der Uni schafft, huet erkläert, datt vill Leit a Russland net wéissten, datt Krich wär. Mediekonsum decidéiert ... [more ▼]

D’Historikerin Inna Ganschow, déi an der Sowjetunioun gebuer ass, elo hei am Land lieft an op der Uni schafft, huet erkläert, datt vill Leit a Russland net wéissten, datt Krich wär. Mediekonsum decidéiert iwwer Meenung. Alternativ Medie wären ofgeschalt ginn. Déi russesch Gesellschaft wär och passiv ginn a géif sech fir d’Konflikter net méi wierklech interesséieren. An an der russescher Sprooch géif een den Ament de Krich net "Krich" nennen, mä just eng "Militäroperatioun". Aktuell riskéiert een, wann ee vun engem "Krich" schwätzt och bis zu 15 Joer Prisong a Russland. Eng klassesch Oppositioun, wéi mir se hei kennen, wär schwiereg. Wann ee protestéiert, gëtt ee verhaft. An awer sollt een de Widderstand an der russescher Populatioun net ënnerschätzen. [less ▲]

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See detailFormation et marché du travail transfrontalier : quelles pistes face aux déséquilibres croissants?
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Hein, Vincent; Belkacem, Rachid

in UniGR-CBS Policy Paper (2022), 3

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the reflection on the role of training in the cross-border labor market. It does so by mobilizing the debates initiated in the different Cahiers de la Grande ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the reflection on the role of training in the cross-border labor market. It does so by mobilizing the debates initiated in the different Cahiers de la Grande Région and during a conference-debate organized online on December 1 2020 on the topic of "Inequities, Skills, and Training: What Equations for the Cross-Border Labor Market?” More precisely, this contribution aims at answering the following question: how can training and its different practices in the professional fields, but also in school and university education, mitigate the imbalances that are emerging on the labor market of the Greater Region? The document thus proposes a few lines of thought for cross-border cooperation in the field of training. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomation of Controller Area Network Reverse Engineering: Approaches, Opportunities and Security Threats
Buscemi, Alessio UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Controller Area Network (CAN ) is the de-facto in-vehicle communication system in the automotive industry today. CAN data represents a valuable source of information regarding the vehicle, which can be ... [more ▼]

Controller Area Network (CAN ) is the de-facto in-vehicle communication system in the automotive industry today. CAN data represents a valuable source of information regarding the vehicle, which can be exploited for a multitude of purposes by aftermarket companies, from fleet management to infotainment. With the rise of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) and autonomous driving, we can expect the amount of data transiting on the CAN bus to further augment in the near future. While not encrypted, the communication inside the CAN bus is typically encoded using proprietary formats of the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM s) in order to prevent easy access to the information exchanged on the network. However, given the unwillingness of the OEM s to disclose the formats of most of the CAN signals of commercial vehicles (cars in particular) to the general public, the most common way to obtain such information is through reverse engineering. Recently, researchers have started investigating the automation of this process to make it faster, scalable and standardised. Aside from the evident advantages that it would bring to the industry, the automation of CAN bus reverse engineering has also gained interest in the scientific community, where automotive cybersecurity is a prominent topic. While achieving convincing results, the automation of CAN reverse engineering is still invasive, often includes complex hardware configurations or requires the presence of a human operator in the vehicle. This dissertation aims to analyse the main advancements achieved in the field of CAN bus reverse engineering and shed light on open issues. In the first part of this dissertation, we explore opportunities and challenges of the automation of CAN bus reverse engineering and present three approaches that achieve different degrees of automation. The first, FastCAN, is based on the taxonomy of signals. Its goal is to provide a complete, standardised and modular pipeline for semi-automated reverse engineering and reduce the total time for data collection. The second, CSI, is a Machine Learning (ML )-based algorithm for the identification of critical signals working under limited assumptions. We use CSI as a case study to investigate whether CAN reverse engineering can be achieved with no other hardware than a dongle for the collection of raw data. The third, CANMatch, is a complete and fully automated approach based on frame matching. Through CANMatch we seek to demonstrate that the reuse of CAN frame IDs can be exploited to reverse engineer a high number of signals with minimal hardware requirements and human effort. In the second part of this dissertation, we discuss the implications that the full automation of the reverse engineering process has on the security of the bus. In this context, we investigate whether the anonymisation of the CAN frame IDs is sufficient to prevent frame-matching based reverse engineering. The results highlight that ML models can fingerprint CAN frames despite the anonymisation of their IDs. Finally, we propose a defence against frame fingerprinting based on traffic mutations, such as padding on the payload and morphing on the sending frequency. We conclude that traffic mutations are a promising study direction to prevent frame-matching based reverse engineering. [less ▲]

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See detail„Luxatlas.lu“, ein digitaler und interaktiver historischer Stadtatlas. Konzept – Methodik – Perspektiven
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; kass, Steve; Pauli, Sebastian

Presentation (2022, March 03)

Der historische Atlas der Stadt Luxemburg wurde im Unterschied zu bisher veröffentlichten Atlanten anderer Städte allein für eine Veröffentlichung im Internet konzipiert. Seit 2019 ist er im Internet auf ... [more ▼]

Der historische Atlas der Stadt Luxemburg wurde im Unterschied zu bisher veröffentlichten Atlanten anderer Städte allein für eine Veröffentlichung im Internet konzipiert. Seit 2019 ist er im Internet auf der Seite luxatlas.lu zugänglich und wurde seither kontinuierlich ausgebaut, überarbeitet und verbessert, sowohl technisch als auch inhaltlich. Aktuell bietet sich Nutzern die Möglichkeit, eine Vielzahl historischer Altkarten und Luftbilder der Stadt Luxemburg aus dem Zeitraum zwischen 1560 und 2017 in beliebig wählbaren Zoomstufen zu betrachten und auf transparenten Ebenen passgenau übereinanderliegend miteinander zu vergleichen. Ergänzend lassen sich historische Fotos und Ansichten sowie erläuternde Texte zur Stadtgeschichte und zu ausgewählten Gebäuden oder anderen Infrastrukturelementen einblenden. Der Luxatlas dokumentiert historische Veränderungsprozesse diachron für Forschungszwecke. Dabei steht die reine Visualisierung von Forschungsergebnissen aber nicht im Vordergrund. Vielmehr dient der Atlas selbst als Instrument zur Gewinnung neuen Wissens. Erst durch die Überlagerung verschiedener kartographischer Zeitschichten und die Verknüpfung von historischen, architektonischen, demografischen, wirtschaftlichen und städtebaulichen Informationen wird die Verteilung bestimmter räumlicher Phänomene sichtbar und kann von Nutzern interpretiert und analysiert werden. Auf diese Weise wird die interaktive Karte zu einem zentralen Instrument des Wissenserwerbs. Um die Vorteile einer Webpublikation bestmöglich umzusetzen, basiert der Luxatlas auf Open-Source-Software. Dies ermöglicht die Entwicklung maßgeschneiderter WebGIS-Anwendungen für die spezifischen Anforderungen des Projektes. Der Vortag wird neben der Projektvorstellung auch die methodischen und quellenkritischen Herausforderungen beleuchten und den geplanten weiteren Ausbau zur Diskussion stellen. [less ▲]

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See detailEssays in Financial Economics
Ignashkina, Anna UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

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See detailWéi erlieft d'russesch Communautéit zu Lëtzebuerg de Krich an der Ukrain?
Molitor, Maurice; Ganschow, Inna UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

"Ich habe in den letzten Tagen keine Umfragen durchführen können. Es ist auch nicht das Thema meiner aktuellen Forschung (...) Aber was mein persönlicher Eindruck ist: Ich habe in der Tat bislang keinen ... [more ▼]

"Ich habe in den letzten Tagen keine Umfragen durchführen können. Es ist auch nicht das Thema meiner aktuellen Forschung (...) Aber was mein persönlicher Eindruck ist: Ich habe in der Tat bislang keinen Menschen getroffen oder gehört, der gesagt hätte, ja das ist richtig. Alle sind entsetzt und sagen, was auch immer der Grund war: Krieg ist keine Lösung." [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning force fields: towards modelling flexible molecules
Vassilev Galindo, Valentin UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Accurate modelling of chemical and physical interactions is crucial for obtaining thermodynamic and dynamical properties of any chemical system, enabling a myriad of possible applications. Many of these ... [more ▼]

Accurate modelling of chemical and physical interactions is crucial for obtaining thermodynamic and dynamical properties of any chemical system, enabling a myriad of possible applications. Many of these applications are computationally prohibitive when using advanced Computational Chemistry (CompChem) methods even on modern supercomputers. Because of this, machine learning (ML) force fields (FFs), combining the accuracy of state-of-the-art ab initio methods and the efficiency of classical FFs, are being increasingly used to reconstruct potential-energy surfaces (PESs) of molecules and solids. It is precisely the synergy of ML and CompChem that has revolutionized the field in the last decade, rising the applications to a qualitatively new level. Despite this great success, there are still many unsolved challenges. In this context, my thesis aims to investigate the capability of the existing MLFFs to provide simultaneously accurate and efficient models offering unprecedented insights into the (thermo)dynamics of realistic molecular systems. Using the examples of molecular interactions that are pervasive in (bio)chemical systems, we show a counterintuitive effect of strengthening of such interactions, as well as an unexpected prevalence of quantum nuclear fluctuations over thermal contributions at room temperature. We reveal that, when dealing with complex PESs, the predictions of state-of-the-art ML models (BPNN, SchNet, GAP, and sGDML) greatly depend on the descriptor used, and on the region of the PES being sampled. Given the varying performance of MLFFs, we present a descriptor optimization scheme improving simultaneously the accuracy and efficiency of ML models. Our results show that the commonly employed strategies followed to construct both local and global descriptors need to be improved because the optimal descriptors are a non-trivial combination of local and global features. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis highlights the potential of MLFFs to provide insights into chemical systems while, at the same time, discloses the current limitations preventing the construction of accurate MLFFs for more realistic systems. Also, I propose the optimization of the description of interactions within an ML model as a valuable step towards obtaining efficient and accurate MLFFs of large and flexible molecules. Overall, this thesis suggests that the full workflow for building ML models still needs significant elaboration. Despite this finding, the combination of CompChem and ML methods in atomistic modelling promises to enable us to solve multiple problems in different areas, such as medicine, materials design, pharmacology, energy production, environmental sciences, among others. [less ▲]

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See detailGelebte Mehrsprachigkeit am Sprachenzentrum Luxemburg: Mit Studierenden für Studierende
Lejot, Eve UL; Neufert, Paul UL

Presentation (2022, March 03)

Die Studiengänge an der Universität Luxemburg sind überwiegend mehrsprachig. Vor diesem Hintergrund sind die mehrsprachigen Kompetenzen unserer studentischen Hilfskräfte im Sprachenzentrum von zentraler ... [more ▼]

Die Studiengänge an der Universität Luxemburg sind überwiegend mehrsprachig. Vor diesem Hintergrund sind die mehrsprachigen Kompetenzen unserer studentischen Hilfskräfte im Sprachenzentrum von zentraler Bedeutung. In diesem Zusammenhang werden den Studierenden Peer-Tutoring- und Tandemprogramme angeboten, um sie bei ihrem Integrationsprozess in unser Universitätssystem zu unterstützen. Wir haben im Rahmen eines gemeinsamen Kurses der sechs Sprachzentren der Grenzuniversitäten, der Studierende sprachlich und kulturell auf eine zukünftige Mobilität vorbereiten, ein Tandemmodul integriert, das diese Studierenden zur gegenseitigen Hilfe unter Gleichaltrigen anregen soll. Wenn sich Tandems ergeben sollten, schulen wir unsere studentischen Hilfskräfte darin, Gruppen bei der Durchführung von Tandem-Aktivitäten zu begleiten. Die Studierenden müssen sich auf drei bzw. vier Aktivitäten einigen, die sie gemeinsam durchführen. Um den Nutzen dieser Partnerschaft zwischen Studierenden und studentischen Hilfskräften zu maximieren, werden wir in dieser Mitteilung über die Entwicklung einer Vorgehensweise und eine Verstärkung der Begleitinstrumente nachdenken, die darauf abzielen, ihre "Tandem-Sitzungen" in Gruppen zu strukturieren. [less ▲]

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See detailET-Class, an Energy Transfer-based Classification of Space Debris Removal Methods and Missions
Yalcin, Baris Can UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL et al

in Frontiers in Space Technologies (2022)

Space debris is positioned as a fatal problem for current and future space missions. Many e ective space debris removal methods have been proposed in the past decade, and several techniques have been ... [more ▼]

Space debris is positioned as a fatal problem for current and future space missions. Many e ective space debris removal methods have been proposed in the past decade, and several techniques have been either tested on the ground or in parabolic ight experiments. Nevertheless, no uncooperative debris has been removed from any orbit until this moment. Therefore, to expand this research eld and progress the development of space debris removal technologies, this paper reviews and compares the existing technologies with past, present, and future methods and missions. Moreover, since one of the critical problems when designing space debris removal solutions is how to transfer the energy between the chaser/de-orbiting kit and target during the rst interaction, this paper proposes a novel classi cation approach, named ET-Class (Energy Transfer Class). This classi cation approach provides an energy-based perspective to the space debris phenomenon by classifying how existing methods dissipate or store energy during rst contact. [less ▲]

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See detailJustice par la Blockchain
Becker, Katrin UL

Presentation (2022, March 02)

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See detailRussian invasion - a break in identity?
Dickes, Raphaelle; Ganschow, Inna UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Hundreds of thousands have protested against the war in Ukraine on the streets of Europe, including many Russians. How does the Russian community in Luxembourg feel about the Russian invasion of Ukraine ... [more ▼]

Hundreds of thousands have protested against the war in Ukraine on the streets of Europe, including many Russians. How does the Russian community in Luxembourg feel about the Russian invasion of Ukraine? It turns out this is not so easy to figure out, if only because the war seens to have fractured the Russian-speaking community in the country. [less ▲]

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See detailUnterlassung und Verhältnismäßigkeit - das 2. PatMoG als Neuanfang
Stierle, Martin UL

in GRUR (Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht) (2022), (5), 273-274

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (0 UL)
See detailLa COVID-19 au Luxembourg: Le gradient social de l'épidémie
van Kerm, Philippe UL; Salagean, Iona Cristina; Amétépé, Fofo Senyo

Report (2022)

This report explores socio-economic and demographic disparities in COVID-19 health impacts in Luxembourg since March 2020. It describes variations in the risk of infections, hospitalizations and death ... [more ▼]

This report explores socio-economic and demographic disparities in COVID-19 health impacts in Luxembourg since March 2020. It describes variations in the risk of infections, hospitalizations and death across a number of socio-economic and demographic variables. It also examines variations in vaccination rates. It is part of the "Santé Pour Tous" project initiated by the Ministry of Health to under inequalities in health. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Murray, Dakota S.; Bell, Alexis et al

in PLoS ONE (2022), 3(17), 0264270

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However ... [more ▼]

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However, because of the lack of robust information on authors’ race, few large-scale analyses have been performed on this topic. Algorithmic approaches offer one solution, using known information about authors, such as their names, to infer their perceived race. As with any other algorithm, the process of racial inference can generate biases if it is not carefully considered. The goal of this article is to assess the extent to which algorithmic bias is introduced using different approaches for name-based racial inference. We use information from the U.S. Census and mortgage applications to infer the race of U.S. affiliated authors in the Web of Science. We estimate the effects of using given and family names, thresholds or continuous distributions, and imputation. Our results demonstrate that the validity of name-based inference varies by race/ethnicity and that threshold approaches underestimate Black authors and overestimate White authors. We conclude with recommendations to avoid potential biases. This article lays the foundation for more systematic and less-biased investigations into racial disparities in science. [less ▲]

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See detailSprachregelungen. Grund und Boden als diskursives Phänomen
Hesse, Markus UL

Article for general public (2022)

Die kritische Entwicklung des Immobilienmarktes schlägt direkt auf den Wohnungsmarkt durch. Dies hat das Thema zum „Thema“ gemacht, das heißt, es wird problematisiert. Das ist einerseits neu, andererseits ... [more ▼]

Die kritische Entwicklung des Immobilienmarktes schlägt direkt auf den Wohnungsmarkt durch. Dies hat das Thema zum „Thema“ gemacht, das heißt, es wird problematisiert. Das ist einerseits neu, andererseits offenbaren sich große Lücken im Diskurs. Das Sagbare und das Nicht-Sagbare trennen Welten. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Value-Added Scores Stable Enough for High-Stakes Decisions?
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2022, March)

Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014 ... [more ▼]

Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014; Kane et al., 2013). VA models are widely used for accountability purposes in education and quantify the value a teacher or a school adds to their students’ achievement. For this purpose, these models predict achievement over time and attempt to control for factors that cannot be influenced by schools or teachers (i.e., sociodemographic & sociocultural background). Following this logic, what is left must be due to teacher or school differences (see, e.g., Braun, 2005). To utilize VA models for high-stakes decision-making (e.g., teachers’ tenure, the allocation of funding), these models would need to be highly stable over time. School-level stability over time, however, has hardly been researched at all and the resulting findings are mixed, with some studies indicating high stability of school VA scores over time (Ferrão, 2012; Thomas et al., 2007) and others reporting a lack of stability (e.g., Gorard et al., 2013; Perry, 2016). Furthermore, as there is no consensus on which variables to use as independent or dependent variables in VA models (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019), the stability of VA could vary between different outcome measures (e.g., language or mathematics). If VA models lack stability over time and across outcome measures, their use as the primary information for high-stakes decision-making is in question, and the inferences drawn from them could be compromised. Questions: With these uncertainties in mind, we examine the stability of school VA model scores over time and investigate the differences between language and mathematics achievement as outcome variables. Additionally, we demonstrate the real-life implications of (in)stable VA scores for single schools and point out an alternative, more constructive use of school VA models in educational research. Method: To study the stability of VA scores on school level over time and across outcomes, we drew on a sample of 146 primary schools, using representative longitudinal data from the standardized achievement tests of the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021). These schools included a heterogeneous and multilingual sample of 7016 students. To determine the stability of VA scores in the subject of mathematics and in languages over time, we based our analysis on two longitudinal datasets (from 2015 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2019, respectively) and generated two VA scores per dataset, one for language and one for mathematics achievement. We further analyzed how many schools displayed stable VA scores in the respective outcomes over two years, and compared the rank correlations of VA scores between language and mathematics achievement as an outcome variable. Results and Their Significance: Only 34-38 % of the schools showed stable VA scores from grade 1 to 3 with moderate rank correlations of r = .37 with language and r = .34 with mathematics achievement. We therefore discourage using VA models as the only information for high-stakes educational decisions. Nonetheless, we argue that VA models could be employed to find genuinely effective teaching or school practices—especially in heterogeneous student populations, such as Luxembourg, in which educational disparities are an important topic already in primary school (Hoffmann et al., 2018). Consequently, we contrast the school climate and instructional quality, which might be a driver of the differences between schools with stable high vs. low VA scores. Literature Braun, H. (2005). Using student progress to evaluate teachers: A primer on value-added models. Educational Testing Service. Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers I: Evaluating bias in teacher value-added estimates. American Economic Review, 104(9), 2593–2632. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.104.9.2593 Everson, K. C. (2017). Value-added modeling and educational accountability: Are we answering the real questions? Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 35–70. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316637199 Ferrão, M. E. (2012). On the stability of value added indicators. Quality & Quantity, 46(2), 627–637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-010-9417-6 Gorard, S., Hordosy, R., & Siddiqui, N. (2013). How unstable are “school effects” assessed by a value-added technique? International Education Studies, 6(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n1p1 Kane, T. J., McCaffrey, D. F., Miller, T., & Staiger, D. O. (2013). Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment. Research Paper. MET Project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540959.pdf Levy, J., Brunner, M., Keller, U., & Fischbach, A. (2019). Methodological issues in value-added modeling: An international review from 26 countries. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 31(3), 257–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-019-09303-w LUCET. (2021). Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). https://epstan.lu Perry, T. (2016). English value-added measures: Examining the limitations of school performance measurement. British Educational Research Journal, 42(6), 1056–1080. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3247 Thomas, S., Peng, W. J., & Gray, J. (2007). Modelling patterns of improvement over time: Value added trends in English secondary school performance across ten cohorts. Oxford Review of Education, 33(3), 261–295. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701366116 [less ▲]

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See detailModal characterisation of simulation relations in probabilistic concurrent games
Zhang, Chenyi; Pang, Jun UL

in Science of Computer Programming (2022), 215

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)