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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioner’s Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(2021), 217-220

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See detailPain Processing in Older Age – Evidence from Event-Related Potentials
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL; González-Rolán, Ana Maria et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Aging is known to affect neurobiological and physiological aspects of pain perception and has been associated with reduced pain sensitivity and a deterioration of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. To ... [more ▼]

Aging is known to affect neurobiological and physiological aspects of pain perception and has been associated with reduced pain sensitivity and a deterioration of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. To investigate age differences in neural electrophysiological correlates of pain processing, we induced acute pain in healthy older (60 yrs+) and younger adults (18 to 35 yrs), using short transdermal electrical pulses administered to the inner forearm, with individually adjusted stimulation intensities. Participants received alternating blocks of painful and non-painful control stimulation and rated the intensity and unpleasantness of each stimulus on two visual analog scales. Pain-related evoked potentials were recorded with a 64-channel EEG. Preliminary results indicate that younger and older participants rated painful stimuli more intensive and unpleasant compared to the control stimulation, with older adults showing a slight habituation over time. In younger adults, ERP amplitudes (N2, P2 P3) of painful stimulation were enhanced compared to non- painful stimulation. In contrast, older participants showed generally reduced ERPs, no difference between pain and non-painful stimulation and by tendency longer latencies for painful stimulation. This suggests that nociceptive neural processing is altered in aging, while the reported pain perception is unaffected. Given that aging is also associated with a decline of cognitive functions and PFC volume and activity changes, this could have implications for the efficacy of cognitive pain modulation. Altogether, our results highlight the need for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain processing in older adults, and how these age-related changes affect (cognitive) pain treatments in this population. [less ▲]

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See detailDistraction from Pain: An fMRI Study on the Role of Age-related Changes in Executive Functions
Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL; González-Roldán, Ana M.; Montoya, Pedro et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Even though aging is associated with increased and prolonged episodes of pain, little is known about potential age-related changes in the "top-down" modulation of pain, such as cognitive distraction from ... [more ▼]

Even though aging is associated with increased and prolonged episodes of pain, little is known about potential age-related changes in the "top-down" modulation of pain, such as cognitive distraction from pain. The hypoalgesic effect of distraction results from a competition for attentional and executive resources mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Given that age-related grey matter atrophy is particularly prominent in the PFC, older adults may benefit less from distraction to reduce pain than young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on task-related hypoalgesia and its neural mechanisms, with a focus on the role of executive functions in distraction from pain. 64 participants (32 young adults: 26.69 ± 4.14 years; 32 older adults: 68.28 ± 7.00 years) first completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. In a second session, we administered a pain distraction paradigm while functional brain images were acquired. In this paradigm, participants completed a low (0-back) and a high (2-back) load condition of a working memory task while receiving either innocuous or painful heat stimuli to their lower arm. To control for age-related differences in sensitivity to pain and perceived task difficulty, stimulus intensity and task speed were individually calibrated. Both age groups showed significantly reduced activity in a network of regions involved in pain processing when performing the high compared to the low load distraction task; however, young adults showed a larger neural distraction effect in several of these regions, including the insula, caudate and midcingulate cortex. Moreover, in older adults, better executive functions – in particular inhibitory control abilities – were associated with a larger neural distraction effect in the insula, thalamus and primary somatosensory cortex, and with more activation in several prefrontal cortex regions during the high load task. These findings clearly demonstrate that the top-down control of pain is altered by age and could explain the higher vulnerability of older adults to developing chronic pain. Moreover, our findings suggest that the assessment of executive functions may be a useful tool for predicting the efficacy of cognitive pain modulation strategies in older adults. [less ▲]

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See detailDark solitons in a trapped gas of long-range interacting bosons
Beau, M.; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Frantzeskakis, D. J. et al

in Physical Review X (2021)

We consider the interplay of repulsive short-range and long-range interactions in the dynamics of dark solitons, as prototypical coherent nonlinear excitations in a trapped quasi-1D Bose gas. Upon ... [more ▼]

We consider the interplay of repulsive short-range and long-range interactions in the dynamics of dark solitons, as prototypical coherent nonlinear excitations in a trapped quasi-1D Bose gas. Upon examining the form of the ground state, both the existence of the solitary waves and their stability properties are explored and corroborated by direct numerical simulations. We find that single- and multiple-dark-soliton states can exist and are generically robust in the presence of long-range interactions. We analyze the modes of vibration of such excitations and find that their respective frequencies are significantly upshifted as the strength of the long-range interactions is increased. Indeed, we find that a prefactor of the long-range interactions considered comparable to the trap strength may upshift the dark soliton oscillation frequency by an order of magnitude, in comparison to the well established one of /√2 in a trap of frequency . [less ▲]

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See detailGenerating 3D Dances From Music Using Deep Neural Networks
Dupont, Briag Gerard Benjamin UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2021)

This thesis focuses on the generation of original and unique 3D dances given a music using deep neural networks. A state of the art model (Dance Revolution) was adapted to take as input 3D data. Then it ... [more ▼]

This thesis focuses on the generation of original and unique 3D dances given a music using deep neural networks. A state of the art model (Dance Revolution) was adapted to take as input 3D data. Then it was trained using the recently published AIST++ dataset. At the generation phase, the model is able to generate credible dances. This was achieved by introducing a novel audio data augmentation technique that modifies the harmonic content of a song without changing the rhythmic content. This method allowed for an increase in the number of training epochs before the LSTM network converges to a static pose. Additionally, a novel method to evaluate the coherence of the generated dances with respect to the style of music is proposed. The comparison is based on key dance moves that are identified using the matrix profile. Using this method to evaluate the dances, it was found that the model generate coherent dances with respect to the dominant styles of music in the dataset. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestment and Tax Dispute Settlement Reforms: Do we need Fragmentation?
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

My panel addressed the impact of domestic law in international agreements and the use of tax, trade, and investment domestic law provisions for the application of international agreements. Some examples ... [more ▼]

My panel addressed the impact of domestic law in international agreements and the use of tax, trade, and investment domestic law provisions for the application of international agreements. Some examples are for instance the use of investment law that leads to non-application of domestic provisions, the need to introduce a domestic tax provision in the framework of legality, and the introduction of a tax measure that can results in indirect expropriation under the investment agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithmic business and EU law on fair trading
Galli, Federico UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

This thesis studies how commercial practice is developing with artificial in- telligence technologies and discusses some normative concepts of EU law on fair trading. The author argues that the mainstream ... [more ▼]

This thesis studies how commercial practice is developing with artificial in- telligence technologies and discusses some normative concepts of EU law on fair trading. The author argues that the mainstream normative debate concerning artificial intelligence has underestimated the importance of un- derstanding the socio-technical context behind its adoption, and therefore aims at amending this gap by studying artificial intelligence in the context of business-consumer marketing relationships. The "algorithmic business" phe- nomenon refers to the increased deployment of artificial intelligence tools in marketing organisations which - based on large quantities of consumer data - allow companies to optimise a number of tasks related to consumer relation- ships. The phenomenon is orienting relations with consumers towards some general observable trends that are critically affecting the power relations be- tween business and consumers. These developments do not take place in a legal vacuum but in the background of a system of norms and rules aimed at maintaining fairness and balance in market transactions. Thus, the author assesses current developments in business practice in the context of EU con- sumer law specifically aimed at regulating business practice. The analysis is critical by design and without neglecting concrete practices attempts to look at the general picture. The thesis consists of nine chapters divided in three thematic parts. The first part discusses the integration of artificial intelligence technologies in marketing organisations, a brief history, the technical foundations, and their modes of integration in business organisations. In the second part, a se- lected number of socio-technological developments in commercial practice are analysed and the main implications from the perspective of consumers discussed. In particular, the following are addressed: the monitoring and analysis of consumer behaviour based on data; the personalisation of offers and customer experience; the capture of information on consumers’ psychol- ogy and emotions, the mediation through algorithmic assistants. The third part assesses these socio-technical transformations in the context of EU fair trading law and of the broader policy debate concerning consumer protection in the algorithmic society. In particular, two normative concepts underlying the EU fairness standard are critically analysed: manipulation, as a substan- tive regulatory concept that limits commercial behaviours in order to protect consumers’ informed and free choices and vulnerability, as a concept of social policy that portrays people who are more exposed to marketing practices. [less ▲]

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See detailÜberlegungen zur Experimentalisierung der Mediengeschichte
Krebs, Stefan UL

Presentation (2021, May 27)

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See detailEffective Floquet model for minimally twisted bilayer graphene
De Beule, Christophe UL; Dominguez, Fernando; Recher, Patrik

in Physical Review. B (2021), 103

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See detailModeling for Three-Subset Division Property without Unknown Subset
Hao, Yonglin; Leander, Gregor; Meier, Willi et al

in Journal of Cryptology (2021), 34(3), 22

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See detailShared genetic basis between genetic generalized epilepsy and background electroencephalographic oscillations
Stevelink, Remi; Luykx, Jurjen J.; Lin, Bochao D. et al

in Epilepsia (2021), 62(7), 1518-1527

Abstract Objective Paroxysmal epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are the hallmark of epilepsies, but it is uncertain to what extent epilepsy and background EEG oscillations share ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective Paroxysmal epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are the hallmark of epilepsies, but it is uncertain to what extent epilepsy and background EEG oscillations share neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we aimed to assess the genetic correlation between epilepsy and background EEG oscillations. Methods Confounding factors, including the heterogeneous etiology of epilepsies and medication effects, hamper studies on background brain activity in people with epilepsy. To overcome this limitation, we compared genetic data from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on epilepsy (n = 12 803 people with epilepsy and 24 218 controls) with that from a GWAS on background EEG (n = 8425 subjects without epilepsy), in which background EEG oscillation power was quantified in four different frequency bands: alpha, beta, delta, and theta. We replicated our findings in an independent epilepsy replication dataset (n = 4851 people with epilepsy and 20 428 controls). To assess the genetic overlap between these phenotypes, we performed genetic correlation analyses using linkage disequilibrium score regression, polygenic risk scores, and Mendelian randomization analyses. Results Our analyses show strong genetic correlations of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) with background EEG oscillations, primarily in the beta frequency band. Furthermore, we show that subjects with higher beta and theta polygenic risk scores have a significantly higher risk of having generalized epilepsy. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a causal effect of GGE genetic liability on beta oscillations. Significance Our results point to shared biological mechanisms underlying background EEG oscillations and the susceptibility for GGE, opening avenues to investigate the clinical utility of background EEG oscillations in the diagnostic workup of epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailMethyl-Induced Polarization Destabilizes the Noncovalent Interactions of N-Methylated Lysines
Sanim Rahman; Vered Wineman-Fisher; Peter Nagy et al

in Chemistry: A European Journal (2021)

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See detailEnhanced Automotive Target Detection through Radar and Communications Sensor Fusion
Dokhanchi, Sayed Hossein UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay et al

in ICASSP 2021 - 2021 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2021, May 13)

This paper shows the enhancement in detection performance in an automotive scenario by leveraging the backscattered communication signals from vehicles at the target scene. A sensor fusion algorithm is ... [more ▼]

This paper shows the enhancement in detection performance in an automotive scenario by leveraging the backscattered communication signals from vehicles at the target scene. A sensor fusion algorithm is proposed to benefit from the information from radar and communication to improve the final range estimates. We demonstrate theoretically and illustrate through simulation that our proposed scheme enhances the radar detection performance. Thus the proposed scheme offers a solution for augmenting existing sensing capabilities to enhance detecting capabilities in a dynamic automotive scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoria Pública: Museos y Comunidades Digitales en América Latina
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

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See detailLiquid crystal elastomer shells with topological defect-defined actuation: Complex shape morphing, opening/closing, and unidirectional rotation
Sharma, Anjali UL; Stoffel, A. M.; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Journal of Applied Physics (2021), 129(17), 174701

We produce hollow sphere liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) actuators from a nematic precursor mixture, brought into the shape of a self-closing shell with tangential anchoring of the director field n(r ... [more ▼]

We produce hollow sphere liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) actuators from a nematic precursor mixture, brought into the shape of a self-closing shell with tangential anchoring of the director field n(r), using a solvent-assisted microfluidic technique. By separating the shell production from the polymerization and cross-linking, the precursor is allowed to approach its equilibrium n(r) configuration in the shell, spontaneously forming topological defects of total strength +2. However, the photopolymerization into an LCE induces a brief but strong distortion of the overall n(r) and the defect configuration, even changing the ground state shape in the case of thick shells. The resulting LCE shells show a rich capacity for reversible shape morphing upon heating and cooling, the exact actuation mode defined by n(r), and the final defect configuration stabilized at the end of polymerization. In regions with a single +1 defect, a reversal of curvature from concave to convex is found, punctured shells exhibit a strong shape change between a nearly closed sphere at low temperature and an open-ended spherocylinder at high temperature, and all shells rotate upon actuation when suspended in a fluid. As the rotation is stronger during relaxation than during actuation, thus breaking the symmetry, the net rotation is unidirectional. [less ▲]

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See detailSensation: Sonifying the Urban Running Experience
Van Renswouw, L.; Neerhof, J.; Vos, S. et al

in Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings (2021, May)

Following the need to promote physical activity as a part of a healthy lifestyle, in this study we focus on encouraging more physical activity by improving the experience, with running as an example of a ... [more ▼]

Following the need to promote physical activity as a part of a healthy lifestyle, in this study we focus on encouraging more physical activity by improving the experience, with running as an example of a popular outdoor activity. Running in nature is often described as more pleasant and relaxing than running in the city, yet in urban environments it is difficult to integrate true nature in one's running route. To bridge this gap we designed Sensation, a sonified running track that provides sensations of nature using audio feedback. Sensation senses the footsteps of runners and produces synced sounds of footsteps in several nature environments to augment the urban landscape. This way, Sensation aims to enhance the environmental factors that contribute to the positive feelings people experience during a run. We report on insights gathered during our Research-through-Design process, as well as a preliminary user test of this sonified running track. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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