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See detailIndépendantiste
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Ndior, Valère (Ed.) Dictionnaire de l'actualité internationale (2021)

This short entry analyses the use of the word 'indépendantiste' (pro-independence) in French-language news outlets and its political implications with regard to self-determination movements.

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See detailSchool Alienation Among Adolescents in Switzerland and Luxembourg: The Role of Parent and Peer Supportive Attitudes Toward School and Teacher Autonomy Support
Morinaj, Julia; de Moll, Frederick UL; Hascher, Tina et al

in Youth and Society (2021), early online

Prior research has shown that socialization agents such as parents, peers, and teachers can play a significant role in adolescents’ educational outcomes, both through direct support or indirectly via ... [more ▼]

Prior research has shown that socialization agents such as parents, peers, and teachers can play a significant role in adolescents’ educational outcomes, both through direct support or indirectly via supportive attitudes that foster students’ bonding to school and academic motivation. However, less is known about the effects of parent and peer supportive attitudes and teacher autonomy support on unfavorable educational outcomes such as school alienation. This study investigated the role of socialization agents in the development of school alienation among 544 secondary school students in Switzerland and 535 secondary school students in Luxembourg in grades 7 to 9. Results of structural equation modeling showed that the role of socialization agents varies across the school alienation domains and educational contexts, with peers having the most substantial impact on all three domains of alienation in both countries. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceuticals and their Transformation Products in Luxembourgish Surface Waters
Singh, Randolph UL; Lai, Adelene UL; Krier, Jessy UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This pre-print describes the analysis of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in surface water samples collected in Luxembourg from 2019 to 2020. Details of the experimental and computational ... [more ▼]

This pre-print describes the analysis of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in surface water samples collected in Luxembourg from 2019 to 2020. Details of the experimental and computational tools and workflows used are fully described in the manuscript. Links to the suspect lists, codes used, and data files are also provided. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovering Pesticides and their Transformation Products in Luxembourg Waters using Open Cheminformatics Approaches
Krier, Jessy UL; Singh, Randolph UL; Kondic, Todor UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Abstract The diversity of hundreds of thousands of potential organic pollutants and the lack of (publicly available) information about many of them is a huge challenge for environmental sciences ... [more ▼]

Abstract The diversity of hundreds of thousands of potential organic pollutants and the lack of (publicly available) information about many of them is a huge challenge for environmental sciences, engineering, and regulation. Suspect screening based on high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) has enormous potential to help characterize the presence of these chemicals in our environment, enabling the detection of known and newly emerging pollutants, as well as their potential transformation products (TPs). Here, suspect list creation (focusing on pesticides relevant for Luxembourg, incorporating data sources in 4 languages) was coupled to an automated retrieval of related TPs from PubChem based on high confidence suspect hits, to screen for pesticides and their TPs in Luxembourgish river samples. A computational workflow was established to combine LC-HRMS analysis and pre-screening of the suspects (including automated quality control steps), with spectral annotation to determine which pesticides and, in a second step, their related TPs may be present in the samples. The data analysis with Shinyscreen (https://git-r3lab.uni.lu/eci/shinyscreen/), an open source software developed in house, coupled with custom-made scripts, revealed the presence of 162 potential pesticide masses and 135 potential TP masses in the samples. Further identification of these mass matches was performed using the open source MetFrag (https://msbi.ipb-halle.de/MetFrag/). Eventual target analysis of 36 suspects resulted in 31 pesticides and TPs confirmed at Level-1 (highest confidence), and five pesticides and TPs not confirmed due to different retention times. Spatio-temporal analysis of the results showed that TPs and pesticides followed similar trends, with a maximum number of potential detections in July. The highest detections were in the rivers Alzette and Mess and the lowest in the Sûre and Eisch. This study (a) added pesticides, classification information and related TPs into the open domain, (b) developed automated open source retrieval methods - both enhancing FAIRness (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability) of the data and methods; and (c) will directly support “L’Administration de la Gestion de l’Eau” on further monitoring steps in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceuticals and Their Transformation Products in Luxembourgish Surface Waters
Singh, Randolph UL; Lai, Adelene UL; Krier, Jessy UL et al

in ACS Environmental Au (2021)

Pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment via anthropogenic activity. To expand knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals and their ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment via anthropogenic activity. To expand knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals and their known TPs in Luxembourgish rivers, 92 samples collected during routine monitoring events between 2019 and 2020 were investigated using nontarget analysis. Water samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. Suspect screening was performed using several open source computational tools and resources including Shinyscreen (https://git-r3lab.uni.lu/eci/shinyscreen/), MetFrag (https://msbi.ipb-halle.de/MetFrag/), PubChemLite (https://zenodo.org/record/4432124), and MassBank (https://massbank.eu/MassBank/). A total of 94 pharmaceuticals, 88 confirmed at a level 1 confidence (86 of which could be quantified, two compounds too low to be quantified) and six identified at level 2a, were found to be present in Luxembourg rivers. Pharmaceutical TPs (12) were also found at a level 2a confidence. The pharmaceuticals were present at median concentrations up to 214 ng/L, with caffeine having a median concentration of 1424 ng/L. Antihypertensive drugs (15), psychoactive drugs (15), and antimicrobials (eight) were the most detected groups of pharmaceuticals. A spatiotemporal analysis of the data revealed areas with higher concentrations of the pharmaceuticals, as well as differences in pharmaceutical concentrations between 2019 and 2020. The results of this work will help guide activities for improving water management in the country and set baseline data for continuous monitoring and screening efforts, as well as for further open data and software developments. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrospective non-target analysis to support regulatory water monitoring: from masses of interest to recommendations via in silico workflows
Lai, Adelene UL; Singh, Randolph UL; Kovalova, Lubomira et al

in Environmental Sciences Europe (2021), 33(1), 43

Abstract Background Applying non-target analysis (NTA) in regulatory environmental monitoring remains challenging—instead of having exploratory questions, regulators usually already have specific ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Applying non-target analysis (NTA) in regulatory environmental monitoring remains challenging—instead of having exploratory questions, regulators usually already have specific questions related to environmental protection aims. Additionally, data analysis can seem overwhelming because of the large data volumes and many steps required. This work aimed to establish an open in silico workflow to identify environmental chemical unknowns via retrospective NTA within the scope of a pre-existing Swiss environmental monitoring campaign focusing on industrial chemicals. The research question addressed immediate regulatory priorities: identify pollutants with industrial point sources occurring at the highest intensities over two time points. Samples from 22 wastewater treatment plants obtained in 2018 and measured using liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry were retrospectively analysed by (i) performing peak-picking to identify masses of interest; (ii) prescreening and quality-controlling spectra, and (iii) tentatively identifying priority “known unknown” pollutants by leveraging environmentally relevant chemical information provided by Swiss, Swedish, EU-wide, and American regulators. This regulator-supplied information was incorporated into MetFrag, an in silico identification tool replete with “post-relaunch” features used here. This study’s unique regulatory context posed challenges in data quality and volume that were directly addressed with the prescreening, quality control, and identification workflow developed. Results One confirmed and 21 tentative identifications were achieved, suggesting the presence of compounds as diverse as manufacturing reagents, adhesives, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals in the samples. More importantly, an in-depth interpretation of the results in the context of environmental regulation and actionable next steps are discussed. The prescreening and quality control workflow is openly accessible within the R package Shinyscreen, and adaptable to any (retrospective) analysis requiring automated quality control of mass spectra and non-target identification, with potential applications in environmental and metabolomics analyses. Conclusions NTA in regulatory monitoring is critical for environmental protection, but bottlenecks in data analysis and results interpretation remain. The prescreening and quality control workflow, and interpretation work performed here are crucial steps towards scaling up NTA for environmental monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailVisualisation Techniques for Consent: Finding Common Ground in Comic Art with Indigenous Populations
Botes, Wilhelmina Maria UL; Rossi, Arianna UL

in 2021 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS&PW) (2021)

With emerging technologies such as genome research and the digitization of health records comes the need for new models of informed consent. In this climate of innovation people are often prone to explore ... [more ▼]

With emerging technologies such as genome research and the digitization of health records comes the need for new models of informed consent. In this climate of innovation people are often prone to explore the latest technological advancement as possible solutions, including for informed consent. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a so-called low-tech informed consent solution that was designed specifically for the informational and cultural needs of a vulnerable indigenous population, i.e., the San of South Africa. This low-tech solution took the form of a comic and, although it could enhance understanding and identification, the costs and labour intensity of comic design and the deriving limitations on its scalability should be critically considered in the light of a digitised and more standardized solution. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Exploring the Limitations of Active Learning: An Empirical Study
Hu, Qiang UL; Guo, Yuejun UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in The 36th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering. (2021)

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are being increasingly deployed as integral parts of software systems. However, due to the complex interconnections among hidden layers and massive hyperparameters, DNNs ... [more ▼]

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are being increasingly deployed as integral parts of software systems. However, due to the complex interconnections among hidden layers and massive hyperparameters, DNNs require being trained using a large number of labeled inputs, which calls for extensive human effort for collecting and labeling data. Spontaneously, to alleviate this growing demand, a surge of state-of-the-art studies comes up with different metrics to select a small yet informative dataset for the model training. These research works have demonstrated that DNN models can achieve competitive performance using a carefully selected small set of data. However, the literature lacks proper investigation of the limitations of data selection metrics, which is crucial to apply them in practice. In this paper, we fill this gap and conduct an extensive empirical study to explore the limits of selection metrics. Our study involves 15 selection metrics evaluated over 5 datasets (2 image classification tasks and 3 text classification tasks), 10 DNN architectures, and 20 labeling budgets (ratio of training data being labeled). Our findings reveal that, while selection metrics are usually effective in producing accurate models, they may induce a loss of model robustness (against adversarial examples) and resilience to compression. Overall, we demonstrate the existence of a trade-off between labeling effort and different model qualities. This paves the way for future research in devising selection metrics considering multiple quality criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailReview - The Lost Soldier: The Ordeal of a World War II GI from the Home Front to the Hürtgen Forest
Janz, Nina UL

in Michigan War Studies Review (2021)

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See detailSpätlese. Aufsätze aus den ersten beiden Jahrzehnten des 21. Jahrhunderts. Festgabe für Franz Irsigler zum 80. Geburtstag
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Pauly, Michel UL; Embach, Michael et al

Book published by Verlag für Geschichte und Kultur (2021)

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See detailProgress at Snail’s Pace? Regional Involvement and Treaty Changes since 1990
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Abels, Gabriele (Ed.) From Takers to Shapers? Challenges for Regions in a Dynamic EU Polity (2021)

From the mid-1980s, the sub-state level has become increasingly recognized as a political actor in European Union (EU) politics. Starting with the Treaty of Maastricht, a series of EU Treaty changes have ... [more ▼]

From the mid-1980s, the sub-state level has become increasingly recognized as a political actor in European Union (EU) politics. Starting with the Treaty of Maastricht, a series of EU Treaty changes have recognized the democratic role of regions and local authorities and have created consultative mechanisms for them. However, the very regions that pushed for these changes – namely the strong legislative regions like the German Länder and the Belgian regions – became dissatisfied with the innovations of the Treaty of Maastricht almost as soon as they were implemented. As a result, their strategy focused increasingly on limiting transfers of competences to the European level in areas of importance to regions. The aim of this contribution is therefore to examine the evolution of the demands of strong legislative regions and their rights on the European level. It argues that the diversity of European regions has made it difficult to reconcile European integration with the status and functioning of strong legislative regions. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed Courts of the Colonial Era
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Ruiz Fabri, Helene (Ed.) Max Planck Encyclopedia of International Procedural Law (2021)

This entry provides a detailed and systematic account of mixed courts of the colonial era, which were a form of domestic courts with international participation established between the first half of the ... [more ▼]

This entry provides a detailed and systematic account of mixed courts of the colonial era, which were a form of domestic courts with international participation established between the first half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century in non-Western polities. Serving as an alternative to consular jurisdiction in countries where Western states were unwilling to accept the jurisdiction of ordinary local courts over their nationals or their nationals’ interests, these courts blended domestic and international features. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed Courts of Egypt
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Ruiz Fabri, Helene (Ed.) Max Planck Encyclopedia of International Procedural Law (2021)

This entry provides a detailed description and assessment of the Mixed Courts of Egypt (1875-1949), the most famous of the mixed courts of the colonial era. Established as an alternative to consular ... [more ▼]

This entry provides a detailed description and assessment of the Mixed Courts of Egypt (1875-1949), the most famous of the mixed courts of the colonial era. Established as an alternative to consular courts, the Mixed Courts of Egypt were formally Egyptian domestic courts, but had a foreign-majority bench and the mission to guarantee the treaty-based rights of foreigners against any possible infringements from the Egyptian State. [less ▲]

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See detailEsclavage (moderne)
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Ndior, Valère (Ed.) Dictionnaire de l'actualité internationale (2021)

This short entry analyses the use of the words 'slavery' and 'modern slavery' by French-language news outlets, comparing this use to the actual evolution of the status of slavery and slavery-related ... [more ▼]

This short entry analyses the use of the words 'slavery' and 'modern slavery' by French-language news outlets, comparing this use to the actual evolution of the status of slavery and slavery-related practices in international law. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Congrès de Vienne et le statut international du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg : théories et réalités du droit des gens de l’Europe
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Actes de la section des sciences morales et politiques de l'Institut grand-ducal (2021), 24

This articles examines the international status of Luxembourg between 1815 and 1867 from the perspective of the international law applicable at that time and based on the relevant state practice. It ... [more ▼]

This articles examines the international status of Luxembourg between 1815 and 1867 from the perspective of the international law applicable at that time and based on the relevant state practice. It contends that - from the perspective of international law - Luxembourg emerged as a state after the evacuation of Belgian troops from its territory in 1839. [less ▲]

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See detailRandomization as Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Real-Time Systems with Task Replication
Krüger, Kristin; Vreman, Nils; Pates, Richard et al

in LITES: Leibnitz Transactions on Embedded Systems (2020)

Time-triggered real-time systems achieve deterministic behavior using schedules that are constructed offline, based on scheduling constraints. Their deterministic behavior makes time-triggered systems ... [more ▼]

Time-triggered real-time systems achieve deterministic behavior using schedules that are constructed offline, based on scheduling constraints. Their deterministic behavior makes time-triggered systems suitable for usage in safety-critical environments, like avionics. However, this determinism also allows attackers to fine-tune attacks that can be carried out after studying the behavior of the system through side channels, targeting safety-critical victim tasks. Replication – i.e., the execution of task variants across different cores – is inherently able to tolerate both accidental and malicious faults (i.e. attacks) as long as these faults are independent of one another. Yet, targeted attacks on the timing behavior of tasks which utilize information gained about the system behavior violate the fault independence assumption fault tolerance is based on. This violation may give attackers the opportunity to compromise all replicas simultaneously, in par- ticular if they can mount the attack from already compromised components. In this paper, we ana- lyze vulnerabilities of time-triggered systems, focusing on safety-certified multicore real-time systems. We introduce two runtime mitigation strategies to withstand directed timing inference based attacks: (i) schedule randomization at slot level, and (ii) randomization within a set of offline constructed schedules. We evaluate these mitigation strategies with synthetic experiments and a real case study to show their effectiveness and practicality. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Law and the European Court of Justice: The Politics of Avoiding History
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Journal of the History of International Law (2020, October 21), 22(2-3), 446-472

Using the example of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), this article addresses the lack of historical contextualization which is prevalent in most general accounts of EU law and EU institutions. It ... [more ▼]

Using the example of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), this article addresses the lack of historical contextualization which is prevalent in most general accounts of EU law and EU institutions. It argues that this narrative is the result of a tradition established by the founders of the discipline. For these early ‘Euro-lawyers’, distinguishing the practice of European institutions from earlier international institutions had important political implications. This was especially true with regard to the ECJ. By providing a selective and partly decontextualized narrative of this court and describing it as largely unprecedented in international law, early Euro-lawyers were not only able to bolster the ‘supranational’ and ‘sui generis’ character of their nascent discipline. They were also able to avoid comparisons between the ECJ and prior international courts and tribunals whose similarly wide-ranging powers and integrated nature had been considered as politically problematic. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust synchronization of heterogeneous robot swarms on the sphere
Markdahl, Johan UL; Proverbio, Daniele UL; Goncalves, Jorge UL

in 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) (2020)

Synchronization on the sphere is important to certain control applications in swarm robotics. Of recent interest is the Lohe model, which generalizes the Kuramoto model from the circle to the sphere. The ... [more ▼]

Synchronization on the sphere is important to certain control applications in swarm robotics. Of recent interest is the Lohe model, which generalizes the Kuramoto model from the circle to the sphere. The Lohe model is mainly studied in mathematical physics as a toy model of quantum synchronization. The model makes few assumptions, wherefore it is well-suited to represent a swarm. Previous work on this model has focused on the cases of complete and acyclic networks or the homogeneous case where all oscillator frequencies are equal. This paper concerns the case of heterogeneous oscillators connected by a non-trivial network. We show that any undesired equilibrium is exponentially unstable if the frequencies satisfy a given bound. This property can also be interpreted as a robustness result for small model perturbations of the homogeneous case with zero frequencies. As such, the Lohe model is a good choice for control applications in swarm robotics. [less ▲]

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