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See detailWorkers rights and human rights: toward a new fundamental principle?
Yusifli, Zahra UL; Fenwick, Colin

in Elliott, Kimberly A. (Ed.) Handbook on Globalisation and Labour Standards (2022)

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See detailTemporary Protection in the EU - State of Play
Mellinger, Lukas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2022)

On 24 February 2022, the armed forces of the Russian Federation launched an unprovoked full-scale invasion of Ukraine. This was an unprecedented act of aggression against a sovereign and independent ... [more ▼]

On 24 February 2022, the armed forces of the Russian Federation launched an unprovoked full-scale invasion of Ukraine. This was an unprecedented act of aggression against a sovereign and independent country and goes against fundamental principles of international law. It has been strongly condemned by the international community, including the European Union. As of mid-March, over three million Ukrainian and international refugees are fleeing the war to neighbouring EU and third countries (including Moldova). This massive inflow of Ukrainian refugees into the EU resulted in the Council adopting the implementing Decision 2022/382 of 4 March 2022, introducing temporary protection as a means of dealing with the crisis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (4 UL)
See detailA Workshop on War Letters (in the Digital Age)
Janz, Nina UL; van der Lange, Milan

Report (2022)

Impressions of building a community around people working on the digitization of historical ‘egodocuments’ using Transkribus.

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See detailLa relecture entre pairs : un levier de motivation de la pratique de l’écrit
Lejot, Eve UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 17)

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la ... [more ▼]

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la relecture entre pairs apporte un échange avec moins de pression (Lejot 2017). Cet échange se fait à un niveau de hiérarchie égal et facilite la négociation de sens des éléments du texte. Néanmoins, certains élèves pointent le manque de qualification des pairs pour remplacer les commentaires des professeurs dans l’enseignement supérieur (Rollinson 2005). Cette démarche trouve toute sa force pour les doctorants. Mis en place sur un semestre, ce système fermé de relecture et de commentaires reçus en boucle est bénéfique et motivant pour ces derniers. Dans les ateliers interdisciplinaires sur les compétences transversales et en l'occurrence celle de l'écrit académique, les doctorants soulignent l’énergie, la réflexion commune et le soutien que leur a apporté la relecture de texte d'un pair et d'être eux-mêmes relus (Lejot 2017). Relire est formateur et être compris par des chercheurs pairs fait faire un grand pas en termes de cohérence d'écriture et d'argumentation bien articulée à ces groupes des écoles doctorales. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Homework: an underresearched element of the active schools concept
Bailey, Richard; Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research (2022)

Background Most physical activity (PA) interventions targeting children focus on the school setting. However, children and young people are often less active at home. The purpose of this article is to ... [more ▼]

Background Most physical activity (PA) interventions targeting children focus on the school setting. However, children and young people are often less active at home. The purpose of this article is to review evidence from the last ten years of the contribution of physically Active Homework (AH) to the promotion of PA. Methods Using a rapid review methodology, the article reports on evidence contribution of AH and considers conditions for its effective implementation. Results Although research literature on the effects of AH is limited and missing a theoretical base, studies reporting small positive associations between AH and PA levels were identified. Increases in PA were, however, of low intensity; moderate and vigorous intensities remained relatively unchanged. Conclusions Strategies to increase PA extending beyond the school gym are needed. Further and better research is needed to understand the conditions of effective implementation of AH. Nevertheless, there is a plausibility in providing students regular opportunities to further promote PA in students’ lives by practicing movement and sports skills, and offering a flexible way of finding and pursuing meaningful activities. The fact that AH may encourage the engagement of families and communities, multiplies its potential benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailAWAC2 — Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset
Schafer, Valerie UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Launched in 2020, the Cohort program is engaging with researchers in a year-long collaboration and mentorship with the Archives Unleashed Project and the Internet Archive, to support web archival research ... [more ▼]

Launched in 2020, the Cohort program is engaging with researchers in a year-long collaboration and mentorship with the Archives Unleashed Project and the Internet Archive, to support web archival research. Web archives provide a rich resource for exploration and discovery! As such, this session will feature the program’s inaugural research teams, who will discuss the innovative ways they are exploring web archival collections to tackle interdisciplinary topics and methodologies. Projects from the Cohort program include: AWAC2 — Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset—Valérie Schafer (University of Luxembourg) Everything Old is New Again: A Comparative Analysis of Feminist Media Tactics between the 2nd- to 4th Waves—Shana MacDonald (University of Waterloo) Mapping and tracking the development of online commenting systems on news websites between 1996–2021—Robert Jansma (University of Siegen) Crisis Communication in the Niagara Region during the COVID-19 Pandemic—Tim Ribaric (Brock University) Viral health misinformation from Geocities to COVID-19—Shawn Walker (Arizona State University) UPDATE: Quinn Dombrowski from Saving Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Online (SUCHO) will give an introductory presentation about the team of volunteers racing to archive Ukrainian digital cultural heritage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (3 UL)
See detailState Responsibility for Judicial Acts in Investment Arbitration
Cavdarevic, Ivan UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

This thesis deals with the issue of state responsibility for judicial acts in investment arbitration. In general, it is undisputed that states can be held internationally liable for the conduct of their ... [more ▼]

This thesis deals with the issue of state responsibility for judicial acts in investment arbitration. In general, it is undisputed that states can be held internationally liable for the conduct of their judiciary. The protection against denial of justice was traditionally the main international standard used for determining state responsibility for judicial acts, characterized by a relatively high threshold. Only with the proliferation of primary obligations of states towards individuals, the practical relevance of this standard was somewhat decreased. Nonetheless, this type of state responsibility – arising from domestic judicial acts – remains particularly sensitive due to the special nature and position of the national judiciary. It is commonly noted that role of national courts and their decision-making process is so particular that international courts and tribunals should not treat national judicial acts in an identical manner as acts of other state organs. Against this background, this thesis examines whether and to what extent the investment tribunals’ practice on cases concerning domestic judicial acts differs from comparable practices of other international adjudicatory bodies – in particular, the International Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. Through the analysis of various standards of protection – when applied to judicial acts – and the relevant case law, the thesis aims to address two different questions. Firstly, whether the standards of protection granted investment treaties substantially differ from standards commonly applied by other international adjudicatory bodies. Secondly, if the investment tribunals practice’ in cases concerning host states’ judicial acts is influenced only by these substantive standards or protection, or it is also shaped by more general features of investment law and the investor investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Ultimately, this research – through the analysis of these particular types of investor-state disputes – tries to offer novel insights into the deficiencies of the ISDS regime that should be taken into account, especially in light of the current initiatives for the reform of this regime. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning for Radio Resource Management in Multibeam GEO Satellite Systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in Electronics (2022), 11(7), 992

Satellite communications (SatComs) systems are facing a massive increase in traffic demand. However, this increase is not uniform across the service area due to the uneven distribution of users and ... [more ▼]

Satellite communications (SatComs) systems are facing a massive increase in traffic demand. However, this increase is not uniform across the service area due to the uneven distribution of users and changes in traffic demand diurnal. This problem is addressed by using flexible payload architectures, which allow payload resources to be flexibly allocated to meet the traffic demand of each beam. While optimization-based radio resource management (RRM) has shown significant performance gains, its intense computational complexity limits its practical implementation in real systems. In this paper, we discuss the architecture, implementation and applications of Machine Learning (ML) for resource management in multibeam GEO satellite systems. We mainly focus on two systems, one with power, bandwidth, and/or beamwidth flexibility, and the second with time flexibility, i.e., beam hopping. We analyze and compare different ML techniques that have been proposed for these architectures, emphasizing the use of Supervised Learning (SL) and Reinforcement Learning (RL). To this end, we define whether training should be conducted online or offline based on the characteristics and requirements of each proposed ML technique and discuss the most appropriate system architecture and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPresenter: The War in Ukraine and History
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2022, March 16)

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See detailPhilosophy of Perception & Liberal Naturalism
Raleigh, Thomas UL

in Macarthur, David; De Caro, Mario (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Liberal Naturalism (2022)

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See detailBig Five personality traits and sex
Jirjahn, Uwe; Ottenbacher, Martha UL

in Journal of Population Economics (2022), online first

Sexual well-being plays an important role in the quality of life. Against this background, we provide an economics-based approach to the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and various ... [more ▼]

Sexual well-being plays an important role in the quality of life. Against this background, we provide an economics-based approach to the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and various dimensions of sexuality. From a theoretical viewpoint, personality influences sexual well-being not only by how a person feels about sex, but also by how the person behaves in a sexual relationship. Personality shapes information sharing about sexual preferences, the way dissonant sexual preferences of the partners are handled, and the extent to which a person is committed to promises made to a partner. Using a large representative dataset from Germany, we find that personality traits play a role in a person’s own sexual satisfaction, in (the self-assessment of) fulfilling their partner’s sexual needs and desires, in sexual communication, in actual and desired frequency of sex, and in extradyadic affairs. Conscientiousness contributes to a mutually beneficial sex life and increases a person’s commitment to their partner. The opposite holds true for neuroticism. While extraversion and openness to experience help realize a mutually beneficial sex life, we find no evidence that they have a commitment value. On the contrary, extraversion is associated with lower commitment to the partner. Agreeableness contributes to higher commitment. However, agreeableness appears to make people more reluctant to express their sexual needs and desires. [less ▲]

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See detailPopulation structure and phenotypical traits of Campylobacter jejuni circulating in Luxembourg
Nennig, Morgane UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The most prevalent species, C. jejuni, is a strict microaerobic, capnophilic, and thermotolerant pathogen. Given its growth ... [more ▼]

Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The most prevalent species, C. jejuni, is a strict microaerobic, capnophilic, and thermotolerant pathogen. Given its growth requirements, the ability of C. jejuni to persist in food environments and be transmitted throughout food processing has long puzzled scientists. This study aimed to compare the different genetic profiles of C. jejuni strains, isolated in Luxembourg, at the core genome (cg) and whole genome (wg) levels to elucidate its genetic population structure. Using phenotypical assays in controlled conditions and functional genomics analyses from wgMLST data, the study also investigated the possible link between phenotypic traits and emergence or persistence of genotypes. A high concordance in strain clustering was observed between genomic lineage classifications and the epidemic and endemic signals, regardless the three cgMLST typing schemes used. The higher genome stability within genomic lineages supports the hypothesis of a clonal expansion with monomorphic patterns over time and sources. A high correlation was observed between phenotypes and host-specific or generalist clonal complexes for oxidative stress, adhesion to inert surfaces, biofilm formation, and acclimation to aerobic conditions responses. These data allowed the establishment of metaphenotypes specific to the genomic lineages. Functional genomic analysis revealed factors that may contribute to the spatiotemporal survival of recurrent strains. These results also suggest the selection of better-adapted and persistent C. jejuni strains to environmental stresses throughout the transmission to human. [less ▲]

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See detailPrewar Public Discourse: Letters to Politika, Belgrade, 1988–1991
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Mochtak, Michal UL

in Europe-Asia Studies (2022)

We studied prewar public discourse by analysing the origin, content and sentiment of more than 4,000 letters written by people from all walks of life and published in the Belgrade broadsheet Politika ... [more ▼]

We studied prewar public discourse by analysing the origin, content and sentiment of more than 4,000 letters written by people from all walks of life and published in the Belgrade broadsheet Politika loyal to the regime of Slobodan Milošević during the three years directly preceding the Yugoslav wars. Our analysis combined lexicon-based tools of automated topic and sentiment analysis with data on the sociodemographic characteristics of the letter writers and their localities. The results of our analysis show the importance of the politicisation of a history of violence in shaping public discourse in the run-up to war. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (1 UL)
See detailHistoriciser la viralité en ligne : les défis des archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, March 11)

Les phénomènes viraux et en particulier les gifs et les mèmes ont donné lieu à des études (par H. Jenkins, L. Shifman, R. Milner, D. Kaplan et N. Nova, J. Eppink, A. Wagener et bien d’autres) qui ... [more ▼]

Les phénomènes viraux et en particulier les gifs et les mèmes ont donné lieu à des études (par H. Jenkins, L. Shifman, R. Milner, D. Kaplan et N. Nova, J. Eppink, A. Wagener et bien d’autres) qui éclairent les phénomènes de circulation, participation, partage (cf. également les recherches de N. John) et transformation au sein des cultures numériques. Les phénomènes viraux sont bien sûr présents dès les débuts du Web et certains voient dans les émoticones ou la loi de Godwin leurs premières occurrences (J. McGrath). La fin des années 1990 marque par ailleurs le succès du Dancing Baby, de la Hampster Dance ou de All Your Base Are Belong To Us. Les réseaux socio-numériques ont accéléré ces circulations, par ailleurs transplateformes, tout en mettant au défi le chercheur qui souhaite appréhender et historiciser la viralité. C’est notamment l’ambition du projet HIVI (A history of Online Virality) à l’université du Luxembourg (2021-2024). Sans surprise un premier défi est celui des archives et de la constitution de corpus. La présentation les abordera autour de trois axes: tout d’abord le défi de la masse et de l’hétérogénéité des sources, de leur périmètre, mais aussi l’inégale préservation des phénomènes Internet, ainsi que la pluralité des espaces de patrimonialisation et modes de curation seront présentés; ensuite nous nous intéresserons plus particulièrement aux sources nativement numériques conservées dans les archives du Web, et leurs défis en termes de préservation, recherchabilité, contextualisation. Enfin des enjeux méthodologiques, notamment liés aux temporalités et spatialités seront soulevés, pour engager la discussion sur les apports mais aussi les limites des sources nativement numériques. [less ▲]

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See detailPOTENTIAL METHOD AND PROJECTION THEOREMS FOR MACROSCOPIC HAUSDORFF DIMENSION
Daw, Lara UL; Seuret, Stephane

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailAn aspiring career in Space
Palmirotta, Guendalina UL

Article for general public (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (1 UL)
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See detailDie Bedeutung der Schule für Gesundheit und Wohlbe- finden von Schülerinnen und Schülern: Ergebnisse der HBSC Surveys 2018 in Luxemburg
van Duin, Claire UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut Erich UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 10)

Neben der Familie ist die Schule für Kinder und Jugendliche ein wichtiges Umfeld. Hier verbringen sie einen großen Teil des Tages, hier treffen sie ihre Freunde, und ihre schulischen Leistungen bestimmen ... [more ▼]

Neben der Familie ist die Schule für Kinder und Jugendliche ein wichtiges Umfeld. Hier verbringen sie einen großen Teil des Tages, hier treffen sie ihre Freunde, und ihre schulischen Leistungen bestimmen wesentlich mit, welchen beruflichen Weg sie später einschlagen können. Dementsprechend hat die Schule als sozialer Kontext einen großen Einfluss auch auf das Wohlbefinden und gesundheitliche Befindlichkeiten der Schüler. Positive schulische Erfahrungen können eine Ressource für Wohlbefinden sein, negative Erfahrungen können die psychische und physische Gesundheit beeinträchtigen. Da es sich bei HBSC um eine Befragung handelt, die in der Schule durchgeführt wird und da die Schule ein wichtiges soziales Umfeld ist, werden auch mehrere Fragen zur Schule gestellt. Im Vortrag werden zunächst aktuelle Ergebnisse aus Luxemburg zum schulischen Kontext präsentiert und international eingeordnet. So wird schon seit mehreren Befragungen erhoben, ob die Schüler die Schule mögen, ob sie sich durch die Schularbeit gestresst fühlen und wie sie die Beziehungen zu ihren Klassenkameraden und den Lehrern bewerten und ob sie viel auf der Ebene der Klasse und der Schule mitbestimmen können. In einem zweiten Schritt wird mit Hilfe einer Clusteranalyse untersucht, ob es typische Konstellationen gibt, d. h. Gruppen von Schülern, die sich in ihren Schulerfahrungen möglichst stark ähneln. Aus der HBSC-Studie ist bekannt, dass es zahlreiche Zusammenhänge zwischen diesen Erfahrungen gibt. Wenn solche kohärenten Gruppen identifiziert werden können, dann kann eine darauf basierende Typologie helfen, die komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen zahlreichen Variablen in komprimierter Form darzustellen. Im konkreten Fall wurden 4 schulbezogene Einstellungen und Bewertungen dazu genutzt, um solche Gruppen zu identifizieren. Diese Gruppen/Cluster werden zunächst anhand der Variablen beschrieben, die zur Gruppenbildung genutzt wurden. Die Analyse zeigt, dass es bezüglich der Schulerfahrungen fünf in sich homogene Cluster gibt. Cluster 1, in dem sich der größte Anteil der Schüler (28.8%) befindet, ist durch allgemein positive Schulerfahrungen gekennzeichnet. Die Schüler in dieser Gruppe mögen die Schule, sie berichten von einem guten Klassenklima und sie geben an, kaum durch die Schularbeit gestresst zu sein. Darüber hinaus berichten diese Schüler über ein gutes Verhältnis zu ihren Lehrern. Cluster 2 ist durch Schüler gekennzeichnet, deren Schulerfahrungen überwiegend positiv sind (sie mögen die Schule und sie haben ein gutes Verhältnis zu den Mitschülern und Lehrern), die sich aber durch die Schularbeit gestresst fühlen, was sich negativ auf ihr allgemeines Wohlbefinden auswirkt. Cluster 3 zeichnet sich durch Schüler aus, die über ein geringes Maß an Stress berichten und insgesamt durchschnittliche Werte für die schulbezogenen Variablen wie Beziehungen zu ihrem Lehrer und das Klassenklima aufweisen. In Cluster 4 befinden sich die Schüler, die viel Schulstress erfahren, relativ schlechte Beziehungen zu ihren Lehrern haben und die Schule im Allgemeinen nicht mögen. Allerdings berichten diese Schüler von einem guten Klassenklima. Dieses Cluster umfasst 14.7% der Schüler und ist damit das kleinste Cluster. Cluster 5 besteht aus Schülern mit durchweg negativen Schulerfahrungen und ist damit das Gegenteil von Cluster 1. Die Schüler in Cluster 5 haben viel Schulstress, sind nicht gerne in der Schule und berichten von schlechteren Beziehungen zu ihren Lehrern und Mitschülern im Vergleich zu den Schülern in den anderen Clustern. Die weitere Beschreibung der Cluster mit Hilfe von soziodemografischen Variablen, anderen schulbezogenen Variablen und gesundheitsbezogenen Ergebnisvariablen wird zeigen, dass die gefundenen Gruppen in sich kohärent sind bezüglich der schulbezogenen Variablen, und dass sie zudem mit gesundheitsbezogenen und mit soziodemografischen Variablen korrelieren. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Digital Archive and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 10)

In this paper I will discuss key parameters of the politics of digitisation within a broader historical and global context with the aim to encourage further debate on its implications for historical ... [more ▼]

In this paper I will discuss key parameters of the politics of digitisation within a broader historical and global context with the aim to encourage further debate on its implications for historical research. In the first part, I will outline the global dimensions of the politics of digital cultural heritage with a particular focus on developments within and between Europe and Africa, framed within the broader context of the politics of heritage and its preservation and recent debates about ‘postcolonial digital humanities’. In the second part, I will discuss the history and current state of digitisation in Europe and Africa. Here I will partly draw upon the web archive of the IFLA/Unesco Directory of Digitised Library Collections (2002-2006) and recent global and European digitisation surveys. The paper will conclude by highlighting the paradoxical situation we currently face with regard to digitisation and the state of ‘memory’ in both the global North and South. [less ▲]

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See detailDIGITAL HUMANITIES – A SCIENCE UNTO ITSELF? A CONVERSATION WITH VALÉRIE SCHAFER
Schafer, Valerie UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

What does it mean to be a digital scholar? The answers to this seemingly simple question are probably as diverse as the interdisciplinary field of digital humanities itself. To learn more about the ins ... [more ▼]

What does it mean to be a digital scholar? The answers to this seemingly simple question are probably as diverse as the interdisciplinary field of digital humanities itself. To learn more about the ins and outs of the emerging research area, we invited Prof. Valérie Schafer from the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) for an interview. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (0 UL)