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See detailChildren in Migration: The Ukrainian Crisis: Challenges and Lessons learned
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Presentation (2022, July 19)

This presentation gives an overview of the Temporary Protection Directive and its implementation in Member States due to the unprovoked invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation and how Member States ... [more ▼]

This presentation gives an overview of the Temporary Protection Directive and its implementation in Member States due to the unprovoked invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation and how Member States have dealt with the issue of Ukrainian children in regard to guardianship, housing and education. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging pedagogy and creative activism for preschool teachers, parents, and children
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 14)

There are 64 % of four-year old children who not speak Luxembourgish at home (MENJE, 2018). The government proclaimed multilingual early education mandatory in 2017, obliging teachers to develop ... [more ▼]

There are 64 % of four-year old children who not speak Luxembourgish at home (MENJE, 2018). The government proclaimed multilingual early education mandatory in 2017, obliging teachers to develop children’s Luxembourgish, familiarizing them with French, and valuing their home languages. Thus, the present project was threefold: (1) to offer an 18-hours professional development (PD) course in translanguaging pedagogy to 40 teachers over 6 months, (2) to strengthen home-school collaboration, and (3) to support children’s linguistic, socio-emotional, and cognitive development and engagement in the classroom. The results from teacher questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews, showed that there was some positive change regarding the attitudes towards children’s home languages. The interviews with 17 parents indicated that there was a need for more home-school collaboration. The tests in early literacy and numeracy with 23 preschool children over one year, identified that children performed higher in their home languages. The video observations showed that every time the teacher used children’s languages in the classroom, this impacted positively their well-being. Following the principles of creative activism, the author produced three outcomes: (1) the website with over 100 practical activities on how teachers can involve children’s languages and families, (2) the illustrated book Sumak for parents, showing difficulties with integration in a new country, and (3) the illustrated book, Mara’s song for preschool children, showing how Mara, a girl who is laughed at because of her language and culture, finds her way through singing a song inspired by a bird. [less ▲]

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See detailModerator: Discussion with Christoph Brüll
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2022, July 14)

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See detailJewish History and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 13)

This paper discusses the politics of Jewish Studies by focusing on the digitisation of Jewish cultural heritage and its effects for research into Jewish history(ies). In the past few years we have ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the politics of Jewish Studies by focusing on the digitisation of Jewish cultural heritage and its effects for research into Jewish history(ies). In the past few years we have witnessed the emergence of what could be termed the critical turn in digital humanities with an increasing focus on how digital resources shape various parts of the research process and its outcomes. One aspect of that turn is more attention to digital source criticism and the politics of digitisation of cultural heritage. There are many aspects of digitisation that can be considered “political”, from selection for digitisation to modes of access to broader questions about the political aspects of infrastructure or ‘infrapolitics’. None of these is specific to our digital age nor to Jewish Studies, and historical context is crucially important.  This paper builds upon my recent reseach into the politics of digitisation and considers the case of Jewish Studies, framed within the broader context of the politics of heritage and its preservation. It set outs a number of broad parameters for discussion, with the aim to encourage further debate. Questions to be addressed include: what Jewish heritage is being digitised and which stories about the Jewish past can (and cannot) be told on its basis? Which players are involved in digitisation and how do both top-down national strategies and bottom-up community initiatives guide the process? How do memory politics influence selection processes? And how does transnational heritage fare in an age where many digitisation programs are nationally framed and funded? The paper will use the historical example of the digitisation of Yiddish heritage to illustrate these questions and provide a concrete example.  [less ▲]

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See detailOstbelgien als popkultureller Zwischenraum?
Brüll, Christoph UL

Presentation (2022, July 13)

Seit einigen Jahren hat die ostbelgische Regionalgeschichtsschreibung versucht, den von Philipp Ther geprägten Begriff des ‚Zwischenraums‘ für die Historiografie über diese belgisch-deutsche Grenzregion ... [more ▼]

Seit einigen Jahren hat die ostbelgische Regionalgeschichtsschreibung versucht, den von Philipp Ther geprägten Begriff des ‚Zwischenraums‘ für die Historiografie über diese belgisch-deutsche Grenzregion im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert fruchtbar zu machen. Diese konzeptionellen Überlegungen fanden ihren Niederschlag zunächst in der Buchreihe „Grenzerfahrungen. Eine Geschichte der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens“ und dann vor allem in der am C²DH entwickelten virtuellen Ausstellung www.zeitschichten.be (2020). Der erste Teil des Vortrags besteht aus einer Meta-Führung durch die zum 100. Jahrestag der Zugehörigkeit der Region zu Belgien entwickelte Online-Expo. In einem zweiten Schritt sollen auf der Grundlage einiger der darin genutzten Quellen Überlegungen dazu angestellt werden, ob sich die Geschichte Ostbelgiens auch als die eines popkulturellen Zwischenraums deuten lässt. Dabei standen der faktischen Hybridität der regionalen, ländlich geprägten Kultur oftmals von der Sehnsucht nach nationaler Eindeutigkeit geprägte Selbstzuschreibungen entgegen, die die Suche nach dem Platz der Ostbelgier in Belgien, zwischen Belgien und Deutschland und zwischen zwei großen westeuropäischen Sprachräumen widerspiegeln. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling and Control of Laser Wire Additive Manufacturing
Mbodj, Natago Guilé UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM) offers many advantages such as fast product manufacturing, nearly zero material waste, prototyping of complex large parts and the automatization of the manufacturing ... [more ▼]

Metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM) offers many advantages such as fast product manufacturing, nearly zero material waste, prototyping of complex large parts and the automatization of the manufacturing process in the aerospace, automotive and other sectors. In the MAM, several parameters influence the product creation steps, making the MAM challenging. In this thesis, we modelize and control the deposition process for a type of MAM where a laser beam is used to melt a metallic wire to create the metal parts called the Laser Wire Additive Manufacturing Process (LWAM). In the dissertation, first, a novel parametric modeling approach is created. The goal of this approach is to use parametric product design features to simulate and print 3D metallic objects for the LWAM. The proposed method includes a pattern and the robot toolpath creation while considering several process requirements of LWAM, such as the deposition sequences and the robot system. This technique aims to develop adaptive robot toolpaths for a precise deposition process with nearly zero error in the product creation process. Second, a layer geometry (width and height) prediction model to improve deposition accuracy is proposed. A machine learning regression algorithm is applied to several experimental data to predict the bead geometry across layers. Furthermore, a neural network-based approach was used to study the influence of different deposition parameters, namely laser power, wire-feed rate and travel speed on bead geometry. The experimental results shows that the model has an error rate of (i.e., 2∼4%). Third, a physics-based model of the bead geometry including known process parameters and material properties was created. The model developed for the first time includes critical process parameters, the material properties and the thermal history to describe the relationship between the layer height with different process inputs (i.e., the power, the standoff distance, the temperature, the wire-feed rate and the travel speed). The numerical results show a match of the model with the experimental measurements. Finally, a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) was designed to keep the layer height trajectory constant, considering the constraints and the operating range of the parameters of the process inputs. The model simulation result shows an acceptable tracking of the reference height. [less ▲]

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See detailPresenter: Talking Borders, History and Digital Hermeneutics
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2022, July 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL)
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See detailLURN: Luxembourg Ukrainian Researcher Network
Ganschow, Inna UL

Article for general public (2022)

The colloquium is organised by scientists from the Center for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH), Professor Marten Düring and Research Scientist Inna Ganschow-Levandovitch, as well as Research ... [more ▼]

The colloquium is organised by scientists from the Center for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH), Professor Marten Düring and Research Scientist Inna Ganschow-Levandovitch, as well as Research Facilitator Marina Laurent from the Faculty of Humanities, Social and Pedagogical Sciences (FHSE) of the University of Luxembourg. The honorary leader of the inaugural colloquium is invited professor of C²DH Volodymyr Nemchenko. The goal is to develop cooperation between the scientific communities of Luxembourg and Ukraine through building networks among fellows from Ukraine, as well as creating prospects for sustainable cooperation in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailDeciphering the role of colorectal cancer-associated bacteria in the fibroblast-tumor cell interaction
Karta, Jessica UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Dysbiosis is an imbalance in the gut microbiome that is often associated with inflammation and cancer. Several microbial species, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, have been suggested to be involved in ... [more ▼]

Dysbiosis is an imbalance in the gut microbiome that is often associated with inflammation and cancer. Several microbial species, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, have been suggested to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC). To date, most studies have focused on the interaction between CRC-associated bacteria and tumor cells. However, the tumor microenvironment (TME) is composed of various types of cells, among which cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), one of the most vital players in the TME. The interaction between CRC-associated bacteria and CAFs and especially the impact of their cross-talk on tumor cells, remains largely unknown. In this regard, this thesis investigated the interaction between a well described and accepted CRC-associated bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and CAFs and their subsequent effects on tumor progression in CRC. Our findings show that F.nucleatum binds to CAFs and induces phenotypic changes. F.nucleatum promotes CAFs to secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and membrane-associated proteases. Upon exposure with F.nucleatum, CAFs also undergo metabolic rewiring with higher mitochondrial ROS and lactate secretion. Importantly, F.nucleatum-treated CAFs increase the migration ability of tumor cells in vitro through secreted cytokines, among which CXCL1. Furthermore, the co-injection of F.nucleatum-treated CAFs with tumor cells in vivo leads to a faster tumor growth as compared to the co-injection of untreated CAFs with tumor cells. Taken together, our results show that CAFs are an important player in the gut microbiome-CRC axis. Targeting the CAF-microbiome crosstalk might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for CRC. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailSoziale Kohäsion als Reflexionskonzept zur Wohnraumproblematik im Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Dujardin, Céline UL

in Baier, Florian; Borrmann, Stefan; Hefel, Johanna M. (Eds.) et al Europäische Gesellschaften zwischen Kohäsion und Spaltung. Rolle, Herausforderungen und Perspektiven Sozialer Arbeit (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 UL)
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See detailTowards practical Genome-Wide Association Studies: Overview and Challenges
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL

Presentation (2022, July 11)

The popularization of large-scale federated Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) where multiple data owners share their genome data to conduct federated analytics uncovers new privacy issues that have ... [more ▼]

The popularization of large-scale federated Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) where multiple data owners share their genome data to conduct federated analytics uncovers new privacy issues that have remained unnoticed or not given proper attention. Indeed, as soon as a diverse type of interested parties (e.g., private or public biocenters and governmental institutions from around the globe) and individuals from heterogeneous populations are participating in cooperative studies, interdependent and multi-party privacy appear as crucial issues that are currently not adequately assessed. In fact, in federated GWAS environments, the privacy of individuals and parties does not depend solely on their own behavior anymore but also on others, because a collaborative environment opens new credible adversary models. For instance, one might want to tailor the privacy guarantees to withstand the presence of potentially colluding federation members aiming to violate other members' data privacy and the privacy deterioration that might occur in the presence of interdependent genomic data (e.g., due to the presence of relatives in studies or the perpetuation of previous genomic privacy leaks in future studies). In this work, we catalog and discuss the features, unsolved problems, and challenges to tackle toward truly end-to-end private and practical federated GWAS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 UL)
See detailPresenter: Testimonies from the War
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2022, July 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 UL)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailGRN Mutations Are Associated with Lewy Body Dementia
Reho, Paolo; Koga, Shunsuke; Shah, Zalak et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

ABSTRACT Background Loss-of-function mutations in GRN are a cause of familial frontotemporal dementia, and common variants within the gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background Loss-of-function mutations in GRN are a cause of familial frontotemporal dementia, and common variants within the gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Although TDP-43-positive inclusions are characteristic of GRN-related neurodegeneration, Lewy body copathology has also been observed in many GRN mutation carriers. Objective The objective of this study was to assess a Lewy body dementia (LBD) case–control cohort for pathogenic variants in GRN and to test whether there is an enrichment of damaging mutations among patients with LBD. Methods We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data generated for 2591 European-ancestry LBD cases and 4032 neurologically healthy control subjects to identify disease-causing mutations in GRN. Results We identified six heterozygous exonic GRN mutations in seven study participants (cases: n = 6; control subjects: n = 1). Each variant was predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic. We found significant enrichment of GRN loss-of-function mutations in patients with LBD compared with control subjects (Optimized Sequence Kernel Association Test P = 0.0162). Immunohistochemistry in three definite LBD cases demonstrated Lewy body pathology and TDP-43-positive neuronal inclusions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that deleterious GRN mutations are a rare cause of familial LBD. © 2022 International Parkinson Movement Disorder Society. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Interaction between HLA-DRB1 and Smoking in Parkinson's Disease Revisited
Domenighetti, Cloé; Douillard, Venceslas; Sugier, Pierre-Emmanuel et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Abstract Background Two studies that examined the interaction between HLA-DRB1 and smoking in Parkinson's disease (PD) yielded findings in opposite directions. Objective To perform a large-scale ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Two studies that examined the interaction between HLA-DRB1 and smoking in Parkinson's disease (PD) yielded findings in opposite directions. Objective To perform a large-scale independent replication of the HLA-DRB1 × smoking interaction. Methods We genotyped 182 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with smoking initiation in 12 424 cases and 9480 controls to perform a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis in strata defined by HLA-DRB1. Results At the amino acid level, a valine at position 11 (V11) in HLA-DRB1 displayed the strongest association with PD. MR showed an inverse association between genetically predicted smoking initiation and PD only in absence of V11 (odds ratio, 0.74, 95 confidence interval, 0.59–0.93, PInteraction = 0.028). In silico predictions of the influence of V11 and smoking-induced modifications of α-synuclein on binding affinity showed findings consistent with this interaction pattern. Conclusions Despite being one of the most robust findings in PD research, the mechanisms underlying the inverse association between smoking and PD remain unknown. Our findings may help better understand this association. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Application of Multipath Stacking Maps for Improved Severe Weather Tracking and Low-cost Antenna Calibration
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Duman, Hüseyin et al

Presentation (2022, July 07)

Modern cities all over the world are now more susceptible to flash floods as a result of a rise in the frequency and severity of meteorological events with significant precipitation. For minimizing the ... [more ▼]

Modern cities all over the world are now more susceptible to flash floods as a result of a rise in the frequency and severity of meteorological events with significant precipitation. For minimizing the risks due to these hydro-meteorological hazards, reliable fore- and now-casting of severe precipitation has become essential. Water vapor can be measured along slant paths by network of ground-based GNSS stations, providing real-time, three-dimensional (3D) distributions of vapor concentrations at an affordable cost. Consequently, these data provide an invaluable additional source of knowledge for monitoring and predicting events with flash flood potential. But site-specific multipath (MP) effects at GNSS stations do affect incoming signals, particularly at low elevations, as is widely known. The bulk of GNSS products for meteorology up to now are based on estimates of ordinary zenith total delay and horizontal gradients with little sensitivity to azimuthal variations, thus these products may not be best suited for estimating 3D distributions of water vapor during storm events. Using slant delays directly, can overcome this lack of azimuthal information. However, at low elevations, this approach is more susceptible to multipath errors. A thunderstorm event which occurred over Turkey and adjacent countries on July 27, 2017, resulting in flash floods and severe infrastructure damage, is used as an example to explore the effects of multipath-corrected slant wet delay (SWD) estimations on monitoring extreme weather events. To reconstruct the one-way SWD, we first added phase residuals derived from the GNSS one-way post-fit observations, which represent the anisotropic component of the SWD. This can also be interpreted as a higher order inhomogeneity component, which is not resolved by ordinary zenith or gradient products. For the generation of site-specific MP correction maps, we stacked the post-fit residuals derived from our Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing strategy because the MP errors in the GNSS phase observables can adversely impact the SWD along the direction of individual satellites. The spatial stacking was performed in congruent cells as a function of elevation and azimuth. This enables each cell to receive roughly the same number of residuals, providing a better stacking result. The stacking of residuals for a single cell over several days allows the detection and reduction of systematic errors; random errors are minimal because the averaging is done over a suitably sufficient chosen time span. Finally, the one-way SWD were enhanced by applying these MP correction maps for the analysis of the meteorological event. Our study revealed that the anisotropic component contributed up to 11% of one-way SWD estimates. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal changes in SWD as derived from GNSS closely matched the moisture field from the ERA5 re-analysis linked to this weather event. As it turns out, the MP correction maps may also provide a “kind of calibration” for uncalibrated or low-cost GNSS antennas, even for those in mobile phones, as these devices are highly susceptible to MP errors. In turn, this would allow the application of low-cost sensors to accurately estimate SWD for severe weather monitoring in urban regions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (5 UL)
See detailDie Großregion in zwei Nachkriegszeiten. Grenzgeschichtliche Perspektiven auf Kontinuitäten und Brüche
Brüll, Christoph UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2022)

Die "sorties de guerre" 1918 und 1945 haben die heutige Großregion - wie viele andere europäische Grenzregionen - stark geprägt. Offensichtlichster Ausdruck waren diverse Verschiebungen von staatlichen ... [more ▼]

Die "sorties de guerre" 1918 und 1945 haben die heutige Großregion - wie viele andere europäische Grenzregionen - stark geprägt. Offensichtlichster Ausdruck waren diverse Verschiebungen von staatlichen Grenzen mit ihren politischen, kulturellen, sozialen und ökonomischen Folgen. Die Beziehungen zwischen Staaten, aber auch zwischen Bewohnern mussten neu konfiguriert werden. In der historischen Analyse treten neben diesen Brüchen jedoch auch Kontinuitäten auf. Der Vortrag geht dieser Thematik aus der Sicht der Grenzgeschichte nach und fragt nach der sozialen Funktion von Grenzen in der Großregion nach den beiden Weltkriegen. [less ▲]

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See detailIf there’s something strange in your [cyber]hood – who you gonna call?
Schmitz, Sandra UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 07)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)
See detailRezension zu Jonas Springer, Die Bundeswehr und die Belgischen Streikräfte in Deutschland
Brüll, Christoph UL

in Wissenschaftlicher Literaturanzeiger (2022), 61(2),

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL)