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See detailObfuscating LLVM Intermediate Representation Source Code with NSGA-II
de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Aragó-Jurado, José Miguel; Jareño, Javier et al

in 15th Intl. Conf. on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems (CISIS'22) (2022, September)

With the generalisation of distributed computing paradigms to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities, the protection of the intellectual property tied to the ... [more ▼]

With the generalisation of distributed computing paradigms to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities, the protection of the intellectual property tied to the executed programs transferred onto these remote shared platforms becomes critical. A more and more popular solution to this problem consists in applying obfuscating techniques, in particular at the source code level. Informally, the goal of obfuscation is to conceal the purpose of a program or its logic without altering its functionality, thus preventing reverse-engineering on the program even with the help of computing resources. This allows to protect software against plagiarism, tampering, or finding vulnerabilities that could be used for different kinds of attacks. The many advantages of code obfuscation, together with its low cost, makes it a popular technique. This paper proposes a novel methodology for source code obfuscation relying on the reference LLVM compiler infrastructure that can be used together with other traditional obfuscation techniques, making the code more robust against reverse engineering attacks. The problem is defined as a Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization (MOCO) problem, where the goal is to find sequences of LLVM optimizations that lead to highly obfuscated versions of the original code. These transformations are applied to the back-end pseudo- assembly code (i.e., LLVM Intermediate Representation), thus avoiding any further optimizations by the compiler. Three different problem flavours are defined and solved with popular NSGA-II genetic algorithm. The promising results show the potential of the proposed technique. [less ▲]

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See detailUnlinkability of an Improved Key Agreement Protocol for EMV 2nd Gen Payments
Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL; Yurkov, Semen UL

Scientific Conference (2022, August 10)

To address known privacy problems with the EMV standard, EMVCo have proposed a Blinded Diffie-Hellman key establishment protocol, which is intended to be part of a future 2nd Gen EMV protocol. We point ... [more ▼]

To address known privacy problems with the EMV standard, EMVCo have proposed a Blinded Diffie-Hellman key establishment protocol, which is intended to be part of a future 2nd Gen EMV protocol. We point out that active attackers were not previously accounted for in the privacy requirements of this proposal protocol, and demonstrate that an active attacker can compromise unlinkability within a distance of 100cm. Here, we adopt a strong definition of unlinkability that does account for active attackers and propose an enhancement of the protocol proposed by EMVCo. We prove that our protocol does satisfy strong unlinkability, while preserving authentication. [less ▲]

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See detailRace And Gender Inequalities In Citations And Research Topics In US
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Monroe-White, Thema

Article for general public (2022)

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See detailProbabilistic Deep Learning for Real-Time Large Deformation Simulations
Deshpande, Saurabh UL; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2022), 398(0045-7825), 115307

For many novel applications, such as patient-specific computer-aided surgery, conventional solution techniques of the underlying nonlinear problems are usually computationally too expensive and are ... [more ▼]

For many novel applications, such as patient-specific computer-aided surgery, conventional solution techniques of the underlying nonlinear problems are usually computationally too expensive and are lacking information about how certain can we be about their predictions. In the present work, we propose a highly efficient deep-learning surrogate framework that is able to accurately predict the response of bodies undergoing large deformations in real-time. The surrogate model has a convolutional neural network architecture, called U-Net, which is trained with force–displacement data obtained with the finite element method. We propose deterministic and probabilistic versions of the framework. The probabilistic framework utilizes the Variational Bayes Inference approach and is able to capture all the uncertainties present in the data as well as in the deep-learning model. Based on several benchmark examples, we show the predictive capabilities of the framework and discuss its possible limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°27 - Aout 2022
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2022), 27

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See detailSOniCS: Interfacing SOFA and FEniCS for advanced constitutive models
Mazier, Arnaud UL; El Hadramy, Sidaty; Brunet, Jean-Nicolas et al

Scientific Conference (2022, August)

The Simulation Open Framework Architecture (SOFA) is a software environment for building simulations with a particular focus on real-time medical applications, e.g. surgery. Its scope is far broader than ... [more ▼]

The Simulation Open Framework Architecture (SOFA) is a software environment for building simulations with a particular focus on real-time medical applications, e.g. surgery. Its scope is far broader than the FEniCS Project, encompassing e.g. rigid body dynamics, interfacing with haptic devices, contact and visualisation. Naturally, it also includes some finite element models of soft tissue mechanics, but these capabilities are currently ‘pre-baked’ and limited to a few simple constitutive models. The goal of this work is to incorporate state-of-the-art code generation tools from the FEniCS Project into SOFA in order to hugely increase SOFA’s capabilities in terms of soft tissue mechanics. To this end we have developed a new SOFA plugin named SOniCS. For adding a new material model in SOniCS, the user describes its strain energy density function using UFL (Unified Form Language) syntax. Then, using FFCx (FEniCSx Form Compiler) we generate the C code associated with the kernels corresponding to the automatically differentiated cell-local residual and stiffness forms. Finally, we assemble these kernels in SOFA into global tensors and solve the resulting non-linear systems of equations. The result is that it is now possible to straightforwardly implement complex material models such as the Holzapfel-Ogden anisotropic model into SOFA, and to use them alongside SOFA’s existing strong feature set in medical simulation. [less ▲]

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See detailEtzels Vielvölkerhof – ein Modell europäisch vernetzter Herrschaft?
Bendheim, Amelie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 29)

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See detailThe “Long” Arm of Military Justice: The arrest and resettlement of the families of military deserters
Janz, Nina UL; Vercruysse, Sarah Maya UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was de facto annexed and incorporated into the German Reich during the Second World War. The laws and ordinances of the Reich applied to the local population, and male ... [more ▼]

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was de facto annexed and incorporated into the German Reich during the Second World War. The laws and ordinances of the Reich applied to the local population, and male residents were drafted into the Wehrmacht and thus subject to military jurisdiction. The main reason for Luxembourgers to be tried by the Wehrmacht courts was for disobeying orders, mostly desertion. Wehrmacht court records contain not only individual and personal information about the motives of the convicts and the findings of the court but also details about their families and backgrounds. As a result of deserting from the Wehrmacht, thousands of family members of deserters were resettled in East German territories such as Boberstein (Bobrów) in Poland, and their assets were confiscated. Given these men’s forced recruitment and non-German identity and the fact that they were being asked to fight for a foreign country that had invaded their home territory, the reasons for their desertion and disobedience are self-explanatory. However, this contribution will examine the efforts of the courts and the military justice administration to capture and arrest them, seizures made in their homeland and threats and arrests of their families. These efforts reflect the cooperation between military courts and local police forces used by the occupying authorities to terrorise the inhabitants of occupied territories and to put pressure on the men in the Wehrmacht not to defect. The contribution examines the consequences for individual soldiers and their families in occupied territories such as Luxembourg. It aims to use court records and trials, as well as the corresponding police files related to the interrogation and resettlement of families, to establish a link between persecuted soldiers and the consequences for their families, thereby showing the impact of the Nazi military machine on individuals during the Second World War. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingualism as Challenge for Luxembourgish Literary Historiography
Glesener, Jeanne UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 29)

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See detailA generalization of Bohr-Mollerup's theorem for higher order convex functions: A tutorial
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Zenaïdi, Naïm

E-print/Working paper (2022)

In its additive version, Bohr-Mollerup's remarkable theorem states that the unique (up to an additive constant) convex solution $f(x)$ to the equation $\Delta f(x)=\ln x$ on the open half-line $(0,\infty ... [more ▼]

In its additive version, Bohr-Mollerup's remarkable theorem states that the unique (up to an additive constant) convex solution $f(x)$ to the equation $\Delta f(x)=\ln x$ on the open half-line $(0,\infty)$ is the log-gamma function $f(x)=\ln\Gamma(x)$, where $\Delta$ denotes the classical difference operator and $\Gamma(x)$ denotes the Euler gamma function. In a recently published open access book, the authors provided and illustrated a far-reaching generalization of Bohr-Mollerup's theorem by considering the functional equation $\Delta f(x)=g(x)$, where $g$ can be chosen in a wide and rich class of functions that have convexity or concavity properties of any order. They also showed that the solutions $f(x)$ arising from this generalization satisfy counterparts of many properties of the log-gamma function (or equivalently, the gamma function), including analogues of Bohr-Mollerup's theorem itself, Burnside's formula, Euler's infinite product, Euler's reflection formula, Gauss' limit, Gauss' multiplication formula, Gautschi's inequality, Legendre's duplication formula, Raabe's formula, Stirling's formula, Wallis's product formula, Weierstrass' infinite product, and Wendel's inequality for the gamma function. In this paper, we review the main results of this new and intriguing theory and provide an illustrative application. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic Guinier Law and Uniaxial Polarization Analysis in Small Angle Neutron Scattering
Malyeyev, Artem UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The present PhD thesis is devoted to the development of the use of the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique for analyzing the magnetic microstructures of magnetic materials. The ... [more ▼]

The present PhD thesis is devoted to the development of the use of the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique for analyzing the magnetic microstructures of magnetic materials. The emphasis is on the three aspects: (i) analytical development of the magnetic Guinier law; (ii) the application the magnetic Guinier law and of the generalized Guinier-Porod model to the analysis of experimental neutron data on various magnets such as a Nd-Fe-B nanocomposite, nanocrystalline cobalt, and Mn-Bi rare-earth-free permanent magnets; (iii) development of the theory of uniaxial neutron polarization analysis and experimental testing on a soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloy. The conventional “nonmagnetic” Guinier law represents the low-q approximation for the small-angle scattering curve from an assembly of particles. It has been derived for nonmagnetic particle-matrix-type systems and is routinely employed for the estimation of particle sizes in e.g., soft-matter physics, biology, colloidal chemistry, materials science. Here, the extension of the Guinier law is provided for magnetic SANS through the introduction of the magnetic Guinier radius, which depends on the applied magnetic field, on the magnetic interactions (exchange constant, saturation magnetization), and on the magnetic anisotropy-field radius. The latter quantity characterizes the size over which the magnetic anisotropy field is coherently aligned into the same direction. In contrast to the conventional Guinier law, the magnetic version can be applied to fully dense random-anisotropy-type ferromagnets. The range of applicability is discussed and the validity of the approach is experimentally demonstrated on a Nd-Fe-B-based ternary permanent magnet and on a nanocrystalline cobalt sample. Rare-earth-free permanent magnets in general and the Mn-Bi-based ones in particular have received a lot of attention lately due to their application potential in electronics devices and electromotors. Mn-Bi samples with three different alloy compositions were studied by means of unpolarized SANS and by very small-angle neutron scattering (VSANS). It turns out that the magnetic scattering of the Mn-Bi samples is determined by long-wavelength transversal magnetization fluctuations. The neutron data is analyzed in terms of the generalized Guinier-Porod model and the distance distribution function. The results for the so-called dimensionality parameter obtained from the Guinier-Porod model indicate that the magnetic scattering of a Mn$_{45}$Bi$_{55}$ specimen has its origin in slightly shape-anisotropic structures and the same conclusions are drawn from the distance distribution function analysis. Finally, based on Brown’s static equations of micromagnetics and the related theory of magnetic SANS, the uniaxial polarization of the scattered neutron beam of a bulk magnetic material is computed. The theoretical expressions are tested against experimental data on a soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloy, and both qualitative and quantitative correspondence is discussed. The rigorous analysis of the polarization of the scattered neutron beam establishes the framework for the emerging polarized real-space techniques such as spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering (SESANS), spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering (SEMSANS), and polarized neutron dark-field contrast imaging (DFI), and opens up a new avenue for magnetic neutron data analysis on nanoscaled systems. [less ▲]

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See detailL-invariants of Artin motives
Dimitrov, Mladen; Maksoud, Alexandre UL

in Annales mathématiques du Québec (2022)

We compute Benois L-invariants of weight 1 cuspforms and of their adjoint representations and show how this extends Gross’ p-adic regulator to Artin motives which are not critical in the sense of Deligne ... [more ▼]

We compute Benois L-invariants of weight 1 cuspforms and of their adjoint representations and show how this extends Gross’ p-adic regulator to Artin motives which are not critical in the sense of Deligne. Benois’ construction depends on the choice of a regular submodule which is well understood when the representation is p-regular, as it then amounts to the choice of a “motivic” p-refinement. The situation is dramatically different in the p-irregular case, where the regular submodules are parametrized by a flag variety and thus depend on continuous parameters. We are nevertheless able to show in some examples, how Hida theory and the geometry of the eigencurve can be used to detect a finite number of choices of arithmetic and “mixed-motivic” significance. [less ▲]

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See detail"Mapping" biographies in relational databases - The case of Luxembourg soldiers in the Second World War
Janz, Nina UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 25)

The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg” researches the personal side of the history of Luxembourgish youth born between 1920 and 1927 who were enrolled into German services under the Nazi ... [more ▼]

The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg” researches the personal side of the history of Luxembourgish youth born between 1920 and 1927 who were enrolled into German services under the Nazi occupation of Luxembourg during World War II. The research focuses on personal testimonies and their individual war experience to uncover these men, women, and families’ individual experiences. Using a relational database to represent their war experiences, we face several challenges, such as a data structure that is too rigid and strict to “map” the fluid and unpredictable life patterns of our study subjects. We developed a data model where we treat different life stations (military unit, POW camp etc.) as equal data levels like our recruits (as persons). Each “life station” or event we treat as a “person” and create a separate “biography” to include all relevant data. Afterwards, we link the life stations or events with the actual person in the database. The aim of my contribution is the “translation” of lives, with its twists and turns into a static data set such as a relational database to map the individual war experiences of our study object. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Failure of “Yugoslavia’s Last Chance”: Ante Marković and his Reformists in the 1990 Elections
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Filipovic, Vladimir; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL

in Nationalities Papers (2022)

The last Prime Minister of Yugoslavia Ante Marković was considered by many within the country and in the international community to be Yugoslavia’s last chance for a peaceful transition toward democracy ... [more ▼]

The last Prime Minister of Yugoslavia Ante Marković was considered by many within the country and in the international community to be Yugoslavia’s last chance for a peaceful transition toward democracy and capitalism. In spite of his popularity, the Reformist party he created failed decisively in the first democratic elections of 1990. We expose the reasons for this failure by analyzing electoral, economic, and sociodemographic data on the level of more than two hundred Yugoslav municipalities where the Reformists put forward their candidates. Our analysis shows that the party’s failure had little to do with the voters’ exposure to the effects of the free market reforms undertaken by Marković’s federal government during this period. Instead, the Reformists’ results were largely determined by the communities’ ethnic makeup and interethnic balance. The Reformists suffered at the hands of a strong negative campaign by the Serbian regime of Slobodan Milošević, and they were squeezed out by the ethnically based parties that benefited from voters behaving strategically in the electoral marketplace dominated by questions of nationalism. The analysis presented here offers important lessons for our understanding of Yugoslavia’s breakup, post-communist transitions in general, and electoral politics in societies on the verge of ethnic conflict. [less ▲]

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See detailVous avez dit légal ? Plusieurs États se sont engagés sur la voie de réparations au titre du colonialisme, tout en affirmant que celui-ci n’aurait pas été illégal à l’époque. Un argument contestable
Erpelding, Michel UL

Article for general public (2022)

Aimed at the general public in Luxembourg, this article examines ands dismisses the argument of the alleged legality of colonial policies under the international law in force at that time. The article ... [more ▼]

Aimed at the general public in Luxembourg, this article examines ands dismisses the argument of the alleged legality of colonial policies under the international law in force at that time. The article aims to contribute to the wider debate surrounding Luxembourg's colonial past. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxatlas.lu – A web atlas to explore the past 450 years of Luxembourg's urban history
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Kass, Steve

Diverse speeches and writings (2022)

The Luxatlas represents a collection of maps and structures (e.g., building, fortress, streets) combined with explanatory texts, chronological tables and images. On this basis, the historical town atlas ... [more ▼]

The Luxatlas represents a collection of maps and structures (e.g., building, fortress, streets) combined with explanatory texts, chronological tables and images. On this basis, the historical town atlas documents historical processes of change diachronically for research purposes and education (university and school), for people interested in history (public history) and for municipal departments (supporting preparations for urban development projects). But the pure visualisation of research results is not the main focus of the project. The town atlas itself serves as an important tool for the acquisition of new knowledge. It is only by means of cartographic representations that comparisons can be made of various historical development processes in Luxembourg. The superimposition of different cartographic time layers enables users to visualise and analyse specific questions individually. The town atlas, therefore, offers a basis for further research on urban development. It is only through the cartographic presentation of historical, architectural, economic and urban development information that the distribution of certain spatial phenomena becomes visible and can then be interpreted and analysed. In this way, the interactive map becomes a central instrument for acquiring additional knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-Performance Computing for the simulation of particles with the Discrete Element Method
Besseron, Xavier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 21)

In this talk, we will give an overview of the main techniques used for the parallelization of numerical simulations on High-Performance Computing platforms, and provide a particular focus on the Discrete ... [more ▼]

In this talk, we will give an overview of the main techniques used for the parallelization of numerical simulations on High-Performance Computing platforms, and provide a particular focus on the Discrete Element Method (DEM), a numerical method for the simulation of the motion of granular materials. We will cover the main parallelization paradigms and their implementations (shared memory with OpenMP and distributed memory with MPI), present the performance bottlenecks and introduce load-balancing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailOne step ahead: mapping the Italian and German cybersecurity laws against the proposal for a NIS2 directive
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in International Cybersecurity Law Review (2022)

With the COVID-19 pandemic accelerating digital transformation of the Single Market, the European Commission also speeded up the review of the first piece of European Union (EU)-wide cybersecurity ... [more ▼]

With the COVID-19 pandemic accelerating digital transformation of the Single Market, the European Commission also speeded up the review of the first piece of European Union (EU)-wide cybersecurity legislation, the NIS Directive. Originally foreseen for May 2021, the Commission presented the review as early as December 2020 together with a Proposal for a NIS2 Directive. Almost in parallel, some Member States strengthened (or adopted) national laws beyond the scope of the NIS Directive to respond adequately to the fast-paced digital threat landscape. Against this backdrop, the article investigates the national interventions in the field of cybersecurity recently adopted by Italy and Germany. In order to identify similarities and divergences of the Italian and German national frameworks with the European Commission’s Proposal for a NIS2 Directive, the analysis will focus on selected aspects extrapolated from the Commission Proposal, namely: i) the enlarged scope; ii) detailed cybersecurity risk-management measures; iii) more stringent supervisory measures; and, iv) stricter enforcement requirements, including harmonised sanctions across the EU. The article concludes that the national cybersecurity legal frameworks under scrutiny already match the core of the proposed changes envisaged by the NIS2 Proposal. [less ▲]

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See detailPublications and a new project BELONG
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

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