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See detailAll evidence is equal, but electronic evidence is more equal than any other: The relationship between the European Investigation Order and the European Production Order
Tosza, Stanislaw UL

in New Journal of European Criminal Law (2020), 11(2),

The European Investigation Order (EIO) was supposed to offer a comprehensive solution to cross-border gathering of evidence within the area of freedom, security and justice replacing a patchwork of ... [more ▼]

The European Investigation Order (EIO) was supposed to offer a comprehensive solution to cross-border gathering of evidence within the area of freedom, security and justice replacing a patchwork of instruments and providing for one single standardised order for all types of evidence. However, not even a year since the deadline for its implementation had passed, the Commission proposed an instrument that would be applicable for electronic evidence: European Production Order (EPO). This initiative was born from an increasing frustration in gathering this type of evidence and the conviction that the EIO is not suitable for that purpose. The need for digital evidence (according to the estimate of the EU Commission, 85% of criminal investigations require electronic evidence) is a direct consequence of the place information and communication technology has taken in everyday life. However, electronic evidence differs in a number of ways from ‘real-life’ evidence rendering current legal framework extremely impractical for law enforcement. One of the major obstacles that law enforcement authorities encounter is the fact that the data they need are often stored abroad or by a foreign service provider. Both instruments were conceived because of the need to gather evidence across borders; however, the transnational component is different (evidence being abroad vs. service provider being foreign). Both instruments subject ‘European citizens to the investigative machinery of any other Member State’, however, in a different way. If the e-evidence package is adopted, it will create a dual system of cross-border gathering of evidence, with different philosophy, procedure, enforcement and protective framework. The goal of this article is to analyse and compare two different models of acquiring evidence that these two instruments offer as well as to delimitate their (non-exclusive) scope. The concluding part will provide a reflection on the systemic consequences of this duality of instruments and of introducing the EPO model in particular. [less ▲]

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See detailEurojust: mechanisms controlling the agency for coordination and cooperation in criminal matters
Tosza, Stanislaw UL; Huisjes, Tom

in Brenninkmeijer, Alex; Scholten, Miroslava (Eds.) Controlling EU Agencies: The Rule of Law in a Multi-jurisdictional Legal Order (2020)

Eurojust is the EU agency responsible for coordination and cooperation in criminal matters, bringing together investigative and prosecuting judicial authorities. Its main tasks are: coordinating ... [more ▼]

Eurojust is the EU agency responsible for coordination and cooperation in criminal matters, bringing together investigative and prosecuting judicial authorities. Its main tasks are: coordinating operational activities of national authorities, facilitating the exchange of information between them and providing logistical support. Although its binding powers are limited, they have increased with the new Regulation 2018/1727, e.g. concerning forum choices: where to prosecute and in which Member State to use investigative measures. The new Regulation also improved the accountability mechanisms of Eurojust, adapting it to the Treaty of Lisbon standards. The question whether these mechanisms are sufficient remains, however. This chapter presents the powers of Eurojust and analyses its accountability mechanisms. The chapter focuses on the changes the new Regulation introduces, examines the potential lacunae and offers a reflection on challenges and potential solutions for Eurojust’s accountability. [less ▲]

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See detailMutual recognition by private actors in criminal justice? Service providers as gatekeepers of data and human rights obligations
Tosza, Stanislaw UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

A large number of criminal offences, not only cybercrime, is currently committed in a way that leaves digital traces which can serve as evidence. This data is in possession of service providers, often ... [more ▼]

A large number of criminal offences, not only cybercrime, is currently committed in a way that leaves digital traces which can serve as evidence. This data is in possession of service providers, often located abroad. The current model of cross-border gathering of evidence, based on mutual legal assistance, is considered too cumbersome and lengthy for the digital world. Similar reservations are made as regards the European Investigation Order. In response the EU Commission proposed the so-called e-evidence initiative. Based on mutual recognition, the new European Production Order would allow law enforcement in one Member State to request Internet service providers in another Member State to provide requested data in principle without involvement of the authorities of the latter state. This new system is a legal revolution at various levels, including its significant impact on the service providers offering services in the EU, redefining their duties towards law enforcement and influencing the relationship with their customers. This article examines the paradigm shift caused by that instrument and its consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailLiquid Crystals at Interfaces and Under Flow: Recent Advances and Trends
Sengupta, Anupam UL; Mazza, Marco G

in Sengupta, Anupam; Mazza, Marco G (Eds.) Liquid Crystals at Interfaces and Under Flow: Recent Advances and Trends (2020)

Liquid crystals (LCs) have attracted enormous interest because of the variety of their phases and richness of their applications. Here, we revisit a selection of recent results that highlight the ... [more ▼]

Liquid crystals (LCs) have attracted enormous interest because of the variety of their phases and richness of their applications. Here, we revisit a selection of recent results that highlight the interplay between general physical symmetries, confinements (induced by solid interfaces),and microfluidic environments that reveal a range of intriguing phenomena. We start the chapter with recent results on nematic reentrancy under confinement to nanoscopic scales. Thereafter, we focus on the complex interplay of confinement and surface anchoring conditions that engenders topological defect structures in both nematics and cholesterics. We review how hydrodynamic flow interacts with the LC director,deforms topological defect lines, and ushers in a surprising behavior:low Reynolds number cavitation. Finally, we showcase recent results on the complex interaction between colloidal inclusions embedded in flowing LCs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)
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See detailArtificial Intelligence Designated as Inventor – An Analysis of the Recent EPO Case Law.
Stierle, Martin UL

in Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht. Internationaler Teil (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 UL)
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See detailNeues von der patentrechtlichen Zwangslizenz. Ein Überblick anlässlich BGH „Alirocumab“.
Stierle, Martin UL

in Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht (2020)

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See detailZum Unverhältnismäßigkeitsvorbehalt im patentrechtlichen Unterlassungsrecht.
Stierle, Martin UL

in Mitteilungen der Patentanwälte (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 UL)
See detailMit Kindern in den Himmel schauen. Ideen für den Unterricht.
Te Heesen, Kerstin UL; Heinericy, Sandy; Kneip, Nora et al

Book published by SCRIPT (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 UL)
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See detailUnbundling, Regulation, and Pricing: Evidence from Electricity Distribution
Heim, Sven; Krieger, Bastian UL; Liebensteiner, Mario

in Energy Journal (2020), 41

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 UL)
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See detail. Consumer Law and Policy Relating to Change of Circumstances
Poillot, Elise UL; Micklitz, Hans; Howells, Geraint et al

in Journal of Consumer Policy (2020), 43

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 UL)
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See detailIn which regions do governmental, independent, and corporate venture capital firms invest? An empirical investigation across 402 German regions
Masiak, Christian; Fisch, Christian UL; Block, Jörn

in Moritz, Alexandra; Block, Jörn; Golla, Stephan (Eds.) et al Contemporary Developments in Entrepreneurial Finance (2020)

We analyze the distribution of venture capital (VC) investments across German regions and explore the geographical determinants of these investments. So far, little is known about the regional ... [more ▼]

We analyze the distribution of venture capital (VC) investments across German regions and explore the geographical determinants of these investments. So far, little is known about the regional determinants of governmental (GVC), independent (IVC), and corporate (CVC) VC firms and about whether these types of VC firms invest in different regions. Combining a dataset of 402 German districts, our regressions show that regions with a higher supply of human capital and knowledge creators attract a significantly higher number of GVC investments. Moreover, we find a significant difference in economically weaker regions but do not find a metropolitan bias. Hence, GVC firms do not invest more frequently in rural regions per se and do not prevent regional disparities more often than other types of VC firms. The implications of these findings for high-tech firms and regional policy are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailReligion and entrepreneurship: a map of the field and a bibliometric analysis
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Rehan, Farooq

in Management Review Quarterly (2020), 70(4), 591-627

Research concerning religion and entrepreneurship has greatly increased over the last years and is scattered across various academic disciplines and fields. To provide an overview, we conduct a systematic ... [more ▼]

Research concerning religion and entrepreneurship has greatly increased over the last years and is scattered across various academic disciplines and fields. To provide an overview, we conduct a systematic literature search leading to a descriptive overview of the field based on 270 articles published in 163 journals. We identify and characterize the most important publications, journals, and authors in the field and map the analyzed religions and regions. Then, we perform a bibliometric analysis to structure the field and identify thematic clusters and author and journal interconnections and networks. Our study provides a better understanding of the field of religion and entrepreneurship research and, based on these results, outlines avenues for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailEight tips and questions for your bibliographic study in business and management research
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL

in Management Review Quarterly (2020), 70(3), 307-312

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 UL)
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See detailBeyond Digitizing
Takats, Sean UL

in Burrows, Simon; Roe, Glenn (Eds.) Digitizing Enlightenment: Digital Humanities and the Transformation of Eighteenth-century Studies (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (2 UL)
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See detailRobotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2019
Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter UL; Brüls, Olivier et al

Book published by Shaker - 3 (2020)

Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) is held in University of Liège, Belgium, during June 05, 2019. The topics concerned by RACIR are: robot design, robot kinematics/dynamics/control ... [more ▼]

Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) is held in University of Liège, Belgium, during June 05, 2019. The topics concerned by RACIR are: robot design, robot kinematics/dynamics/control, system integration, sensor/ actuator networks, distributed and cloud robotics, bio-inspired systems, service robots, robotics in automation, biomedical applications, autonomous vehicles (land, sea and air), robot perception, manipulation with multi-finger hands, micro/nano systems, sensor information, robot vision, multimodal interface and human-robot interaction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL)
See detailOPCVM
Riassetto, Isabelle UL

in Lamy Droit du financement (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 UL)