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See detailThe ESP estimator
Holcblat, Benjamin UL; Sowell, Fallaw

Scientific Conference (2020, August 17)

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See detailMultilingualism in Luxembourg:(Dis)empowering Cape Verdean migrants at work and beyond
Tavares, Bernardino UL

in International Journal of the Sociology of Language (2020), 2020(264), 95-114

This paper explores the entanglement of language with issues such as discrimination and the reproduction of social hierarchies. It unpacks this interplay to show how the use and abuse of language serve as ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the entanglement of language with issues such as discrimination and the reproduction of social hierarchies. It unpacks this interplay to show how the use and abuse of language serve as the main mechanism of inclusion, exclusion and limitation of migrants in the labour market, contributing to certain migrant groups and their descendants remaining in the bottom stratum of society. It investigates how language use can both empower and disqualify migrants, creating ethnic pools of work. This paper draws on interviews with a successful middle-aged Cape Verdean man, Pedrinhu, to illustrate this language impact. He came to Luxembourg at a young age and his sports skills helped him to be fast-tracked to acquire Luxembourgish citizenship. He talks about his migration trajectories, his sociolinguistic life and his job interactions with Cape Verdean workers at a private employment enterprise where he now holds a high position. He seeks “to empower” Cape Verdean migrants, challenging some of the institutionalised linguistic demands of the state employment agency he collaborates with; at the same time, he is aware of the reproduction of inequality and the ethnic stratification of his enterprise. The paper concludes by highlighting the ambivalences of multilingualism and empowerment interventions in accessing resources, such as work, in the condensed migration contexts of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detail100 лет русской школе зарубежом: Люксембург
Ganschow, Inna UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The article provides an overview of different types of schools, teachers and their methods of teaching Russian in Luxembourg over the past 100 years. A distinction is made between the affiliation of ... [more ▼]

The article provides an overview of different types of schools, teachers and their methods of teaching Russian in Luxembourg over the past 100 years. A distinction is made between the affiliation of schools and the values that they try to convey along with the Russian language. The article analyzes the motivation of parents and teachers in the transfer of oral or written knowledge of the native language. [less ▲]

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See detailHatt oder si? Genuszuweisung bei weiblicher Personenreferenz im Luxemburgischen und Moselfränkischen
Martin, Sara UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

In Luxembourgish and Moselle Franconian, as well as in various other German, Swiss German and Dutch dialects, it is possible to assign the feminine and neuter genders to female individuals. The neuter ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourgish and Moselle Franconian, as well as in various other German, Swiss German and Dutch dialects, it is possible to assign the feminine and neuter genders to female individuals. The neuter gender of female first names is strongly grammaticalized in both Luxembourgish and Moselle Franconian, so that they mostly trigger the neuter gender on their targets (e.g. definite articles, personal pronouns). At the same time, the use of the neuter gender is not limited to the use of female first names. Rather, personal pronouns can also be used in reference to female appellatives, female kinship terms, and combinations of a female first name with a last name. Moreover, gender assignment is determined by socio-pragmatic factors (e.g. age, familiarity) and shows a high degree of variation in some reference contexts. The aim of the present study is to provide a first major empirical and comprehensive presentation of this phenomenon in both varieties, taking into account different socio-pragmatic factors and various reference contexts. The results are based on quantitative elicited data retrieved from an online survey and audio recordings collected by means of the Luxembourgish language app Schnëssen, as well as qualitative data from structured interviews involving different descriptive tasks. The collection of the data was undertaken at different localities in the area under investigation. While it was found that the use of neuter in Moselle Franconian is more closely tied to the personal relationship between the speaker and the referent, it is partly possible in Luxembourgish to refer to female public figures using neuter forms. Additionally, an apparent-time analysis for Luxembourgish makes it possible to identify differences between the different age groups of the speakers. It becomes apparent that there is a tendency for younger speakers to prefer neutral gender assignment in variable reference contexts. This also applies to exophoric reference contexts to female individuals without a given reference noun, in which neuter seems to become prevalent as a sort of default gender. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of Achievement inequalities: the role of performance and choice in Chile
Ceron, Francisco UL; Bol, Thijs; Van de Werfhorst, Herman

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Research on education inequalities has long-established the relationship between the social composition of of schools and achievement levels. However, the empirical study of the social processes in ... [more ▼]

Research on education inequalities has long-established the relationship between the social composition of of schools and achievement levels. However, the empirical study of the social processes in choosing schools and their potential effects on achievement inequalities has often been neglected. This article investigates the extent to which such social processes, related to parents’ educational preferences and expectations, influence the development of students’ achievement inequalities throughout their schooling career, through shaping school communities, as a channel of transmission of socioeconomic inequality. Using longitudinal census data from Chile, which allows us to observe students’ achievements between the 4th and 10th grades, we find support for the claim that the development of achievement inequalities operate partly through well-off parents’ educational preferences and expectations. Moreover, these preferences and beliefs explain most of the social composition effect of schools on achievement inequalities. We conclude that choice processes should be considered as an integral part of theories aimed to explain achievement inequalities as a dynamic process. [less ▲]

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See detailCross national variation in the impact of COVID-19 on children and education
Coghill, David; Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL et al

Presentation (2020, July 07)

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See detailSTUDY OF COMPLEX FERROIC OXIDES BY LARGE-SCALE FIRST-PRINCIPLES SIMULATIONS
Pereira Gonçalves, Mauro António UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The main goal of this thesis was to explore the possibility that ferroelectric materials, characterized by a spontaneous and switchable electric polarization, may present topologically non-trivial ... [more ▼]

The main goal of this thesis was to explore the possibility that ferroelectric materials, characterized by a spontaneous and switchable electric polarization, may present topologically non-trivial structures akin to the skyrmions that occur in their ferromagnetic counterparts. The main tool used in the investigation was atomistic simulation based of first-principles effective models (“second-principles methods”), applied to two model systems: ferroelectric PbTiO3 and ferroelectric/paraelectric superlattices made of PbTiO3 and SrTiO3. More precisely, the simulations were used to analyze multidomain configurations in these compounds, motivated by previous reports that they may present non-trivial structural features. The main finding of the thesis is that, indeed, a simple multidomain configuration in PbTiO3 – namely, a columnar nanodomain with polarization opposed to that of its surrounding matrix – is sufficient to generate a dipole texture – associated to the rotation of the polarization at the domain wall between nanodomain and matrix – with the topology of a skyrmion. This constitutes the first prediction of an electric skyrmion in a simple ferroelectric material. Further, it is shown that the properties and topology of this skyrmion can be tuned by external electric and elastic fields, as well as by temperature, obtaining novel effects such as topological and iso-topological phase transitions. Finally, the investigation of the PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices reveals that the skyrmion structures can be obtained as the ground state solution for such systems. This latter study was developed in the context of a collaboration with experimental groups at UC Berkeley and elsewhere, which led to the first experimental confirmation of electric skyrmions. Hence, in conclusion, the theoretical work in this thesis has been an integral part of the discovery of electric skyrmions in ferroelectric materials. [less ▲]

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See detailCampo nuevo, prácticas viejas: promesas y desafíos de la historia pública
Cauvin, Thomas UL

in HISPANIA NOVA (2020), 1(Nº 1 Extraordinario. Año 2020), 7-51

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See detailGreat apes selectively retrieve relevant memories to guide action
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; Johansson, Mikael; Osvath, Mathias

in Scientific Reports (2020)

Memory allows us to draw on past experiences to inform behaviour in the present. However, memories rarely match the situation at hand exactly, and new situations regularly trigger multiple related ... [more ▼]

Memory allows us to draw on past experiences to inform behaviour in the present. However, memories rarely match the situation at hand exactly, and new situations regularly trigger multiple related memories where only some are relevant to act upon. The flexibility of human memory systems is largely attributed to the ability to disregard irrelevant, but salient, memories in favour of relevant ones. This is considered an expression of an executive function responsible for suppressing irrelevant memories, associated with the prefrontal cortex. It is unclear to what extent animals have access to this ability. Here, we demonstrate, in a series of tool-use tasks designed to evoke conflicting memories, that chimpanzees and an orangutan suffer from this conflict but overcome it in favour of a more relevant memory. Such mnemonic flexibility is among the most advanced expressions of executive function shown in animals to date and might explain several behaviours related to tool-use, innovation, planning and more. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking History Together: Public History and Digital Memories during COVID-19
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2020, June 17)

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See detailThe Significance of Non-conceptual Mental Content in Kant's Aesthetics
Turai, Katalin UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

This work is an in depth investigation of the nature of aesthetic appreciation in Kant`s aesthetics and the role of non-conceptual mental content in producing artwork. My thesis argues for a number of ... [more ▼]

This work is an in depth investigation of the nature of aesthetic appreciation in Kant`s aesthetics and the role of non-conceptual mental content in producing artwork. My thesis argues for a number of claims in this respect. Firstly, I define aesthetic attention, and contend that aesthetic attention is a spontaneously chosen mental state focussed on non-conceptual sensible representations i.e. intuitions, which differ in kind from conceptual representations. Second, I observe that aesthetic attention may start off a mental process, which Kant calls free play, which is felt as aesthetic pleasure. Thirdly, I observe that aesthetic pleasure is a cognitive feeling, which is nonconceptual mental content in its own right, since it is a feeling having distinctive phenomenal, intentional and representational features, which distinguish it from other pleasures. Aesthetic pleasure is a feeling, which stems from the harmonious working together of the imagination and the understanding, I contend that in this activity the imagination participates both as a receptive and a spontaneous faculty. Aesthetic cognitive feeling thus brings together the receptive and the spontaneous powers of the perceiver thereby producing a feeling of unity. My thesis investigates the significance of such aesthetic cognitive feeling, notably, how in the reading of Francois Lyotard the harmonious feeling experienced on the occasion of a beautiful object promises the unification of Kant`s subject, who in terms of his analyses, which my paper presents, is divided. Finally, my work considers how cognitive feeling as non-conceptual mental content and the non-conceptual connecting of sensible representations play a role in the creative work of the artist, when producing aesthetic ideas and works, which have beautiful form. [less ▲]

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See detailTexte zur Kunst
KELM, ANNETTE; OEHLEN, ALBERT; RUFF, THOMAS et al

Article for general public (2020)

Putting together an issue on algorithms as a pandemic is raging can feel like a performative act. The more uncertain our ability to contain the virus is, the more predictable and controllable our actions ... [more ▼]

Putting together an issue on algorithms as a pandemic is raging can feel like a performative act. The more uncertain our ability to contain the virus is, the more predictable and controllable our actions must be to curb its spread. However, predictability and regularity are key features of both the IT-based and social algorithms that govern our lives. In analyzing and discussing the influence of algorithms along social differences, this issue of Texte zur Kunst homes in on highly various aesthetic practices in order to pinpoint those differences. These practices are hardly limited to what is conventionally described as art, let alone high art, yet each contribution is very clear on one crucial point: the life of society keeps eluding the figures – the numbers, images, and ideas – that circulate about it. [less ▲]

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See detailLow SLA violation and Low Energy consumption using VM Consolidation in Green Cloud Data Centers
Chou, Hung-Pu UL; Chou, Hong-fu

Report (2020)

Virtual Machines (VM) consolidation is an efficient way towards energy conservation in cloud data centers. The VM consolidation technique is applied to migrate VMs into lesser number of active Physical ... [more ▼]

Virtual Machines (VM) consolidation is an efficient way towards energy conservation in cloud data centers. The VM consolidation technique is applied to migrate VMs into lesser number of active Physical Machines (PMs), so that the PMs which have no VMs can be turned into sleep state. VM consolidation technique can reduce energy consumption of cloud data centers because of the energy consumption by the PM which is in sleep state. Because of VMs sharing the underlying physical resources, aggressive consolidation of VMs can lead to performance degradation. Furthermore, an application may encounter an unexpected resources requirement which may lead to increased response times or even failures. Before providing cloud services, cloud providers should sign Service Level Agreements (SLA) with customers. To provide reliable Quality of Service (QoS) for cloud providers is quite important of considering this research topic. To strike a tradeoff between energy and performance, minimizing energy consumption on the premise of meeting SLA is considered. One of the optimization challenges is to decide which VMs to migrate, when to migrate, where to migrate, and when and which servers to turn on/off. To achieve this goal optimally, it is important to predict the future host state accurately and make plan for migration of VMs based on the prediction. For example, if a host will be overloaded at next time unit, some VMs should be migrated from the host to keep the host from overloading, and if a host will be underloaded at next time unit, all VMs should be migrated from the host, so that the host can be turned off to save power. The design goal of the controller is to achieve the balance between server energy consumption and application performance. Because of the heterogeneity of cloud resources and various applications in the cloud environment, the workload on hosts is dynamically changing over time. It is essential to develop accurate workload prediction models for effective resource management and allocation. The disadvantage of VM consolidation process in cloud data centers is that they only concentrate on primitive system characteristics such as CPU utilization, memory and the number of active hosts. When originating their models and approaches as the decisive factors, these characteristics ignore the discrepancy in performance-to-power efficiency between heterogeneous infrastructures. Therefore, this is the reason that leads to unreasonable consolidation which may cause redundant number of VM migrations and energy waste. Advance artificial intelligence such as reinforcement learning can learn a management strategy without prior knowledge, which enables us to design a model-free resource allocation control system. For example, VM consolidation could be predicted by using artificial intelligence rather than based on the current resources utilization usage [less ▲]

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See detailTax Regulation of the Tobacco Products Market in the Conditions of its Transformation
Koshchuk, Tetiana; Korotun, Volodymyr; Novytska, Nadiia UL et al

Book published by University of the State Fiscal Service of Ukraine (2020)

This work covers the challenges of excise duty collection from tobacco products and nicotine-containing products, driven by the tobacco market development. It also studies the in-depth theoretical basis ... [more ▼]

This work covers the challenges of excise duty collection from tobacco products and nicotine-containing products, driven by the tobacco market development. It also studies the in-depth theoretical basis of excise taxation of heated tobacco products and e-cigarettes in the context of achieving fiscal and regulatory goals. It describes the types and general approaches to the classification of novel tobacco products and nicotine-containing products. This research determines the tendencies and features of excise duty collection from heated tobacco products and e-cigarettes in EU countries in terms of broader distribution of these products on national markets. It describes specific aspects of the tobacco products excise policy in Moldova and Georgia. It also analyzes the specifics of the transformation of domestic tobacco products market due to the high excise duty burden carried by these products. The work also proposes ways of improving excise taxation of heated tobacco products and e-cigarettes in Ukraine to pump up the budget and regulate the tobacco market development. The survey findings can be useful to the state agencies and a broad range of other stakeholders when developing proposals regarding the formation and implementation of the excise policy for tobacco products and alternatives [less ▲]

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See detailMesure pour mesure de William Shakespeare dans une mise en scène de Jean-Yves Ruf 2008, MC93 de Bobigny
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

in Théâtres du Monde (2020), 4

En novembre 2008, Jean-Yves Ruf propose au MC93 de Bobigny sa mise en scène de Mesure pour mesure de William Shakespeare. Cette pièce est considérée comme un poème immontable, rarement monté, complexe et ... [more ▼]

En novembre 2008, Jean-Yves Ruf propose au MC93 de Bobigny sa mise en scène de Mesure pour mesure de William Shakespeare. Cette pièce est considérée comme un poème immontable, rarement monté, complexe et malaisé à définir, tant il mêle la comédie à la pastorale, à la farce et à la tragédie. Cette pièce met au jour toutes les contradictions humaines. Le puritain Angelo fait l’expérience de la violence d’un désir irrationnel tandis qu’Isabelle n’entend pas sacrifier son honneur pour avoir l’opportunité de sauver son frère Claudio. Face à la montée des intégrismes, Jean-Yves Ruf souhaite donner à entendre au public les interrogations shakespeariennes, qui demeurent extrêmement actuelles. Notre article est divisé en deux parties. Nous nous attardons, dans un premier temps, sur « l’impureté générique », caractéristique de Mesure pour mesure. Nous nous focalisons, dans un second temps, sur le duo Angelo / Isabelle, lequel constitue le cœur de cette mise en scène. [less ▲]

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See detailA Floresta Que Anda (La Forêt qui marche), création de Christiane Jatahy, inspirée par Macbeth de William Shakespeare (2016)
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

in Théâtres du Monde (2020), 4

A Floresta que anda (La Forêt qui marche) est le titre de la création proposée, en 2016, par Christiane Jatahy au Cent-Quatre à Paris, librement inspirée par Macbeth de William Shakespeare. Il s’agit ... [more ▼]

A Floresta que anda (La Forêt qui marche) est le titre de la création proposée, en 2016, par Christiane Jatahy au Cent-Quatre à Paris, librement inspirée par Macbeth de William Shakespeare. Il s’agit d’une installation ou plus précisément de la construction d’un espace au sein duquel se déplacent les « spect-acteurs ». Dans cette " salle d’exposition " créée pour l’occasion, il existe une structure d’écrans mobiles reliés, chacun, à un vidéoprojecteur qui diffuse une vidéo différente afin de faire entendre la voix des exclus. Tout commence par un documentaire et une vidéo d’installation. Il s’agit en somme d’un mélange de théâtre, de performance et d’exposition d’art vidéo. Dans ce cadre spécifique, les sorcières, représentation du surnaturel dans Macbeth , sont incarnées par Christiane Jatahy lorsqu’elle s’adresse aux spectateurs et délivre cette œuvre au public. Lady Macbeth, quant à elle, symbolise le pouvoir assassin, le désir d’enrichissement et « la luxure inextinguible du pouvoir qui s’autoalimente » . Quant à Macbeth, il devient un personnage contemporain qu’il y a lieu de chercher dans le réel et non pas uniquement dans la fiction. Macbeth représente le système social, économique et politique dans lequel nous vivons aujourd’hui et qui est tout aussi pervers que le personnage en lui-même. Comment Christiane Jatahy procède-t-elle pour adapter Macbeth ? Quelle est sa manière de travailler avec les acteurs pour en arriver à brouiller les rapports entre les personnes physiques et les personnages fictifs ? Comment un vrai parti pris esthétique et dramaturgique apparaît-il ? Comment le cinéma influence-t-il le théâtre et vice versa ? Comment apparaît cette « ligne ténue entre réalité et fiction » , laquelle étonne et déroute les « spect-acteurs » ? C’est précisément à toutes ces questions auxquelles nous répondons dans cet article. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Persistence of Fee Dispersion among Mutual Funds
Halling, Michael UL; Cooper, Michael; Yang, Wenhao

in The Persistence of Fee Dispersion among Mutual Funds (2020)

Previous work shows large differences in fees for S&P 500 index funds and other funds, and suggests that investors suffer wealth losses investing in high-fee funds when similar low-fee funds are available ... [more ▼]

Previous work shows large differences in fees for S&P 500 index funds and other funds, and suggests that investors suffer wealth losses investing in high-fee funds when similar low-fee funds are available. In contrast, the neoclassical model of mutual funds (Berk and van Binsbergen, 2015) argues that percentage fees are irrelevant, as fund size will adjust in equilibrium such that net alphas are equal to zero. We show that fees matter from an investor perspective. We document (a) a strong negative association between net-of-fee fund performance and fees in a sample of all US and international equity funds, (b) economically large, robust, persistent, and pervasive fee dispersion in the mutual fund industry, and (c) important economic effects for investors. During the sample period, the mutual fund industry has generated a total value lost (i.e., a negative net value added) of 125 billion USD, coming predominantly from high-fee funds. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical solution of the dynamical mean field theory of infinite-dimensional equilibrium liquids
Manacorda, Alessandro UL; Schehr, Grégory; Zamponi, Francesco

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2020)

We present a numerical solution of the dynamical mean field theory of infinite-dimensional equilibrium liquids established in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 015902 (2016)]. For soft sphere interactions, we obtain ... [more ▼]

We present a numerical solution of the dynamical mean field theory of infinite-dimensional equilibrium liquids established in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 015902 (2016)]. For soft sphere interactions, we obtain the numerical solution by an iterative algorithm and a straightforward discretization of time. We also discuss the case of hard spheres, for which we first derive analytically the dynamical mean field theory as a non-trivial limit of the soft sphere one. We present numerical results for the memory function and the mean square displacement. Our results reproduce and extend kinetic theory in the dilute or short-time limit, while they also describe dynamical arrest towards the glass phase in the dense strongly-interacting regime. [less ▲]

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See detailRecalibrating the International Investment Regime through Narrowed Jurisdiction
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

in International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2020)

The legitimacy crisis confronting the international investment regime has called for reforms to eliminate the asymmetric and troubled nature of investment treaties. These instruments grant extensive ... [more ▼]

The legitimacy crisis confronting the international investment regime has called for reforms to eliminate the asymmetric and troubled nature of investment treaties. These instruments grant extensive investor protections without offering reciprocal safeguards for host States wishing to preserve regulatory space. This article argues that any reform designed to redress imbalances in the existing regime should first aim at narrowing the personal jurisdiction of investment tribunals. Problematically, access to most investment treaties depends on broad nationality requirements, which have enabled investors to use corporations or passports of convenience to obtain treaty protection. This practice exacerbates the unbalanced relationship between host States and investors. It increases host States’ exposure to investment treaty claims and allows investors to circumvent newer, more State-oriented investment treaties. Using as an example the novel anti-nationality planning approach embraced in the 2019 Dutch Model BIT, this article suggests effective treaty mechanisms that States can adopt to restrict the range of investors that are entitled to claim. [less ▲]

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