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See detailObfuscating LLVM Intermediate Representation Source Code with NSGA-II
de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Aragó-Jurado, José Miguel; Jareño, Javier et al

in 15th Intl. Conf. on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems (CISIS'22) (2022, September)

With the generalisation of distributed computing paradigms to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities, the protection of the intellectual property tied to the ... [more ▼]

With the generalisation of distributed computing paradigms to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities, the protection of the intellectual property tied to the executed programs transferred onto these remote shared platforms becomes critical. A more and more popular solution to this problem consists in applying obfuscating techniques, in particular at the source code level. Informally, the goal of obfuscation is to conceal the purpose of a program or its logic without altering its functionality, thus preventing reverse-engineering on the program even with the help of computing resources. This allows to protect software against plagiarism, tampering, or finding vulnerabilities that could be used for different kinds of attacks. The many advantages of code obfuscation, together with its low cost, makes it a popular technique. This paper proposes a novel methodology for source code obfuscation relying on the reference LLVM compiler infrastructure that can be used together with other traditional obfuscation techniques, making the code more robust against reverse engineering attacks. The problem is defined as a Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization (MOCO) problem, where the goal is to find sequences of LLVM optimizations that lead to highly obfuscated versions of the original code. These transformations are applied to the back-end pseudo- assembly code (i.e., LLVM Intermediate Representation), thus avoiding any further optimizations by the compiler. Three different problem flavours are defined and solved with popular NSGA-II genetic algorithm. The promising results show the potential of the proposed technique. [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdsourcing as “Live” Collection – Project Warlux – War Experiences in Luxembourg
Janz, Nina UL

Article for general public (2022)

In February 2021, a team at the Centre for Contemporary and Digital History at the University of Luxembourg launched a call for contributions as part of the project, “WARLUX – War Experiences in ... [more ▼]

In February 2021, a team at the Centre for Contemporary and Digital History at the University of Luxembourg launched a call for contributions as part of the project, “WARLUX – War Experiences in Luxembourg,” funded by the Luxembourgish Research Fund (Fond National de la Recherche). The team researches the personal side of the Luxembourgish war generation’s history. To uncover the individual experiences of these men, women and families, the team asked the public to share their family stories, letters, diaries, photographs, and other personal documents. The researchers aimed to enrich existing records of individual experiences, which had not yet been collected or published. While the crowdsourcing campaign was intended as complementary research material, we created a unique digital archive of personal memories and individual voices in the form of first-hand documents, a novelty in the cultural landscape in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailDeontic Sentence Classification Using Tree Kernel Classifiers
Liga, Davide UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Intelligent Systems and Applications (2022, August 31)

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See detailborn digitals und die historische Wissenschaft. Annäherungen an eine Quellenkunde für genuin elektronisches Archivmaterial
Fickers, Andreas UL

Presentation (2022, August 30)

Expertenworkshop am 30./31.08.2022 im Landesarchiv NRW in Duisburg: born digitals und die historische Wissenschaft – Annäherungen an eine Quellenkunde für genuin elektronisches Archivmaterial Zu den ... [more ▼]

Expertenworkshop am 30./31.08.2022 im Landesarchiv NRW in Duisburg: born digitals und die historische Wissenschaft – Annäherungen an eine Quellenkunde für genuin elektronisches Archivmaterial Zu den grundsätzlichen Kompetenzen von Historiker*innen gehört die methodische Quellenkri-tik. Gleichzeitig ist es gute fachliche Tradition, dass Archivar*innen diese Kompetenz immer schon mit Blick auf die in ihren Häusern überlieferten Unterlagen gefördert haben. Archi-var*innen kennen die überlieferten Unterlagen mit ihren Charakteristika, ihren Besonderhei-ten, ihren Entstehungszusammenhängen u.ä.m. Aus diesem Wissen heraus sind viele Standard-werke zur Akten- oder Quellenkunde entstanden, die die Historiker*innen bei ihrer Forschungs-arbeit unterstützen. Aus einer Vielzahl von Werken seien an dieser Stelle beispielhaft Heinrich Otto Meisner, Aktenkunde, ders., Archivalienkunde, Gerhard Schmid, Akten, Jürgen Klooster-huis, Amtliche Aktenkunde der Neuzeit, Michael Hochedlinger, Urkunden- und Aktenlehre der Neuzeit genannt. Mit der digitalen Transformation der gesamten Gesellschaft seit dem ausgehenden 20. Jahrhun-dert unterliegen auch die klassischen historischen Quellen einem fortlaufenden Digitalisie-rungsprozess: Briefe werden zu E-Mails, Akten zu E-Akten, Karteikarten zu Datensätzen etc. Hinzu treten Quellen rein digitaler Natur, die in der analogen Welt keine vergleichbaren Vorgänger hatten wie Websites oder Vorgangsbearbeitungssysteme (Fachverfahren). Archivar*innen haben bereits erste Erfahrungen mit der Sicherung dieser Unterlagen. Gleichzeitig haben Zeithistori-ker*innen begonnen, diese Unterlagen für ihre Arbeiten zu nutzen. Von einem guten fachlichen Standard im Umgang mit dieser jüngsten Überlieferungsschicht sind aber alle noch entfernt, es fehlen Praxiserfahrungen in der Breite wie in der Tiefe und zwar sowohl bei der Überlieferungs-bildung und der Archivierung als auch bei der Nutzung und der Interpretation. Die digitale Transformation in Gesellschaft und Verwaltung fordert(e) also Archivar*innen heraus, Konzepte und Verfahren zu entwickeln, um genuin elektronisches Schriftgut dauerhaft zu erhalten, also ebenso langfristig zu archivieren wie mittelalterliche Urkunden oder neuzeitliche Verwaltungs-akten. Dabei geht es um nichts Geringeres als die Verhinderung einer umfassend fehlenden Überlieferung aus der Zeit des späten 20. und frühen 21. Jahrhunderts, was zugleich deutlich stärkere archivarische Eingriffe in die Quellengestaltung erfordert, als das bei der analogen Über-lieferung der Fall war. Wenngleich diese Hürde sicherlich noch nicht abschließend genommen ist, so stellt sich gleich-zeitig die Frage: Wird die historische Wissenschaft und werden Archivnutzer*innen in der Lage sein, diese genuin elektronischen Unterlagen, die kein analoges Pendant kennen, zu interpre-tieren? Welche Instrumentarien und Werkzeuge liegen vor, um versiert born digitals kompe-tent einordnen und auswerten zu können? Sind die archivarischen Eingriffe hinreichend nach-vollziehbar, so dass die quellenkritische Analyse der Forschung nicht beeinträchtigt wird. Auch wenn es erste Ansätze dazu geben mag, so fehlt aus Sicht des Landesarchivs NRW eine um-fassende und methodengeleitete Quellenkunde für genuin elektronisches Archivgut, insbeson-dere aus der Verwaltung. Vielfach – so der Eindruck – sind diese Archivalien in der historischen Wissenschaft noch nicht bekannt oder man ist damit noch nicht vertraut. Das Landesarchiv NRW möchte sich daher gemeinsam mit Historiker*innen diesem Desiderat annehmen. Es ist be-strebt, die begonnene Bildung und Nutzung von elektronischer Überlieferung auch mit einer fachlich-theoretischen Diskussion zwischen Forschung und Archiven zu begleiten. Zu diesem Zweck organisiert das Landesarchiv NRW einen Workshop für und von Expert*innen aus der Geschichtswissenschaft und dem Archivwesen, um den quellenkritischen Diskurs zu ge-nuin digitaler Überlieferung zwischen Forschung und Archiven zu fördern und einen Impuls für die Entwicklung einer Quellenkunde zu geben. Dieser Workshop soll zum einen als Bestandsauf-nahme und zum anderen – idealiter – als Grundlage für eine Publikation dienen. Auf der Basis der Kenntnisse von Archivar*innen über die gängigen elektronischen Archivalien einerseits und durch das Bündeln vorhandener Ansätze geschichtswissenschaftlicher Auswertungsmethoden für born digitals andererseits sollen Überlegungen für eine Quellenkunde elektronischer Unterla-gen weiterentwickelt werden. Der Workshop grenzt sich insofern von den üblichen Herangehensweisen in den Digital Humani-ties ab, als dass Forschungsdaten, Digitalisate von analogem Archivgut, Datenbankanalysen und andere Methoden der Recherche in digitalen (Online-)Daten (Data Mining etc.) oder der digita-len Präsentation und Diskussion von Forschungsergebnissen nicht thematisiert werden. Zentral diskutiert werden soll das elektronische Archivgut, das den Großteil des genuin elektronischen Schriftguts aus den anbietungspflichtigen Behörden, also die neue und künftige Überlieferung der öffentlichen Verwaltung darstellt, nämlich elektronische Akten, Fachverfahren, ungeordnete Dateiablagen, daneben aber auch Informationen im Internet und in den Sozialen Medien. In der ersten Sektion „Einführendes und Grundlegendes“ werden Fragestellung und Themenzu-schnitt des Workshops dargelegt sowie die Terminologie aus zwei Perspektiven zur Diskussion gestellt. Ferner wird erörtert, worin die „Digitale Transformation“ in der Verwaltung besteht und was die Konsequenzen für die Generierung von genuin elektronischen Verwaltungsunterla-gen sind: Welche Daten und Informationen entstehen? Worin unterscheiden sich genuin elekt-ronische Unterlagen von den bekannten analogen Verwaltungsakten, was ist das spezifisch Digi-tale? Wie verändern sich Systematik und Aggregation von Verwaltungsdaten? In welchem Maße greifen Archive im Zuge der digitalen Überlieferungsbildung und der elektronischen Archivie-rung in die Daten ein? Welche Bedeutung kommt dabei den signifikanten Eigenschaften, den Metadaten und den Versionierungsangaben zu? In den Sektionen II und III stehen typische und spezifische digitale Objekttypen im Fokus hin-sichtlich der archivierten Formate und Kontexte sowie hinsichtlich der Methoden der quellen-kritischen Einordnung und quellenkundlichen Auswertung. Ausgehend von den Kenntnissen zu diesen Objekten soll u.a. Folgendes diskutiert werden: Welche technischen, verwaltungsorgani-satorischen und archivfachlichen Kenntnisse sind für eine methodenbasierte, wissenschaftliche Interpretation der ausgewählten Unterlagentypen als historische Quellen erforderlich? Welche Anforderungen sollten Archive erfüllen, damit eine quellenkritische Auswertung der elektroni-schen Überlieferung gewährleistet ist? Was muss ein „Werkzeugkasten“ beinhalten, damit er als methodenbasierte „Quellenkunde für genuin elektronisches Archivgut“ dienen und in die Ver-mittlung von Geschichtswissenschaft einfließen kann? Was wäre beispielsweise Inhalt eines Grundseminars „Quellenkunde genuin elektronischen Verwaltungsschriftguts“? Zu diskutieren ist, welche bisherigen „Werkzeuge“ können – ggf. leicht abgewandelt – auch auf born digitals angewandt werden, welche müssen neu entwickelt werden und was kann u.U. aufgrund der Digitalität der Quellen neu erforscht werden. In der Abschlussdiskussion soll neben einem Resümee ein Ausblick auf ein mögliches Publikati-onsprojekt gewagt werden, etwa: Was ist der Bedarf der Geschichtswissenschaft? Welche Art von Quellenkunde wird benötigt? Kann es ein gemeinsames Projekt für eine Quellenkunde ge-ben? Der zweitägige Workshop ist so gestaltet, dass die archivfachlichen Perspektiven mit denen der Geschichtswissenschaft eng verzahnt miteinander im Dialog stehen. Deshalb wird jedes Thema von zwei Impulsreferaten (à ca. 15-20 Minuten) je von einer/m Archivar*in und einer/m Histori-ker*in eingeleitet. In den verbleibenden ca. 30 Minuten ist Raum für die Diskussion. Anders als die vorhergehenden Sektionen ist die Sektion III als „Workshop im Workshop“ organisiert: Die quellenkritische Betrachtung von einerseits E-Akten und andererseits elektronischen Fachver-fahren wird von zwei Archivarinnen vorbereitet und durchgeführt. Daneben sollen gemeinsam konkrete Beispiele von elektronischen Unterlagen angeschaut und diskutiert werden. Die von Dr. Bischoff moderierte Abschlussdiskussion wird zunächst von einem Historiker mit einem Kommentar zur Tagung eingeleitet. [less ▲]

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See detailGrenzkomplexitäten: Annäherung und Problematisierungen
Wille, Christian UL

Presentation (2022, August 29)

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See detailConserved patterns across ion channels correlate with variant pathogenicity and clinical phenotypes
Brünger, Tobias; Pérez-Palma, Eduardo; Montanucci, Ludovica et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2022)

Clinically identified genetic variants in ion channels can be benign or cause disease by increasing or decreasing the protein function. Consequently, therapeutic decision-making is challenging without ... [more ▼]

Clinically identified genetic variants in ion channels can be benign or cause disease by increasing or decreasing the protein function. Consequently, therapeutic decision-making is challenging without molecular testing of each variant. Our biophysical knowledge of ion channel structures and function is just emerging, and it is currently not well understood which amino acid residues cause disease when mutated.We sought to systematically identify biological properties associated with variant pathogenicity across all major voltage and ligand-gated ion channel families. We collected and curated 3,049 pathogenic variants from hundreds of neurodevelopmental and other disorders and 12,546 population variants for 30 ion channel or channel subunits for which a high-quality protein structure was available. Using a wide range of bioinformatics approaches, we computed 163 structural features and tested them for pathogenic variant enrichment. We developed a novel 3D spatial distance scoring approach that enables comparisons of pathogenic and population variant distribution across protein structures.We discovered and independently replicated that several pore residue properties and proximity to the pore axis were most significantly enriched for pathogenic variants compared to population variants. Using our 3D scoring approach, we showed that the strongest pathogenic variant enrichment was observed for pore-lining residues and alpha-helix residues within 5Å distance from the pore axis center and not involved in gating. Within the subset of residues located at the pore, the hydrophobicity of the pore was the feature most strongly associated with variant pathogenicity. We also found an association between the identified properties and both clinical phenotypes and functional in vitro assays for voltage-gated sodium channels (SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B) encoding genes. In an independent expert-curated dataset of 1,422 neurodevelopmental disorder pathogenic patient variants and 679 electrophysiological experiments, we show that pore axis distance is associated with seizure age of onset and cognitive performance as well as differential gain vs. loss-of-channel function.In summary, we identified biological properties associated with ion-channel malfunction and show that these are correlated with in vitro functional read-outs and clinical phenotypes in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our results suggest that clinical decision support algorithms that predict variant pathogenicity and function are feasible in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of SORL1 in Lewy Body Dementia Identifies No Significant Associations
Ray, Anindidta; Reho, Paolo; Shah, Zalak et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, fluctuating mental status, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior ... [more ▼]

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, fluctuating mental status, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. LBD lies along a spectrum between Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and recent evidence suggests that the genetic architectures of these age-related syndromes are intersecting. In summary, we did not find a significant enrichment of rare, damaging SORL1 mutations in our well-powered LBD cohort. Our data set is, to our knowledge, the largest genome-sequence cohort in this understudied disease. Although it is possible that an association was missed due to allelic heterogeneity, our findings indicate that caution should be exercised when interpreting SORL1 mutations in LBD, as the current evidence does not conclusively support an association with disease risk. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigualdades interseccionales en la ciencia
Kozlowski, Diego UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

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See detailSecure, privacy-preserving and practical collaborative Genome-Wide Association Studies
Pascoal, Túlio UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Understanding the interplay between genomics and human health is a crucial step for the advancement and development of our society. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) is one of the most popular methods ... [more ▼]

Understanding the interplay between genomics and human health is a crucial step for the advancement and development of our society. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) is one of the most popular methods for discovering correlations between genomic variations associated with a particular phenotype (i.e., an observable trait such as a disease). Leveraging genome data from multiple institutions worldwide nowadays is essential to produce more powerful findings by operating GWAS at larger scale. However, this raises several security and privacy risks, not only in the computation of such statistics, but also in the public release of GWAS results. To that extent, several solutions in the literature have adopted cryptographic approaches to allow secure and privacy-preserving processing of genome data for federated analysis. However, conducting federated GWAS in a secure and privacy-preserving manner is not enough since the public releases of GWAS results might be vulnerable to known genomic privacy attacks, such as recovery and membership attacks. The present thesis explores possible solutions to enable end-to-end privacy-preserving federated GWAS in line with data privacy regulations such as GDPR to secure the public release of the results of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASes) that are dynamically updated as new genomes become available, that might overlap with their genomes and considered locations within the genome, that can support internal threats such as colluding members in the federation and that are computed in a distributed manner without shipping actual genome data. While achieving these goals, this work created several contributions described below. First, the thesis proposes DyPS, a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE)-based framework that reconciles efficient and secure genome data outsourcing with privacy-preserving data processing inside TEE enclaves to assess and create private releases of dynamic GWAS. In particular, DyPS presents the conditions for the creation of safe dynamic releases certifying that the theoretical complexity of the solution space an external probabilistic polynomial-time (p.p.t.) adversary or a group of colluders (up to all-but-one parties) would need to infer when launching recovery attacks on the observation of GWAS statistics is large enough. Besides that, DyPS executes an exhaustive verification algorithm along with a Likelihood-ratio test to measure the probability of identifying individuals in studies. Thus, also protecting individuals against membership inference attacks. Only safe genome data (i.e., genomes and SNPs) that DyPS selects are further used for the computation and release of GWAS results. At the same time, the remaining (unsafe) data is kept secluded and protected inside the enclave until it eventually can be used. Our results show that if dynamic releases are not improperly evaluated, up to 8% of genomes could be exposed to genomic privacy attacks. Moreover, the experiments show that DyPS’ TEE-based architecture can accommodate the computational resources demanded by our algorithms and present practical running times for larger-scale GWAS. Secondly, the thesis offers I-GWAS that identifies the new conditions for safe releases when considering the existence of overlapping data among multiple GWASes (e.g., same individuals participating in several studies). Indeed, it is shown that adversaries might leverage information of overlapping data to make both recovery and membership attacks feasible again (even if they are produced following the conditions for safe single-GWAS releases). Our experiments show that up to 28.6% of genetic variants of participants could be inferred during recovery attacks, and 92.3% of these variants would enable membership attacks from adversaries observing overlapping studies, which are withheld by I-GWAS. Lastly yet importantly, the thesis presents GenDPR, which encompasses extensions to our protocols so that the privacy-verification algorithms can be conducted distributively among the federation members without demanding the outsourcing of genome data across boundaries. Further, GenDPR can also cope with collusion among participants while selecting genome data that can be used to create safe releases. Additionally, GenDPRproduces the same privacy guarantees as centralized architectures, i.e., it correctly identifies and selects the same data in need of protection as with centralized approaches. In the end, the thesis presents a homogenized framework comprising DyPS, I-GWAS and GenDPR simultaneously. Thus, offering a usable approach for conducting practical GWAS. The method chosen for protection is of a statistical nature, ensuring that the theoretical complexity of attacks remains high and withholding releases of statistics that would impose membership inference risks to participants using Likelihood-ratio tests, despite adversaries gaining additional information over time, but the thesis also relates the findings to techniques that can be leveraged to protect releases (such as Differential Privacy). The proposed solutions leverage Intel SGX as Trusted Execution Environment to perform selected critical operations in a performant manner, however, the work translates equally well to other trusted execution environments and other schemes, such as Homomorphic Encryption. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Communications on Satellite-Based IoT Systems to Support Maritime Transportation Services
Monzon Baeza, Victor UL; Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Herrero Garcia, Samuel et al

in Sensors (2022), 22(17),

Maritime transport has become important due to its ability to internationally unite all continents. In turn, during the last two years, we have observed that the increase of consumer goods has resulted in ... [more ▼]

Maritime transport has become important due to its ability to internationally unite all continents. In turn, during the last two years, we have observed that the increase of consumer goods has resulted in global shipping deadlocks. In addition, the future goes through the role of ports and efficiency in maritime transport to decarbonize its impact on the environment. In order to improve the economy and people’s lives, in this work, we propose to enhance services offered in maritime logistics. To do this, a communications system is designed on the deck of ships to transmit data through a constellation of satellites using interconnected smart devices based on IoT. Among the services, we highlight the monitoring and tracking of refrigerated containers, the transmission of geolocation data from Global Positioning System (GPS), and security through the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This information will be used for a fleet of ships to make better decisions and help guarantee the status of the cargo and maritime safety on the routes. The system design, network dimensioning, and a communications protocol for decision-making will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailCROWDSOURCED ARCHIVES - PRIVATE ARCHIVES AND PERSONAL COLLECTIONS
Janz, Nina UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Data collections are essential for historical research. In addition to official archives and state institutions, collections from research institutions and private holders face different challenges in ... [more ▼]

Data collections are essential for historical research. In addition to official archives and state institutions, collections from research institutions and private holders face different challenges in creation and consistency, preservation and use. While most private collections are stored in official and state archives due to donations or the acquisition of private holdings, crowdsourcing data as private collections is a different approach. Crowdsourcing has become popular in Citizen Science and public history projects in the last decade. Although crowdsourcing is not (always) meant to create an archive, the data or contributions collected are an archive nonetheless. This paper aims to highlight the possibilities and pitfalls of crowdsourcing to build an archive of private origin. In February 2021, a team at the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History at the University of Luxembourg launched a call for contributions to collect ego documents about the war generation. As part of the project, "WARLUX - War Experiences in Luxembourg", the team is researching the personal side of the history of the Luxembourgish war generation. To uncover the individual experiences of these men, women and families, the team asked the public to share their family stories, letters, diaries, photographs and other personal documents. The researchers aimed to enrich records on individuals, which had not yet been collected or published. While the crowdsourcing campaign was intended as complementary research material, we have created a unique digital archive of personal memories and individual voices in the form of first-hand documents and a novelty in the cultural landscape in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. In my presentation and paper, I will explore the possibilities of crowdsourced (digital) private archives, their pitfalls and challenges such as copyright and GDRP and sensitive information and its future implementation into official cultural institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Makes Public History Truly International?
Cauvin, Thomas UL; Perry, Jimena; Zündorf, Irmgard et al

Presentation (2022, August 25)

Public History and history didactics are two subdisciplines of history that focus on reaching the world outside the academy. Both put an emphasis on “practising” history while at the same time grounding ... [more ▼]

Public History and history didactics are two subdisciplines of history that focus on reaching the world outside the academy. Both put an emphasis on “practising” history while at the same time grounding practice on theoretical reflection and empirical research with the ultimate goal of developing the most effective strategies of reaching diverse audiences to enhance historical knowledge and understanding. This roundtable explores what we mean by international public history and by the internationalization of history didactics, drawing on initiatives such as The Italian Public History Manifesto (2016) issued by the Italian Association of Public History (Associazione Italiana di Public History (AIPH). Our discussion will revolve around questions such as How must we re-shape history didactics and public history so that we take full account of transnational, diasporic and other identities based on class, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexuality, or ability? How can we enhance knowledge building globally by embracing different local experiences and perceptions? How do we address imbalances and the traditional North American and European centredness of our subdisciplines? [less ▲]

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See detailCoevaporation Stabilizes Tin-Based Perovskites in a Single Sn-Oxidation State
Singh, Ajay UL; Hieulle, Jeremy UL; Ferreira Machado, Joana Andreia UL et al

in Nano Letters (2022)

Chemically processed methylammonium tin-triiodide (CH3NH3SnI3) films include Sn in different oxidation states, leading to poor stability and low power conversion efficiency of the resulting solar cells ... [more ▼]

Chemically processed methylammonium tin-triiodide (CH3NH3SnI3) films include Sn in different oxidation states, leading to poor stability and low power conversion efficiency of the resulting solar cells (PSCs). The development of absorbers with Sn [2+] only has been identified as one of the critical steps to develop all Sn-based devices. Here, we report on coevaporation of CH3NH3I and SnI2 to obtain absorbers with Sn being only in the preferred oxidation state [+2] as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Sn [4+]-free absorbers exhibit smooth highly crystalline surfaces and photoluminescence measurements corroborating their excellent optoelectronic properties. The films show very good stability under heat and light. Photoluminescence quantum yields up to 4 × 10^-3 translate in a quasi Fermi-level splittings exceeding 850 meV under one sun equivalent conditions showing high promise in developing lead-free, high efficiency, and stable PSCs. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic Engagement with Web Archives
Brügger, Niels; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, August 17)

With a view to ensuring future access to digital cultural heritage, the first Web collections were established in the mid-1990s. To date there exist for example some 25 national Web archives in Europe ... [more ▼]

With a view to ensuring future access to digital cultural heritage, the first Web collections were established in the mid-1990s. To date there exist for example some 25 national Web archives in Europe that collect and preserve Web material and the Internet Archive has saved 651 billion pages since 1996. However, research projects based on the archived Web rarely engage with or include the general public. There are several reasons for this limited use of Web archives: there is a lack of awareness and a lack of examples demonstrating their value; to use them requires skills that many people do not have; and no quick and easy access is available (Winters, 2017). However, several research projects were developed which are of interest for the general public: some of them have studied national Web ('Probing a nation’s Web sphere — the historical development of the Danish Web' (DK, 2013-), 'Big UK Domain Data for the Arts and Humanities' (UK, 2014-15), etc.), others have focused on the web activity in relation to an event, for instance the terrorist attacks in France (‘Archives sauvegarde attentats Paris' (FR, 2016)). In 2020, a nationally funded researcher network has been established (WARCnet, DK). Web archiving initiatives have also been very reactive during the COVID crisis (and sometimes invited the public to nominate URLs). This resulted in huge national collections and a unique collection of international web archives gathered by the IIPC thanks to the collaboration of more than 30 web archiving institutions (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529). As leaders of and/or participants in several of these initiatives, the proposers aim to stimulate greater involvement of the public with the treasure trove to be found in Web archives. Web archives contain their histories, but these important stories are largely hidden from view. The proposers want to create a frame for developing an ambitious relationship with the public, by identifying the challenges and limits to their involvement in Digital Public History at the level of: - Web archiving How/why could we better include publics in the selection of archived content? What is the added value? What are the constraints (i.e legal deposit)? How can we make information about access to Web archives available and raise public awareness of Web archiving? - Selection and analysis of archives Web archives require good knowledge of the Web archiving process if they are to be used effectively. The identification of scarce existing resources for the general public will be coupled with a perspective on needs and tools. - Dissemination Legal and ethical issues (author rights, gender bias, etc.) must be taken into account and the very notion of what is public must be refined. All these elements advocate for an in-depth reflection and this working group is the starting point for a better inclusion of audiences in the creation/selection, use and enhancement of Web archives. [less ▲]

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See detailMatching Traffic Demand in GEO Multibeam Satellites: The Joint Use of Dynamic Beamforming and Precoding Under Practical Constraints
Chaker, Haythem UL; Chougrani, Houcine UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting (2022)

To adjust for the non-uniform spatiotemporal nature of traffic patterns, next-generation high throughput satellite (HTS) systems can benefit from recent technological advancements in the space-segment in ... [more ▼]

To adjust for the non-uniform spatiotemporal nature of traffic patterns, next-generation high throughput satellite (HTS) systems can benefit from recent technological advancements in the space-segment in order to dynamically design traffic-adaptive beam layout plans (ABLPs). In this work, we propose a framework for dynamic beamforming (DBF) optimization and adaptation in dynamic environments. Given realistic traffic patterns and a limited power budget, we propose a feasible DBF operation for a geostationary multibeam HTS network. The goal is to minimize the mismatch between the traffic demand and the offered capacity under practical constraints. These constraints are dictated by the traffic-aware design requirements, the on-board antenna system limitations, and the signaling considerations in the K-band. Noting that the ABLP is agnostic about the inherent inter-beam interference (IBI), we construct an interference simulation environment using irregularly shaped beams for a large-scale multibeam HTS system. To cope with IBI, the combination of on-board DBF and on-ground precoding is considered. For precoded and non-precoded HTS configurations, the proposed design shows better traffic-matching capabilities in comparison to a regular beam layout plan. Lastly, we provide trade-off analyses between system-level key performance indicators for different realistic non-uniform traffic patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailExhibiting the Industrial Past and Digital Storytelling
Boretska, Viktoria UL; Richter, Daniel UL

Presentation (2022, August 17)

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See detailMigration and Education - Luxembourg
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Presentation (2022, August 16)

The presentation deals on the Luxembourgish multiliguistic educational system and the challenges that foreigners (EU citizens and third-country nationals) are confronted with this system as well as the ... [more ▼]

The presentation deals on the Luxembourgish multiliguistic educational system and the challenges that foreigners (EU citizens and third-country nationals) are confronted with this system as well as the good practices implemented by the Luxembourgish authorities. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailConstruction of a digital fetus library for radiation dosimetry
Qu; Xie, Tianwu; L Giger et al

in Medical Physics (2022)

Purpose: Accurate estimations of fetal absorbed dose and radiation risks are crucial for radiation protection and important for radiological imaging research owing to the high radiosensitivity of the ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Accurate estimations of fetal absorbed dose and radiation risks are crucial for radiation protection and important for radiological imaging research owing to the high radiosensitivity of the fetus. Computational anthropomorphic models have been widely used in patient-specific radiation dosimetry calculations. In this work, we aim to build the first digital fetal library for more reliable and accurate radiation dosimetry studies. Acquisition and validation methods: Computed tomography (CT) images of abdominal and pelvic regions of 46 pregnant females were segmented by experienced medical physicists. The segmented tissues/organs include the body contour, skeleton, uterus, liver, kidney, intestine, stomach, lung, bladder, gall bladder, spleen, and pancreas for maternal body, and placenta, amniotic fluid, fetal body, fetal brain, and fetal skeleton. Nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces of each identified region was constructed manually using 3D modeling software. The Hounsfield unit values of each identified organs were gathered from CT images of pregnant patients and converted to tissue density. Organ volumes were further adjusted according to reference measurements for the developing fetus recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Commission on Radiological Protection. A series of anatomical parameters, including femur length, humerus length, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference (FAC), and head circumference, were measured and compared with WHO recommendations. Data format and usage notes: The first fetal patient-specific model library was developed with the anatomical characteristics of each model derived from the corresponding patient whose gestational age varies between 8 and 35 weeks. Voxelized models are represented in the form of MCNP matrix input files representing the three-dimensional model of the fetus. The size distributions of each model are also provided in text files. All data are stored on Zenodo and are publicly accessible on the following link: https://zenodo.org/record/6471884. Potential applications: The constructed fetal models and maternal anatomical characteristics are consistent with the corresponding patients. The resulting computational fetus could be used in radiation dosimetry studies to improve the reliability of fetal dosimetry and radiation risks assessment. The advantages of NURBS surfaces in terms of adapting fetal postures and positions enable us to adequately assess their impact on radiation dosimetry calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Refined Classifications Driven by SHAP Explanations
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in Holzinger, Andreas; Kieseberg, Peter; Tjoa, A. Min (Eds.) et al Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction (2022, August 11)

Machine Learning (ML) models are inherently approximate; as a result, the predictions of an ML model can be wrong. In applications where errors can jeopardize a company's reputation, human experts often ... [more ▼]

Machine Learning (ML) models are inherently approximate; as a result, the predictions of an ML model can be wrong. In applications where errors can jeopardize a company's reputation, human experts often have to manually check the alarms raised by the ML models by hand, as wrong or delayed decisions can have a significant business impact. These experts often use interpretable ML tools for the verification of predictions. However, post-prediction verification is also costly. In this paper, we hypothesize that the outputs of interpretable ML tools, such as SHAP explanations, can be exploited by machine learning techniques to improve classifier performance. By doing so, the cost of the post-prediction analysis can be reduced. To confirm our intuition, we conduct several experiments where we use SHAP explanations directly as new features. In particular, by considering nine datasets, we first compare the performance of these "SHAP features" against traditional "base features" on binary classification tasks. Then, we add a second-step classifier relying on SHAP features, with the goal of reducing false-positive and false-negative results of typical classifiers. We show that SHAP explanations used as SHAP features can help to improve classification performance, especially for false-negative reduction. [less ▲]

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