Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailExperts, specialists, and recommendations: comment on Grundmann on expertise
Hofmann, Frank UL

Presentation (2021, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTalent development in natural science in elementary school: A juxtaposition of research and practice
Mack, Elena; Breit, Moritz; Krischler, Mireille UL et al

in Teaching and Teacher Education (2021), 104

We present a working theory of person-related predictors of talent development in natural science during elementary school. The working theory resulted from the juxtaposition of scientific findings and ... [more ▼]

We present a working theory of person-related predictors of talent development in natural science during elementary school. The working theory resulted from the juxtaposition of scientific findings and teachers' expertise. The results showed that both teachers and researchers conceive of talent development in natural science as a complex process including abilities, personality traits, and skills as predictors. However, teachers focused mainly on skills whereas the scientific literature emphasized cognitive abilities. The working theory can be used for the identification and promotion of natural science talent and the development of teachers' diagnostic skills to assess students’ potential in natural science. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailInequalities in teacher reports on students’ inclusion at school
Krischler, Mireille UL; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Nusser, Lena et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

Theoretical background: With the ratification of the UN Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 26 March 2009, Germany has made the commitment – as have 181 other countries – to ... [more ▼]

Theoretical background: With the ratification of the UN Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 26 March 2009, Germany has made the commitment – as have 181 other countries – to guarantee non-discriminatory access to inclusive and high-quality teaching at all levels of the (general) educational system. The much-noticed Article 24 of the UN CRPD demands that participating states ensure, among others, effective and personalized support measures in inclusive learning settings to maximize academic as well as social and emotional development of all learners. Access to the general educational system is a prerequisite, but not a sufficient condition for successful inclusion (Powell & Hadjar, 2016). Students´ wellbeing is regarded as an important indicator of the quality of inclusion and as one of the main aims of inclusive education (Kullmann et al., 2015). As such, responding to student diversity has brought about new challenges for teachers. In order to meet diversity challenges in classroom, it is critical that teachers adapt their instructional practices. In this regard, teacher’s ability to accurately assess a student’s subjective wellbeing is supposed to support each student’s personal and academic development. However, while teachers’ assessment accuracy for students’ academic achievement and cognitive abilities is in general relatively adequate, the agreement between self-reports and teacher reports of socio-emotional aspects is rather low (Machts et al., 2016). The low to moderate consistencies suggest the occurrence of an assessment bias. Recent findings indicate that especially student’s gender and the status special educational needs (SEN) influence teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion at school (Schwab et al., 2020). Teacher characteristics such as their self-efficacy and their attitudes towards inclusion are regarded as fundamental for successfully implementing inclusive education (Gebhardt et al., 2015). Teachers’ responsibility is related to the teachers’ belief in their ability to influence students and with positive attitudes towards teaching in heterogenous classrooms (Halvorsen et al., 2009). Furthermore, teachers with more job experience are better able to judge students’ performance (Van Ophuysen, 2006). In this line of thought, teachers’ assessment bias represented as stigmatization effects could ultimately lead to increasing educational inequalities. Even though to date several studies investigated the accuracy of teacher judgments, teachers’ assessment accuracy with respect to students’ emotional inclusion has been largely neglected in previous research. In this regard, the present study investigates, first, the consistency of the self-reports and the teacher reports of students‘ emotional well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept. Second, we address the question whether students’ gender, first language and SEN can explain teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion in school. Third, the possible influence of teachers’ job experience, self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion as well as their responsibility for every student on teachers´ assessment accuracy is also part of our study. Method: Data are from the project “Inklusion in der Sekundarstufe I in Deutschland” (INSIDE). The sample consisted of 3772 grade 6 students (Mage = 12.6 years, SDage = 0.62) from 231 schools and 432 teachers. To assess students’ emotional well-being, social participation and academic self-concept, both students and teachers were asked to fill out the German Version of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ; Venetz et al., 2015). In the project INSIDE, the PIQ items with negative wording were not included. Additionally, teachers filled out the Self-efficacy for Inclusive Teaching Questionnaire (Bosse & Spörer, 2014), the Attitudes towards an Inclusive Education System Questionnaire (Lüke & Grosche, 2017) and an adapted version of the Teacher Responsibility Scale (Lauermann & Karabenick, 2013). Analyses were performed in Mplus Version 8.0. Given the nested structure of the data, we used the complex sample option. First, we applied a correlated trait-correlated method minus one [CT-C(M-1)] model (Eid et al., 2003) to examine the consistency of student self-reports and teacher ratings. To address the second and third research questions, we fitted a CT-C(M-1) model with covariates and latent interaction effects (Koch et al., 2018). Results: Research question 1: How consistent are self-reports and teacher reports of students‘ emotional well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept? Results showed low to moderate consistencies between self-reports and teacher reports (12–33%). The consistency between teachers’ reports and self-reports of students’ emotional well-being and social inclusion is rather low. The consistency for academic self-concept is somewhat higher. Research question 2: Do the students’ gender, first language and the status special educational needs (SEN) predict teachers’ assessment accuracy regarding students’ inclusion? The students’ gender and the status SEN were important predictors for the assessment bias. Teachers underestimate the academic self-concept of students with the status SEN (compared to students without SEN) – and to a smaller extent also their social inclusion and emotional well-being. Moreover, they tend to overestimate girls’ subjective well-being. Research question 3: Do the teachers’ job experience, self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion as well as their responsibility for every student predict teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion? The bias could partly be explained by teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion and their responsibility for every student. Teachers’ assessment (in-)accuracy regarding students’ subjective well-being could be predicted only to a small extent by the teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion and their responsibility for every student. The findings will be discussed in terms of their significance for educational inequalities. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research will be given. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRethinking Trust in Social Robotics
Carli, Rachele UL; Najjar, Amro UL

in arXiv (2021)

— In 2018 the European Commission highlighted the demand of a human-centered approach to AI. Such a claim is gaining even more relevance considering technologies specifi cally designed to directly ... [more ▼]

— In 2018 the European Commission highlighted the demand of a human-centered approach to AI. Such a claim is gaining even more relevance considering technologies specifi cally designed to directly interact and physically collaborate with human users in the real world. This is notably the case of social robots. The domain of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) emerged to investigate these issues."Human-robot trust" has been highlighted as one of the most challenging and intriguing factors influencing HRI. On the one hand, user studies and technical experts underline how trust is a key element to facilitate users’ acceptance, consequently increasing the chances to pursue the given task. On the other hand, such a phenomenon raises also ethical and philosophical concerns leading scholars in these domains to argue that humans should not trust robots. However, trust in HRI is not an index of fragility, it is rooted in anthropomorphism, and it is a natural characteristic of every human being. Thus, instead of focusing solely on how to inspire user trust in social robots, this paper argues that what should be investigated is to what extent and for which purpose it is suitable to trust robots. Such an endeavour requires an interdisciplinary approach taking into account (i) technical needs and (ii) psychological implications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOutage Probability Analysis of IRS-Assisted Systems Under Spatially Correlated Channels
Trinh, van Chien UL; K. Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Tu, Lam Thanh et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021), 10(8), 1815-1819

This paper investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In particular, we derive a novel closed-form expression of the outage probability for arbitrary phase shifts and correlation matrices of the indirect channels. To shed light on the impact of the spatial correlation, we further attain the closed-form expressions for two common scenarios met in the literature when the large-scale fading coefficients are expressed by the loss over a propagation distance. Numerical results validate the tightness and effectiveness of the closed-form expressions. Furthermore, the spatial correlation offers significant decreases in the outage probability as the direct channel is blocked. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailEditoriaal. Kinderen.
Venken, Machteld UL

in Tijdschrift. Erfgoedpraktijk in Vlaanderen (2021), 11(2), 4-5

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSupervised machine learning for power and bandwidth management in very high throughput satellite systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Tarchi, Daniele; Martinez, Ramon et al

in International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking (2021)

In the near future, very high throughput satellite (VHTS) systems are expected to have a high increase in traffic demand. However, this increase will not be uniform over the service area and will be also ... [more ▼]

In the near future, very high throughput satellite (VHTS) systems are expected to have a high increase in traffic demand. However, this increase will not be uniform over the service area and will be also dynamic. A solution to this problem is given by flexible payload architectures; however, they require that resource management is performed autonomously and with low latency. In this paper, we propose the use of supervised machine learning, in particular a classification algorithm using a neural network, to manage the resources available in flexible payload architectures. Use cases are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and a discussion is made on all the challenges that are presented. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 UL)
Full Text
See detailDigitalization in Construction, Computer-based Design for Structural Elements - BIM and structural engineering - Part 1: Impact of digitalization on structural engineering in the future
Schäfer, Markus UL; Bender, Michel; Zahlten, Wolfhard et al

Learning material (2021)

To better understand the background and complexity of BIM and digitalization within structural engineering, the theoretical approach will highlight the underlying basics first. To draw the line from this ... [more ▼]

To better understand the background and complexity of BIM and digitalization within structural engineering, the theoretical approach will highlight the underlying basics first. To draw the line from this theory driven basics to real live application, the thesis will give multiple examples of how BIM is currently used in practice. In addition to the detailed explanation, these examples will serve as a base to analyze the current situation and problems which still need to be overcome. As far as possible for the respective research scope, potential areas of improvements will be outlined. To gain a better understanding of the current importance of BIM and digitalization within the German construction industry, engineers and companies will be surveyed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailDigitalization in Construction, Computer-based Design for Structural Elements, PArt 2: Analyses and Validation of Compliance to EuroCodes
Schäfer, Markus UL; Bender, Michel; Zahlten, Wolfhard et al

Learning material (2021)

A classic structural analysis is characterized by the usage of a wide spectrum of manual, specialized analysis methods. An engineer has to break down the complex problem into small manageable sub-problems ... [more ▼]

A classic structural analysis is characterized by the usage of a wide spectrum of manual, specialized analysis methods. An engineer has to break down the complex problem into small manageable sub-problems. This procedure will be completely superseded by the advent of numerical methods. A full model of the spatial structure will be built up. A similar revolution has already begun by the introduction of finite shell and volume elements into commercially available FE software. The idea is that these models are closer to reality and allow us to capture both global and local effects in one single comprehensive model. This, however, introduces modelling questions and numerical effects, which are explicitly excluded from simplified theory, and questions arise regarding the trustworthiness of these results. Shell elements have already been fairly well established in practical engineering. The next step could be the use of volume elements to overcome certain restriction inherent in shell formulations. One driving force for this tendency is BIM (Building Information Modelling). Here the geometrical model is, like nature itself, fully 3D. It can be directly translated into the Finite Element Method (FEM). However, structural design in the 27 EU member states and 4 EFTA countries has to be performed according to the Eurocodes (EC), representing harmonized European Standards (EN) for the structural design. These design codes regulate essential requirements regarding mechanical resistance and stability as well as safety aspects. The current Eurocodes essentially stipulate engineering design models which can easily be transferred to classical structural analyses, but often do not give comprehensive references to the application and evaluation of advanced numerical simulations. The application of associated software products is not regulated by norms. This situation often results in discussions and different interpretations of the design results. Ultimately, false computational assumptions and misinterpretations can lead to damages and unsafe designs. Guidance for the verification of the software results is required and the link to the current and upcoming second generation of Eurocodes is also presented by the project. In parallel the possibilities by digitalization in construction by Building Information Modelling and the transfer of data from the architectural model to the structural model have been investigated [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailNon-linear design for composite structures in steel and concrete in reference to Eurocode 4, Part 1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Zogu, Pellumb UL et al

Learning material (2021)

The design of composite structures in steel and concrete for buildings follows the rules according to Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1. In the last years more and more individual composite members and cross ... [more ▼]

The design of composite structures in steel and concrete for buildings follows the rules according to Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1. In the last years more and more individual composite members and cross-section types have been developed. Those sections are not always fulfilling the requirements for the application of simplified design methods given by EN 1994-1-1 and therefore plastic resistance cannot always be applied. Furthermore there is an increasing demand for optimization in the design by using more advanced design methods. This optimization is concentrating on the use of individual shaped cross-sections and their efficiency, the composite shear connectors and consideration of their ductility and flexibility, investigation in the sequence of loading, time effects as well as concrete cracking and yielding of steel within the analysis. In addition it is to be mentioned that the draft for the second generation of Eurocode 4 provides more opportunities for advanced numerical methods. At least, the demand for more advanced numerical design methods is permanently increasing also due to the availability of powerful hardware and software applications. The target of this chapter is to introduce the advanced numerical design for composite structural members in steel and concrete and to explain the boundary conditions given by Eurocode 4 and related Eurocodes. Thereby the focus is more on the member and not on the global analysis. The computer-aided global analyses for the determination of action effects are well-known for years while the possibilities for nonlinear analysis based on shell and volume elements considering physical and geometrical nonlinearity becoming more important and will be further developed in future. However, there is not so much information available explaining the application of e.g. the general method in detail and guidance is missing by the code. Therefore the general method acc. to EN 1994-1-1/prEN1994-1-1 is the main focus of this contribution. In the following, some principles for the design according to EN 1994-1-1 are explained. Thereby the basics for the classification of cross-sections as well as the determination of inner forces for continuous beams will be pointed out. However, the focus is on the general method for the design of composite compression members. While in the case studies additional information for the structural analysis and the numerical investigation in composite beams is provided. This chapter will not repeat well-known explanations from the literature, which have been published many times but limits itself to the most important normative fundamentals, rather concentrate on the application of numerical methods for the design of composite structures. More details for global structural analysis and the design according to EN 1994-1-1 [1] are provided by the literature, e.g. [8], [40] and will not be further commented here. It should be noted that the here referred methods according to prEN 1994-1-1, prEN 1993-1-14 and prEN 1992-1-1 do not represent officially introduced design standards, until the introduction of the second generation of Eurocodes modification is not finalized. Therefore this references are to be understood as informative. Until the introduction of the second generation of Eurocodes further changes and adjustments may also to be expected. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail1918, 1945, 1989: Childhood in Times of Political Transformation: Part II
Kind-Kovács, Friederike; Venken, Machteld UL

in Journal of Modern European History (2021), 19

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailElliptical Symmetry Tests in R
Ley, Christophe UL; Babić, Slad̄ana; Palangetić, Marko

in R Journal (2021), 13:2

The assumption of elliptical symmetry has an important role in many theoretical develop ments and applications. Hence, it is of primary importance to be able to test whether that assumption actually holds ... [more ▼]

The assumption of elliptical symmetry has an important role in many theoretical develop ments and applications. Hence, it is of primary importance to be able to test whether that assumption actually holds true or not. Various tests have been proposed in the literature for this problem. To the best of our knowledge, none of them has been implemented in R. This article describes the R package elliptical symmetry which implements several well-known tests for elliptical symmetry together with some recent tests. We demonstrate the testing procedures with a real data example. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailREPORT OF DATA SOURCES
Wang, Xin Lin UL; Blanco, Braulio UL; Brorsson, Mats Hakan UL

Report (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (23 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLEO Satellite Constellations for 5G and Beyond: How Will They Reshape Vertical Domains?
Liu, Shicong; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2021), 59(7), 30-36

The rapid development of communication technologies in the past decades has provided immense vertical opportunities for individuals and enterprises. However, conventional terrestrial cellular networks ... [more ▼]

The rapid development of communication technologies in the past decades has provided immense vertical opportunities for individuals and enterprises. However, conventional terrestrial cellular networks have unfortunately neglected the huge geographical digital divide, s ince high-bandwidth wireless coverage is concentrated in urban areas. To meet the goal of “connecting the unconnected,” integrating low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites with the terrestrial cellular networks has been widely considered as a promising solution. In this article, we first introduce the development roadmap of LEO sa tellite constellations (SatCons), including early attempts in LEO satellites with the emerging LEO constellations. Further, we discuss the unique opportunities of employing LEO SatCons for the delivery of integrating 5G networks. Specifically, we present their key performance indicators, which offer important guidelines for the design of associated enabling techniques, and then discuss the potential impact of integrating LEO SatCons with typical 5G use cases, where we engrave our vision of various vertical domains reshaped by LEO SatCons. Technical challenges are finally provided to specify future research directions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRacial disparities in observers' attention to and estimations of others' pain
Kissi, Ama; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Mende-Siedlecki et al

in Pain (2021)

Research has demonstrated racial disparities in pain care such that Black patients often receive poorer pain care than White patients. Little is known about mechanisms accounting for the emergence of such ... [more ▼]

Research has demonstrated racial disparities in pain care such that Black patients often receive poorer pain care than White patients. Little is known about mechanisms accounting for the emergence of such disparities. The present study had 2 aims. First, we examined whether White observers' attentional processing of pain (using a visual search task [VST] indexing attentional engagement to and attentional disengagement from pain) and estimation of pain experience differed between White vs Black faces. Second, we examined whether these differences were moderated by (1) racially biased beliefs about pain experience and (2) the level of pain expressed by Black vs White faces. Participants consisted of 102 observers (87 females) who performed a VST assessing pain-related attention to White vs Black avatar pain faces. Participants also reported on racially biased beliefs about White vs Black individuals' pain experience and rated the pain intensities expressed by White and Black avatar faces. Results indicated facilitated attentional engagement towards Black (vs White) pain faces. Furthermore, observers who more strongly endorsed the belief that White individuals experience pain more easily than Black individuals had less difficulty disengaging from Black (vs White) pain faces. Regarding pain estimations, observers gave higher pain ratings to Black (vs White) faces expressing high pain and White (vs Black) faces expressing no pain. The current findings attest to the importance of future research into the role of observer attentional processing of sufferers' pain in understanding racial disparities in pain care. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed, and future research directions are outlined. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailScalability and Replicability Analysis of Grid Management Services in Low Voltage Networks in Local Flexibility Markets: an InterFlex analysis
Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Herndler, Barbara; Kupzog, Friederuch et al

in PowerTech 2021 (2021, July 29)

The numerous changes in the power grid, due to the current and foreseeable increase of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) within the electrical network has resulted in a new perception of the modern ... [more ▼]

The numerous changes in the power grid, due to the current and foreseeable increase of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) within the electrical network has resulted in a new perception of the modern distribution network. A key aspect in this regard is the efficient utilisation of flexibility in demand and generation. This paper focuses on the impact of RES when used to provide flexibility for grid management services. In the European project InterFlex, grid management services were offered in local flexibility markets in distribution networks. The results of the Scalability and Replicability Analysis (SRA) of the smart grid Dutch demonstration is presented. Furthermore, the challenges of replicating and analysing a real system based on a high number of interconnected tools, where seasonality effects and realistic large scale deployments which are to be forecasted, are considered and discussed [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 159 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailExposome Boot Camp PubChemLite Lab: Cheminformatics for the Exposome
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, July 23)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn the Secrecy Capacity of MIMO Wiretap Channels: Convex Reformulation and Efficient Numerical Methods
Mukherjee, Anshu; Ottersten, Björn UL; Tran, Le-Nam

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (2021), 69(10), 6865-6878

This paper presents novel numerical approaches to finding the secrecy capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel subject to multiple linear transmit covariance constraints ... [more ▼]

This paper presents novel numerical approaches to finding the secrecy capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel subject to multiple linear transmit covariance constraints, including sum power constraint, per antenna power constraints and interference power constraint. An analytical solution to this problem is not known and existing numerical solutions suffer from slow convergence rate and/or high per-iteration complexity. Deriving computationally efficient solutions to the secrecy capacity problem is challenging since the secrecy rate is expressed as a difference of convex functions (DC) of the transmit covariance matrix, for which its convexity is only known for some special cases. In this paper we propose two low-complexity methods to compute the secrecy capacity along with a convex reformulation for degraded channels. In the first method we capitalize on the accelerated DC algorithm which requires solving a sequence of convex subproblems, for which we propose an efficient iterative algorithm where each iteration admits a closed-form solution. In the second method, we rely on the concave-convex equivalent reformulation of the secrecy capacity problem which allows us to derive the so-called partial best response algorithm to obtain an optimal solution. Notably, each iteration of the second method can also be done in closed form. The simulation results demonstrate a faster convergence rate of our methods compared to other known solutions. We carry out extensive numerical experiments to evaluate the impact of various parameters on the achieved secrecy capacity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL)