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See detailLocational Choice and Secondary Movements from the Perspective of Forced Migrants: A Comparison of the Destinations Luxembourg and Germany
Glorius, Birgit; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Comparative Population Studies (2022), 47

In 2015 and 2016, the enormous increase in asylum seekers travelling along the Balkan Route confronted the Member States of the European Union with an exceptional pressure on national asylum systems ... [more ▼]

In 2015 and 2016, the enormous increase in asylum seekers travelling along the Balkan Route confronted the Member States of the European Union with an exceptional pressure on national asylum systems. Since then academic literature has revealed a reappraisal of the Common European Asylum System at regulative and policy implementation level, notably regarding the fair distribution of asylum seekers across Member States and regions. Yet we know very little about the locational choices of forced migrants or how those choices evolved and transformed during their journey. In this paper, we aim to shed light on those decision-making processes and (individual, subjective) locational choices based on the aspiration-ability model, drawing from a series of qualitative interviews with migrants held in Luxembourg and Germany in the context of the H2020 project CEASEVAL. We focus on the migrants’ journeys to their actual recipient countries, highlighting mobility trajectories from the moment of fi rst departure and on the process of decision-making regarding their choice of location. Then, we examine further mobility aspirations, which may lead to secondary mobility within or out of the country of residence. In the concluding section, we discuss the consequences of our fi ndings for migration and asylum politics against the background of the “autonomy of migration” framework. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Risk-Neutral Skewness an Indicator of Downside Risk? Evidence from Tail Risk-Taking of Hedge Funds
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Journal of Derivatives (2022), 29(3), 30-45

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See detailMACHINE LEARNING IN THE DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF TSN NETWORKS
Mai, Tieu Long UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Real-time systems are systems that have specific timing requirements. They are critical systems that play an important role in modern societies, be it for instance control systems in factories or ... [more ▼]

Real-time systems are systems that have specific timing requirements. They are critical systems that play an important role in modern societies, be it for instance control systems in factories or automotives. In recent years, Ethernet has been increasingly adopted as layer 2 protocol in real-time systems. Indeed, the adoption of Ethernet provides many benefits, including COTS and cost-effective components, high data rates and flexible topology. The main drawback of Ethernet is that it does not offer "out-of-the-box" mechanisms to guarantee timing and reliability constraints. This is the reason why time-sensitive networking (TSN) mechanisms have been introduced to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) on top of Ethernet and satisfy the requirements of real-time communication in critical systems. The promise of Ethernet TSN is the possibility to use a single network for different criticality levels, e.g, critical control traffic and infotainment traffic sharing the same network resources. This thesis is about the design of Ethernet TSN networks, and specifically about techniques that help quantify the extent to which a network can support current and future communication needs. The context of this work is the increasing use of design-space exploration (DSE) in the industry to master the complexity of designing (e.g. in terms of architectural and technological choices) and configuring a TSN network. One of the main steps in DSE is performing schedulability analysis to conclude about the feasibility of a network configuration, i.e., whether all traffic streams satisfy their timing constraints. This step can take weeks of computations for a large set of candidate solutions with the simplest TSN mechanisms, while more complicated TSN mechanisms will require even longer time. This thesis explores the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to assist in the design of TSN networks by speeding up the DSE. Specifically, the thesis proposes the use of machine learning (ML) as an alternative approach to schedulability analysis. The application of ML involves two steps. In the first step, ML algorithms are trained with a large set of TSN configurations labeled as feasible or non-feasible. Due to its pattern recognition ability, ML algorithms can predict the feasibility of unseen configurations with a good accuracy. Importantly, the execution time of an ML model is only a fraction of conventional schedulability analysis and remains constant whatever the complexity of the network configurations. Several contributions make up the body of the thesis. In the first contribution, we observe that the topology and the traffic of a TSN network can be used to derive simple features that are relevant to the network feasibility. Therefore, standard and simple machine learning (ML) algorithms such as k-Nearest Neighbors are used to take these features as inputs and predict the feasibility of TSN networks. This study suggests that ML algorithms can provide a viable alternative to conventional schedulability analysis due to fast execution time and high prediction accuracy. A hybrid approach combining ML and schedulability analyses is also introduced to control the prediction uncertainty. In the next studies, we aim at further automating the feasibility prediction of TSN networks with the Graph Neural Network (GNN) model. GNN takes as inputs the raw data from the TSN configurations and encodes them as graphs. Synthetic features are generated by GNN, thus the manual feature selection step is eliminated. More importantly, the GNN model can generalize to a wide range of topologies and traffic patterns, in contrast to the standard ML algorithms tested before that can only work with a fixed topology. An ensemble of individual GNN models shows high prediction accuracies on many test cases containing realistic automotive topologies. We also explore possibilities to improve the performance of GNN with more advanced deep learning techniques. In particular, semi-supervised learning and self-supervised learning are experimented. Although these learning paradigms provide modest improvements, we consider them promising techniques due to the ability to leverage the massive amount of unlabeled training data. While this thesis focuses on the feasibility prediction of TSN configurations, AI techniques have huge potentials to automate other tasks in real-time systems. A natural follow-up work of this thesis is to apply GNN to multiple TSN mechanisms and predict which mechanism can provide the best scheduling solution for a given configuration. Although we need distinct ML models for each TSN mechanism, this research direction is promising as TSN mechanisms may share similar feasibility features and thus transfer learning techniques can be applied to facilitate the training process. Furthermore, GNN can be used as a core block in deep reinforcement learning to find the feasible priority assignment of TSN configurations. This thesis aims to make a contribution towards DSE of TSN networks with AI. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitale Gesundheitsanwendungen in der Neurologie
van Schagen, Sijmen UL

in Der Neurologe und Psychiater (2022)

Digital health applications - apps on prescription - are promising and have also arrived in neurology. A fundamentally new approval process has been created for this, defining categories of positive care ... [more ▼]

Digital health applications - apps on prescription - are promising and have also arrived in neurology. A fundamentally new approval process has been created for this, defining categories of positive care effects to be demonstrated. All stakeholders involved are called upon to shape the process so that patients receive the full potential of digital medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Vielfalt der Sozialen Arbeit in Luxemburg und die Arbeitsmarktzahlen 2021
Böwen, Petra UL; Flammang, Manou Laure

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Dieser Newsletter beschreibt den Arbeitsmarkt der Sozialen Arbeit in Luxemburg 2021, gibt einen Überblick über die Berufsqualifikationen und die Vielfalt der Praxisfelder und spezifischen Arbeitsbereiche.

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See detailWeb Archiving of crisis
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, March 31)

Roundtable and short presentation on Web Archives of Crisis and Conspiracy

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See detailConceptualising the Legal Notion of ‘State of the Art’ in the Context of IT Security
Schmitz, Sandra UL

in Friedewald, Michael; Krenn, Stephan; Schiffner, Stefan (Eds.) et al Privacy and Identity Management. Between Data Protection and Security (2022, March 31)

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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioner’s Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2022), 8(1), 73-77

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See detailSecondary law provisions on media ownership transparency
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) Transparency of media ownership (IRIS Special 2-2021) (2022)

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See detailRegeln zur Transparenz von Medieneigentum im Sekundärrecht
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) Transparenz von Medieneigentum (2022)

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See detailLes règles de transparence en matière de propriété des médias au regard du droit dérivé de l’UE
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) La transparence en matière de propriété des médias (IRIS Special 2-2021) (2022)

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See detailMedia ownership transparency initiatives
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) Transparency of media ownership (IRIS Special 2-2021) (2022)

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See detailInitiativen zur Transparenz von Medieneigentum
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) Transparenz von Medieneigentum (IRIS Spezial 2021-2) (2022)

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See detailInitiatives visant à renforcer la transparence des structures de propriété des médias
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) La transparence en matière de propriété des médias (IRIS Special 2-2021) (2022)

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See detailConclusions
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) Transparency of media ownership (IRIS Special 2-2021) (2022)

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See detailSchlussfolgerungen
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) Transparenz von Medieneigentum (IRIS Spezial 2021-2) (2022)

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See detailConclusions
Cole, Mark David UL

in Capello, Maja (Ed.) La transparence en matière de propriété des médias (IRIS Special 2-2021) (2022)

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See detailMicrobiome reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance
de Nies, Laura UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents a global threat to public health due to the inability to comprehensively treat bacterial infections. Emerging resistant bacteria residing within human, animal and ... [more ▼]

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents a global threat to public health due to the inability to comprehensively treat bacterial infections. Emerging resistant bacteria residing within human, animal and environmental reservoirs may spread from one to the other, at both local and global levels. Consequently, AMR has the potential to rapidly become pandemic whereby it is no longer constrained by either geographical or human-animal borders. Therefore, to enhance our understanding on the dissemination of AMR we systematically resolved different reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance, leveraging animal, environmental and human samples, to provide a One Health perspective. To identify antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and compare their identity and prevalence across different microbial reservoirs, we developed the PathoFact pipeline which also contextualizes ARG localization on mobile genetic elements (MGEs). This methodology was applied to several metagenomic datasets covering microbiomes of infants, laboratory mice, a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and biofilms from glacier-fed streams (GFS). Investigating the infant gut resistome we found that the abundance of ARGs against (semi)-synthetic agents were increased in infants born via caesarian section compared to those born via vaginal delivery. Additionally, we identified mobile genetic elements (MGEs) encoding ARGs such as glycopeptide, diaminopyrimidine and multidrug resistance at an early age. MGEs are often pivotal in the accumulation and dissemination of AMR within a microbial population. Therefore, we assessed the effect of selective pressure on the evolution and consecutive dissemination of AMR within the commensal gut microbiome, utilizing a mouse model. While plasmids and phages were found to contribute to the spread of AMR, we found that integrons represented the primary factors mediating AMR in the antibiotic-treated mice. In addition to the above-described studies, we investigated the environmental resistome, comprising both the urban environment, i.e., the WWTP, and a natural environment, GFS biofilms. Utilizing a multi-omics approach we investigated the WWTP resistome over a 1.5 years timeseries and found that a core group of fifteen AMR categories were always present. Additionally, we found a significant difference in AMR categories encoded on phages versus plasmids indicating that the MGEs contributed differentially to the dissemination of AMR. On the other hand, the GFS biofilms represent pristine environments with limited anthropogenic influences. Therein, we found that eukaryotes, as well as prokaryotes, may serve as AMR reservoirs owing to their potential for encoding ARGs. In addition to our identification of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding antibacterial secondary metabolites, our findings highlight the constant intra- and inter-domain competition and the underlying mechanisms influencing microbial survival in GFS epilithic biofilms. In general, we observed that the overall AMR abundances were highest in human and animal microbial reservoirs whilst environmental reservoirs demonstrated a higher diversity of ARG subtypes. Additionally, we identified human-associated, MGE-derived ARGs in all three components of the One Health triad, indicating possible transmission routes for AMR dissemination. In summary, this work provides a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and its dissemination mechanisms in human, animal, and environmental mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailVaria
Schafer, Valerie UL; Henriot, Carine

in Flux: Cahiers Scientifiques Internationaux Réseaux et Territoires (2022), 127

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See detailSanierung erhaltenswürdiger Gebäude in der Südeifel mit regionaltypischen Bruch-steinmauerwerk im Kontext der Innendämmung
Müller, Lukas; Latz, Sebastian UL; Thewes, Andreas UL

in Bauphysiktage Kaiserslautern (2022, March 29), 5

Um eine Innendämmung, welche an Bestandsgebäuden oftmals aufgrund baurechtlicher Einschränkungen die einzige Möglichkeit zur thermischen Ertüchtigung der Fassade darstellt, entsprechend planen und ... [more ▼]

Um eine Innendämmung, welche an Bestandsgebäuden oftmals aufgrund baurechtlicher Einschränkungen die einzige Möglichkeit zur thermischen Ertüchtigung der Fassade darstellt, entsprechend planen und nachweisen zu können, sollten die bauphysikalischen Randbedingungen der Außenfassade sowie des darunterliegenden Bruchsteinmauerwerks messtechnisch erfasst und entsprechend gedeutet werden. Mit Hilfe korrekt abgeschätzter Ein-gangsparameter für notwendige, hygrothermische Berechnungen lassen sich spätere Bauschäden, welche die Folge eines fehlerhaften Sanierungskonzepts wären, weitestgehend ausschließen. Diese Studie befasst sich mit typischen Baustoffen für die „Südeifel“ (Sandstein, Schiefer und Kalkstein). An drei realen Wohngebäuden wurden entsprechende Messungen durchgeführt und deren Einfluss auf die Planung einer Innendämmmaßnahme untersucht. Die Ergebnisse wurden zusammengeführt und dienen als Grundlage für möglichst realitätsnahe, dynamische Simulationen. [less ▲]

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