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See detailThe Educational Economics of UNESCO's First Regional Centre on Fundamental Education in the Immediate Post-War Period: An Archival Exploration
Kesteloot, Stefanie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 21)

The end of the Second World War marked the start of a new era, with worldwide support for a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in December 1948. By signing the Universal Declaration, the Member ... [more ▼]

The end of the Second World War marked the start of a new era, with worldwide support for a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in December 1948. By signing the Universal Declaration, the Member States of the United Nations pledged to promote a series of universal values. As part of the UN, UNESCO made a major effort to disseminate the Declaration and its content globally, at a national, regional and local level. The idea of “building peace in the minds of men and women” and encouraging equal rights was central to UNESCO’s mission. An archival exploration of the correspondence material of UNESCO’s secretariat, available at the UNESCO archives, offers an insight into the continuous struggle faced by the staff for the creation and implementation of educational initiatives on human rights. One focus of UNESCO’s work was the area of fundamental education. Early general correspondence found related to this topic reveals the continuous flow of communication between the different UNESCO departments, especially the office of the Director-General and the Departments of Mass Communication and Education. The discussions were mainly centred on the development of centres for fundamental education. The location to choose, the content and methodology to use, and the appropriate strategy to raise the funds needed for the continued implementation of regional centres of fundamental education, were just some of the issues addressed. The initial financial and ideological support from the Member States seems to have been slowly replaced by budgetary constraints and political opposition. A network of international experts on fundamental education helped promote UNESCO’s initiatives to possible funders with a view to creating twelve fundamental education centres all over the world. Their contribution was seen as vital for the implementation of the project. Despite the hard work and lobbying activities, only two of the initially planned twelve centres were established. Through this focus on fundamental education, I will argue that, despite the worldwide support for this philosophical and humanistic ideal, political and economic interests soon came to dominate the transition of this initial project to local communities, creating imbalances in relations within and between nations. Consequently, the dissemination and promotion of the UDHR was subject to a wide range of individual translations by UNESCO’s Member States. This only enlarged the difficult task for the intergovernmental organisation to mediate the development of peace in the minds of men and women. [less ▲]

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See detailPourquoi faut-il contenir la course aux armements dans l'espace
Zarkan, Laetitia UL; Azcárate Ortega, Almudena; Revill, James

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailThe gap in Covid-19 memory banks: on the use and usefulness of rapid response collections
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 18)

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See detailOpen Science @LCSB-ECI
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, June 17)

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See detailSOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR DIGITAL HUMANITIES
Fiscarelli, Antonio Maria UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Current trends in academia show that a key factor for tackling complex problems and doing successful research is interdisciplinarity. With the increasing availability of digital tools and online databases ... [more ▼]

Current trends in academia show that a key factor for tackling complex problems and doing successful research is interdisciplinarity. With the increasing availability of digital tools and online databases, many disciplines in the humanities and social sciences are seeking to incorporate computational techniques in their research workflow. Digital humanities (DH) is a collaborative and interdisciplinary area of research that bridges computing and the humanities disciplines, bringing digital tools to humanities scholars to use, together with a critical understanding of such tools. Social network analysis is one of such tools. Social network analysis focuses on relationships among social actors and it is an important addition to standard social and behavioral research, which is primarily concerned with attributes of the social units. In this work we present the field of digital humanities and its current challenges, as well as an overview of the most recent trends in historical network research, emphasizing the advantages of using social network analysis in history and the missed opportunities. We then present the field of network analysis, providing a formalization of the concept of social network, models that explain the mechanism governing complex networks and tools such as network metrics, orbit analysis and Exponential Random Graph Model. We tackle the problem of community detection. We propose MemLPA, a new version of the label propagation algorithm, by incorporating a memory element, in order for nodes to consider past states of the network in their decision rule. We present a use case, drawn from the collaboration with a historian colleague, showing how social network analysis can be used to answer research questions in history. In particular, we addressed the gender and ethnic bias problem in computer science research by looking at different collaboration patterns in the temporal co-authorship network. Finally, we present another use case, based on collaboration data collected at the National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC) in Thailand. We build a temporal collaboration network where researchers are connected if they worked together on one or more artifacts, focusing on measuring productivity and quality of research and development, while linking these metrics to the structure of the collaboration network. [less ▲]

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See detailAWJC Nozzle simulation by 6-way coupling of DEM+CFD+FEM using preCICE coupling library
Adhav, Prasad UL; Besseron, Xavier UL; ROUSSET, Alban et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June 16)

The objective of this work is to study the particle-laden fluid-structure interaction within an Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Nozzle. Such coupling is needed to study the erosion phenomena caused by the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this work is to study the particle-laden fluid-structure interaction within an Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Nozzle. Such coupling is needed to study the erosion phenomena caused by the abrasive particles inside the nozzle. So far, the erosion in the nozzle was predicted only through the number of collisions, using only a simple DEM+CFD[1] coupling. To improve these predictions, we extend our model to a 6-way Eulerian-Lagrangian momentum coupling with DEM+CFD+FEM to account for deformations and vibrations in the nozzle. Our prototype uses the preCICE coupling library[2] to couple 3 numerical solvers: XDEM[3] (for the particle motion), OpenFOAM[4] (for the water jet), and CalculiX[5] (for the nozzle deformation). XDEM handles all the particle motions based on the fluid properties and flow conditions, and it calculates drag terms. In the fluid solver, particles are modeled as drag and are injected in the momentum equation as a source term. CalculiX uses the forces coming from the fluid solver and XDEM as boundary conditions to solve for the displacements. It is also used for computing the vibrations induced by particle impacts. . The preliminary 6-way DEM+CFD+FEM coupled simulation is able to capture the complex particle-laden multiphase fluid-structure interaction inside AWJC Nozzle. The erosion concentration zones are identified and are compared to DEM+CFD coupling[1]. The results obtained are planned to be used for predicting erosion intensity in addition to the concentration zones. In the future, we aim to compare the erosions predictions to experimental data in order to evaluate the suitability of our approach. The FEM module of the coupled simulation captures the vibration frequency induced by particles and compares it with the natural frequency of the nozzle. Thus opening up opportunities for further investigation and improvement of the Nozzle design. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg born-digital heritages of the COVID-19 crisis, Round Table
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 16)

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See detailDie religiöse Dimension der Blockchain-Technologie
Becker, Katrin UL

Presentation (2021, June 16)

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See detailEfficient Numerical Methods for Secrecy Capacity of Gaussian MIMO Wiretap Channel
Mukherjee, Anshu; Ottersten, Björn UL; Tran, Le Nam

in 2021 IEEE 93rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Spring) (2021, June 15)

This paper presents two different low-complexity methods for obtaining the secrecy capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel subject to a sum power constraint (SPC). The challenges ... [more ▼]

This paper presents two different low-complexity methods for obtaining the secrecy capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel subject to a sum power constraint (SPC). The challenges in deriving computationally efficient solutions to the secrecy capacity problem are due to the fact that the secrecy rate is a difference of convex functions (DC) of the transmit covariance matrix, for which its convexity is only known for the degraded case. In the first method, we capitalize on the accelerated DC algorithm, which requires solving a sequence of convex subproblems. In particular, we show that each subproblem indeed admits a water-filling solution. In the second method, based on the equivalent convex-concave reformulation of the secrecy capacity problem, we develop a so-called partial best response algorithm (PBRA). Each iteration of the PBRA is also done in closed form. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed methods. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Anisotropy in Interfacial Tension of Nematic Liquid Crystals
Honaker, Lawrence; Sharma, Anjali UL; Schanen, Andy et al

in Crystals (2021), 11(6), 687

<jats:p>Liquid crystal (LC) phases typically show anisotropic alignment-dependent properties, such as viscosity and dielectric permittivity, so it stands to reason that LCs also have anisotropic ... [more ▼]

<jats:p>Liquid crystal (LC) phases typically show anisotropic alignment-dependent properties, such as viscosity and dielectric permittivity, so it stands to reason that LCs also have anisotropic interfacial tensions. Measuring the interfacial tension ? of an LC with conventional methods, such as pendant drops, can be challenging, however, especially when we need to know ? for different LC aligning conditions, as is the case when we seek ??, the interfacial tension anisotropy. Here, we present measurements of ?? of the common synthetic nematic LC compound 5CB against water using a microfluidic droplet aspiration technique. To ensure tangential and normal alignment, respectively, we add poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), respectively, as a stabilizer and measure ? for different concentrations of stabilizer. By fitting the Szyszkowski equation to the data, we can extrapolate to zero-stabilizer concentration, obtaining the ? of 5CB to pure water for each alignment. For normal alignment, we find ??=31.9?0.8 mN?m-1, on the order of 1 mN?m-1 greater than ?$_$=30.8?5 mN?m-1 for tangential alignment. This resonates with the empirical knowledge that 5CB aligns tangentially to an interface with pure water. The main uncertainty arises from the use of polymeric PVA as tangential-promoting stabilizer. Future improvements in accuracy may be expected if PVA can be replaced by a low molar mass stabilizer that ensures tangential alignment.</jats:p [less ▲]

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See detailSecure Vehicular Communications Through Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Ai, Yun; De Figueiredo, Felipe A.P; Kong, Long et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(7), 7272-7276

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is considered as a revolutionary technique to improve the wireless system performance by reconfiguring the radio wave propagation environment artificially ... [more ▼]

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is considered as a revolutionary technique to improve the wireless system performance by reconfiguring the radio wave propagation environment artificially. Motivated by the potential of RIS in vehicular networks, we analyze the secrecy outage performance of RIS-aided vehicular communications in this paper. More specifically, two vehicular communication scenarios are considered, i.e., a vehicular-to-vehicular (V2V) communication where the RIS acts as a relay and a vehicular-to-infrastructure (V2I) scenario where the RIS functions as the receiver. In both scenarios, a passive eavesdropper is present attempting to retrieve the transmitted information. Closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) are derived and verified. The results demonstrate the potential of improving secrecy with the aid of RIS under both V2V and V2I communications. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Intra-Party Effects of Open List Design
Schmit, Dan UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

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See detailElaiophylin Is a Potent Hsp90/ Cdc37 Protein Interface Inhibitor with K-Ras Nanocluster Selectivity
Siddiqui, Farid A.; Vukic, Vladimir; Salminen, Tiina A. et al

in Biomolecules (2021)

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic ... [more ▼]

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic explanation of its astonishing activity range. We recently showed that the related conglobatin A, a protein–protein interface inhibitor of the interaction between the N-terminus of Hsp90 and its cochaperone Cdc37, blocks cancer stem cell properties by selectively inhibiting K-Ras4B but not H-Ras. Here, we elaborated that elaiophylin likewise disrupts the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interaction, without affecting the ATP-pocket of Hsp90. Similarly to conglobatin A, elaiophylin decreased expression levels of the Hsp90 client HIF1 , a transcription factor with various downstream targets, including galectin-3. Galectin-3 is a nanocluster scaffold of K-Ras, which explains the K-Ras selectivity of Hsp90 inhibitors. In agreement with this K-Ras targeting and the potent effect on other Hsp90 clients, we observed with elaiophylin treatment a submicromolar IC50 for MDA-MB-231 and MIAPaCa-2 3D spheroid formation. Finally, a strong inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells grown in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microtumor model was determined. These results suggest that several other macrodiolides may have the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interface as a target site. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Enhancement for Full-Duplex Relaying with Time-Switching-Based SWIPT in Wireless Sensors Networks
Tran, Phu Tin; Nguyen Nhat, ; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL et al

in Sensors (2021), 21(11), 3847

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency ... [more ▼]

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency. This paper studies the outage performance for a SWIPT-based decode-and-forward (DF) FD relaying network consisting of a single-antenna source S, a two-antenna relay R, and a multi-antenna destination D. Specifically, we propose four protocols, namely static time-switching factor with selection combining (STSF-SC), static time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (STSF-MRC), optimal dynamic time-switching factor with selection combining (ODTSF-SC), and optimal dynamic time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (ODTSF-MRC) to fully investigate the outage performance of the proposed system. In particular, the optimal time-switching factor from the ODTSF-SC and ODTSF-MRC methods is designed to maximize the total received data at the destination. In this context, we derive exact closed-formed expressions for all schemes in terms of the outage probability (OP). Finally, the Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to corroborate the theoretical analysis’s correctness and the proposed schemes’ effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailDISCOV: Encouraging a Healthy Active Lifestyle through the Design of Interactive Environments.
van Renswouw, Loes; Verhoef, Jasmijn; Vos, Steven et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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See detailRaya: A Tangible Sports Buddy Reminding Oneself of the Commitment to Exercise
Menheere, Daphne; de Haan, Alynne; Vos, Steven et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL)