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See detailMeet the ECI Team!
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, March 11)

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See detailMachine Learning Force Fields
Oliver T. Unke; Stefan Chmiela; Huziel E. Sauceda et al

in Chemical Reviews (2021)

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See detailNATIONAL FORGETTING AND MEMORY: THE DESTRUCTION OF "NATIONAL" MONUMENTS FROM A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

The Fall of Monuments: a Public History Monuments have, for a few years now, been hitting the headlines all over the world. Public debates do not focus so much on the erection of new monuments as they do ... [more ▼]

The Fall of Monuments: a Public History Monuments have, for a few years now, been hitting the headlines all over the world. Public debates do not focus so much on the erection of new monuments as they do on acts of vandalism, removal, and destruction. If destructions of monuments are not new – for example during the French Revolution – their multiple examples all around the world (United States, England, Australia, Spain, Argentina, South Africa for instance) raise questions about their origins, meanings, and consequences. In my presentation, I propose to understand those synchronous destructions and removals through the angle of public history. Developed as a process to include publics into its production, interpretation, and communication, public history helps to better understand the issues at stake in destroying monuments. In the words of Ludmilla Jordanova, the past is more than ever considered as a public property subject to many different interpretations. Remembering and interpreting the past has become more democratic, more participatory, more diverse but has also shacked power relations. New participatory practices have impacted how we memorialize and interpret the past at official levels. Questions such as who owns the past and who can decide what historical events, actors can be remembered through monuments are being reconsidered. In this reinvention of our relations to monuments – and indirectly to the past – I propose to reconsider the role of historians. I argue that more than simply interpreting the past, historians can help communities deciding what to do with (unwanted) monuments [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Impact of Flaky Tests in Automated Program Repair
Qin, Yihao; Wang, Shangwen; Liu, Kui UL et al

in 28th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering, Hawaii 9-12 March 2021 (2021, March 10)

The literature of Automated Program Repair is largely dominated by approaches that leverage test suites not only to expose bugs but also to validate the generated patches. Unfortunately, beyond the widely ... [more ▼]

The literature of Automated Program Repair is largely dominated by approaches that leverage test suites not only to expose bugs but also to validate the generated patches. Unfortunately, beyond the widely-discussed concern that test suites are an imperfect oracle because they can be incomplete, they can include tests that are flaky. A flaky test is one that can be passed or failed by a program in a non-deterministic way. Such tests are generally carefully removed from the repair benchmarks. In practice, however, flaky tests are available test suite of software repositories. To the best of our knowledge, no study has discussed this threat to validity for evaluation of program repair. In this work, we highlight this threat and further investigate the impact of flaky tests by reverting their removal from the Defects4J benchmark. Our study aims to characterize the impact of flaky tests for localizing bugs and the eventual influence on the repair performance. Among other insights, we find that (1) although flaky tests are few (≈0.3%) of total tests, they affect experiments related to a large proportion (98.9%) of Defects4J real-world faults; (2) most flaky tests (98%) actually provide deterministic results under specific environment configurations (with the jdk version influencing the results); (3) flaky tests drastically hinder the effectiveness of spectrum-based fault localization (e.g., the rankings of 90 bugs drop down while none of the bugs obtains better location results compared with results achieved without flaky tests); and (4) the repairability of APR tools is greatly affected by the presence of flaky tests (e.g., 10 state of the art APR tools can now fix significantly fewer bugs than when the benchmark is manually curated to remove flaky tests). Given that the detection of flaky tests is still nascent, we call for the program repair community to relax the artificial assumption that the test suite is free from flaky tests. One direction that we propose is to consider developing strategies where patches that partially-fix bugs are considered worthwhile: a patch may make the program pass some test cases but fail some (which may actually be the flaky ones). [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph ...
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, March 04)

Presentation of the chapter co-written with Francesca Musiani (CNRS) within the book Digital Roots (De Gruyter, 2021) edited by G. Balbi, N. Ribeiro, V. Schafer and C. Schwarzenegger

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See detailAktuelle Entwicklungen im Steuerrecht in der Informationstechnologie 2019/2020 - Teil 2
Sinnig, Julia UL; Schmittmann, Jens M.

in Kommunikation und Recht (2021), 24(3), 164-170

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See detailSmall urban green areas
Picard, Pierre M UL; Tran, Thi Thu Huyen UL

in Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2021), 106

This paper studies the size and location of small urban green areas across city spaces. Small urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the size and location of small urban green areas across city spaces. Small urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper discusses the land use and locations of those areas and the resulting residential space allocation. It is shown that the land share dedicated to small urban green areas results from the trade-off between land value and population density and is a single peaked function of the distance to the city center. This result is confirmed by the empirical study of urban structures in the 305 largest EU cities using GIS data. This spatial pattern is shown to be robust to many measures of urban land uses. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the role of individual differences in the hypoalgesic response to a virtual reality game: An exploratory analysis
Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL; Barcatta, Katharina; Battistutta, Layla UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, March)

Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a powerful method of redirecting attention away from pain and is increasingly used in clinical settings as a therapeutic tool for pain treatment ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a powerful method of redirecting attention away from pain and is increasingly used in clinical settings as a therapeutic tool for pain treatment. Yet, little is known about the underlying factors that modulate the size of the hypoalgesic response to a VR game, such as cognitive load and inter-individual differences in self-reported pain-related cognitions, emotion regulation habits, gaming skills, and executive functions. Methods: 90 healthy participants played two versions of the VR game 'Subnautica', differing in cognitive load (low load vs. high load). In the low load condition, participants navigated along a predefined route. In the high load condition, participants additionally memorized a series of single digits presented along the route. Pain heat thresholds as well as psychophysiological measures (ECG, EDA) were recorded during a passive control condition (in VR) prior to, as well as during, the two interactive sessions. In addition, participants completed several psychological questionnaires and different executive functioning tasks prior to the VR sessions. Results: Pain thresholds were significantly higher in the two interactive VR sessions when compared to the passive control condition, whereas the cognitive load of the game had no effect on pain thresholds. Individual differences in pain-related cognitions, prepotent response inhibition abilities and the level of emotional awareness reported by female participants, but not the level of gaming skills, influenced the size of the hypoalgesic effect. Discussion: In line with a growing body of studies, we observed a robust hypoalgesic response to playing a VR game, highlighting once more the potential of VR as a tool for pain reduction. Importantly, the hypoalgesic effect was not dependent on the participants’ level of gaming skills or the cognitive load of the game, suggesting that the sensory properties of the VR game were sufficient to change the processing of pain. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Retail Banking: Potentiale und Herausforderungen Künstlicher Intelligenz
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Rägo, Vadim et al

Report (2021)

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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioner’s Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(1), 91-93

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See detailExplorative analysis of potential MaaS customers: An agent-based scenario
Cisterna, Carolina UL; Giorgione, Giulio UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Transportation Research Procedia (2021)

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See detailHow does Responsible Research & Innovation apply to the concept of the Digital Self, in consideration of privacy, ownership and democracy?
van Schagen, Sijmen UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2021)

This master thesis studies to what degree Responsible Research & Innovation (RRI) can be applied to the concept of the Digital Self (DS). In order to examine this properly, it focuses on aspects of ... [more ▼]

This master thesis studies to what degree Responsible Research & Innovation (RRI) can be applied to the concept of the Digital Self (DS). In order to examine this properly, it focuses on aspects of privacy, ownership and democracy. This work is inspired by the digital health domain, where a growing number of patients become enabled to benefit from AI-powered clinical decision sup port. Aim of this study is to provide insight into what cases can be considered for exploring new design requirements for digital health applications. Increasingly, we use technology to manage our daily digital selves. Our smartphones, being examples of extensions of ourselves, are able to empower us as citizens within a democracy. The decision-making process belongs more and more to the realm of artificial intelligence (AI), powering our extended selves with algorithms. Although the era of the DS has already begun, it remains unnoticed by the paradigm of RRI. Instead of empowering informational self-determination, RRI tends to be overprotective of an outdated concept of what it is like to act as a human within a democracy which is obviously reshaped by digitization. In order to maintain our general understanding of a democracy, there is a need for a concept of the DS in the near future. Not only will the DS-concept have the capacity to empower a democratic citizen, it will also be able to empower patients within a digital health environment. Due to the data hunger of large technology companies and governments, it has already become clear that the rise of digitization comes with a price for our society and our health. Therefore, it is the DS concept that can make a difference in contributing to ethical and social standards. If the future of digital health offers us – additional to human medical stakeholders – AI-powered digital health apps to increase the quality of healthcare, we have the duty to take our values into account when designing such apps. [less ▲]

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See detailTrois films du projet COVID-Kids : 1. Écoutez les enfants et les adolescents ; 2. La peur de tomber malade ;3. Expériences avec le travail scolaire à la maison
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha et al

Learning material (2021)

COVID-Kids Le projet COVID-Kids vise à explorer le bien-être des enfants et leurs expériences quotidiennes pendant la pandémie de Coronavirus entre mai et juillet 2020. Film 1 Écoutez les enfants et les ... [more ▼]

COVID-Kids Le projet COVID-Kids vise à explorer le bien-être des enfants et leurs expériences quotidiennes pendant la pandémie de Coronavirus entre mai et juillet 2020. Film 1 Écoutez les enfants et les adolescents Ce premier épisode présente le projet COVID-Kids ainsi que quelques constations clés. Il montre quatre enfants ayant vécu des expériences différentes durant la pandémie. Tandis que certains ont trouvé stressant ou ennuyeux le fait d'être à la maison, d'autres ont apprécié le temps passé en famille. L'objectif du projet COVID-Kids est d'explorer le bien-être des enfants et leurs expériences quotidiennes pendant la pandémie de Coronavirus entre mai et juillet 2020. Film 2 La peur de tomber malade Quatre enfants parlent de la peur de tomber malade. Alors que deux n'avaient pas peur, un enfant craignait qu'un membre de sa famille tombe malade et un autre s'est fait gronder par des adultes parce qu'ils pensaient qu'il s'était trop rapproché. D’autres résultats du projet sont présentés. L'objectif du projet COVID-Kids est d'explorer le bien-être des enfants et leurs expériences quotidiennes pendant la pandémie de Coronavirus entre mai et juillet 2020. Film 3 Expériences avec le travail scolaire à la maison Ce dernier film présente quelques prédicteurs du bien-être des enfants liés au travail scolaire pendant la pandémie : la quantité, la difficulté et le contenu des devoirs. Les expériences des enfants ont varié et tout le monde ne s'en est pas bien sorti. L'objectif du projet COVID-Kids est d'explorer le bien-être des enfants et leurs expériences quotidiennes pendant la pandémie de Coronavirus entre mai et juillet 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailThe very long arm of wealth: Effects of intergenerational wealth resources on health in the U.S. over the last three decades
Chauvel, Louis UL; Ceron, Francisco UL; Murphy, Emily UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Health inequalities result from multidimensional socioeconomic inequalities (income, education, wealth, etc.). Given the specific size and greater stability through time of wealth than income, wealth ... [more ▼]

Health inequalities result from multidimensional socioeconomic inequalities (income, education, wealth, etc.). Given the specific size and greater stability through time of wealth than income, wealth might affect health beyond other socioeconomic indicators. An important question is how far the reach of wealth is on one’s health: Does wealth promote health even over generations? Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we consider the effects of intergenerational and intragenerational wealth on age-adjusted self-assessed health (ASAH) across the life course. We find that both parental and personal household wealth strongly affect ASAH net of other socioeconomic measures. Just as social disadvantages have been shown to be inherited between generations, so too are wealth-induced health advantages. Furthermore, the inter- and intra- generational wealth effects on health increase over the life course. This study thus encourages social scientists to pay greater attention to wealth inequalities, despite difficulties in their accurate measurement. [less ▲]

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See detailThree movies of the project COVID-Kids: 1. Listen to children and young people; 2. The fear of getting ill; 3. Home schooling experiences
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha et al

Learning material (2021)

COVID-Kids The aim of the project COVID-Kids is to explore children’s well-being and stay-at-home experiences during the Coronavirus pandemic in May-July 2020 Episode 1 Listen to children and young people ... [more ▼]

COVID-Kids The aim of the project COVID-Kids is to explore children’s well-being and stay-at-home experiences during the Coronavirus pandemic in May-July 2020 Episode 1 Listen to children and young people This first episode introduces the project COVID-Kids and some of its findings. It features four children who had different experiences during the pandemic. While some children found it stressful or boring to be at home, others enjoyed the quality time with their family. The aim of the project COVID-Kids is to explore children’s well-being and stay-at-home experiences during the Coronavirus pandemic in May-July 2020 Episode 2 The fear of getting ill Four children speak about the fear of getting ill. While two were not afraid, one child was worried that a family member fell ill and another one experienced adults shouting at him because they believed he had come too close. Further results of the project are presented. The aim of the project COVID-Kids is to explore children’s well-being and stay-at-home experiences during the Coronavirus pandemic in May-July 2020 Episode 3 Home schooling experiences This final movie presents some predictors of children’s well-being related to home schooling: the quantity, difficulty andjavascript:$('next-but').click(); content of homework. The children’s experiences varied and not everybody coped well. The aim of the project COVID-Kids is to explore children’s well-being and stay-at-home experiences during the Coronavirus pandemic in May-July 2020 [less ▲]

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See detailFünf Filme des Projekts COVID-Kids: 1 Hört den Kindern und Jugendlichen zu; 2. Die Angst krank zu werden; 3. Erfahrungen mit der Schule zu Hause
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha et al

Learning material (2021)

COVID-Kids Das Ziel des Projekts COVID-Kids ist es, das Wohlbefinden und die täglichen Erfahrungen der Kinder während der Coronavirus-Pandemie im Mai-Juli 2020 zu erforschen. Film 1 Hört den Kindern und ... [more ▼]

COVID-Kids Das Ziel des Projekts COVID-Kids ist es, das Wohlbefinden und die täglichen Erfahrungen der Kinder während der Coronavirus-Pandemie im Mai-Juli 2020 zu erforschen. Film 1 Hört den Kindern und Jugendlichen zu Dieser erste Film stellt das Projekt COVID-Kids sowie einige Ergebnisse vor. Es zeigt vier Kinder, die unterschiedliche Erfahrungen in der Pandemie machten. Während einige Kinder die Zeit zu Hause stressig oder langweilig fanden, genossen andere die schöne Zeit mit der Familie. Das Ziel des Projekts COVID-Kids ist es, das Wohlbefinden und die täglichen Erfahrungen der Kinder während der Coronavirus-Pandemie im Mai-Juli 2020 zu erforschen. Film 2 Die Angst krank zu werden Vier Kinder sprechen über die Angst, krank zu werden. Während zwei keine Angst hatten, war ein Kind besorgt, dass ein Familienmitglied krank wird und ein anderes erlebte, wie Erwachsene meckerten, weil sie glaubten, es sei zu nahegekommen. Weitere Ergebnisse des Projekts werden vorgestellt. Das Ziel des Projekts COVID-Kids ist es, das Wohlbefinden und die täglichen Erfahrungen der Kinder während der Coronavirus-Pandemie im Mai-Juli 2020 zu erforschen. Film 3 Erfahrungen mit der Schule zu Hause In diesem letzten Film werden einige Prädiktoren für das Wohlbefinden der Kinder im Zusammenhang mit dem Unterricht zu Hause vorgestellt: die Menge, der Schwierigkeitsgrad und der Inhalt der Schulaufgaben. Die Erfahrungen der Kinder waren unterschiedlich und nicht alle kamen gut damit zurecht. Das Ziel des Projekts COVID-Kids ist es, das Wohlbefinden und die täglichen Erfahrungen der Kinder während der Coronavirus-Pandemie im Mai-Juli 2020 zu erforschen. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Symbol Level Precoding and Combining for MIMO-OFDM Transceiver Architectures Based on One-Bit DACs and ADCs
Domouchtsidis, Stavros UL; Tsinos, Christos UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021), 20(7), 4601-4613

Herein, a precoding scheme is developed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems that use one-bit digital-to-analog converters ... [more ▼]

Herein, a precoding scheme is developed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems that use one-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) at the transmitter and receiver, respectively, as a means to reduce the power consumption. Two different one-bit architectures are presented. In the first, a single user MIMO system is considered where the DACs and ADCs of the transmitter and the receiver are assumed to be one-bit and in the second, a network of analog phase shifters is added at the receiver as an additional analog-only processing step with the view to mitigate some of the effects of coarse quantization. The precoding design problem is formulated and then split into two NP-hard optimization problems, which are solved by an algorithmic solution based on the Cyclic Coordinate Descent (CCD) framework. The design of the analog post-coding matrix for the second architecture is decoupled from the precoding design and is solved by an algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical results show that the proposed precoding scheme successfully mitigates the effects of coarse quantization and the proposed systems achieve a performance close to that of systems equipped with full resolution DACs/ADCs. [less ▲]

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