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See detailA transgenic line that reports CSF1R protein expression provides a definitive marker for the mouse mononuclear phagocyte system
Grabert, Kathleen; Sehgal, Anuj; Irvine, Katherine et al

in Journal of Immunology (2020), 205(11), 3154-3166

The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS; progenitors, monocytes, macrophages, and classical dendritic cells) are controlled by signals from the M ... [more ▼]

The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS; progenitors, monocytes, macrophages, and classical dendritic cells) are controlled by signals from the M-CSF receptor (CSF1R). Cells of the MPS lineage have been identified using numerous surface markers and transgenic reporters, but none is both universal and lineage restricted. In this article, we report the development and characterization of a CSF1R reporter mouse. A FusionRed (FRed) cassette was inserted in-frame with the C terminus of CSF1R, separated by a T2A-cleavable linker. The insertion had no effect of CSF1R expression or function. CSF1R-FRed was expressed in monocytes and macrophages and absent from granulocytes and lymphocytes. In bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was absent in lineage-negative hematopoietic stem cells, arguing against a direct role for CSF1R in myeloid lineage commitment. It was highly expressed in marrow monocytes and common myeloid progenitors but significantly lower in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. In sections of bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was also detected in osteoclasts, CD169+ resident macrophages, and, consistent with previous mRNA analysis, in megakaryocytes. In lymphoid tissues, CSF1R-FRed highlighted diverse MPS populations, including classical dendritic cells. Whole mount imaging of nonlymphoid tissues in mice with combined CSF1R-FRed/Csf1r-EGFP confirmed the restriction of CSF1R expression to MPS cells. The two markers highlight the remarkable abundance and regular distribution of tissue MPS cells, including novel macrophage populations within tendon and skeletal muscle and underlying the mesothelial/serosal/capsular surfaces of every major organ. The CSF1R-FRed mouse provides a novel reporter with exquisite specificity for cells of the MPS. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural Heritage Archives and Research Prospects
Janz, Nina UL

Presentation (2020, November 27)

Cultural Heritage - Definitions and Approach in Archives and in Academic Research

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See detailPatterns and Drivers of Extracellular Enzyme Activity in New Zealand Glacier-Fed Streams
Kohler, Tyler J.; Peter, Hannes; Fodelianakis, Stilianos et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2020), 11

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) exhibit near-freezing temperatures, variable flows, and often high turbidities. Currently, the rapid shrinkage of mountain glaciers is altering the delivery of meltwater ... [more ▼]

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) exhibit near-freezing temperatures, variable flows, and often high turbidities. Currently, the rapid shrinkage of mountain glaciers is altering the delivery of meltwater, solutes, and particulate matter to GFSs, with unknown consequences for their ecology. Benthic biofilms dominate microbial life in GFSs, and play a major role in their biogeochemical cycling. Mineralization is likely an important process for microbes to meet elemental budgets in these systems due to commonly oligotrophic conditions, and extracellular enzymes retained within the biofilm enable the degradation of organic matter and acquisition of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). The measurement and comparison of these extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) can in turn provide insight into microbial elemental acquisition effort relative to environmental availability. To better understand how benthic biofilm communities meet resource demands, and how this might shift as glaciers vanish under climate change, we investigated biofilm EEA in 20 GFSs varying in glacier influence from New Zealand’s Southern Alps. Using turbidity and distance to the glacier snout normalized for glacier size as proxies for glacier influence, we found that bacterial abundance (BA), chlorophyll a (Chl a), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and total EEA per gram of sediment increased with decreasing glacier influence. Yet, when normalized by BA, EPS decreased with decreasing glacier influence, Chl a still increased, and there was no relationship with total EEA. Based on EEA ratios, we found that the majority of GFS microbial communities were N-limited, with a few streams of different underlying bedrock geology exhibiting P-limitation. Cell-specific C-acquiring EEA was positively related to the ratio of Chl a to BA, presumably reflecting the utilization of algal exudates. Meanwhile, cell-specific N-acquiring EEA were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and both N- and P-acquiring EEA increased with greater cell-specific EPS. Overall, our results reveal greater glacier influence to be negatively related to GFS biofilm biomass parameters, and generally associated with greater microbial N demand. These results help to illuminate the ecology of GFS biofilms, along with their biogeochemical response to a shifting habitat template with ongoing climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen the score function is the identity function - A tale of characterizations of the normal distribution
Ley, Christophe UL

in Econometrics and Statistics (2020)

The normal distribution is well-known for several results that it is the only to fulfil. Much less well-known is the fact that many of these characterizations follow from the fact that the derivative of ... [more ▼]

The normal distribution is well-known for several results that it is the only to fulfil. Much less well-known is the fact that many of these characterizations follow from the fact that the derivative of the log-density of the normal distribution is the (negative) identity function. This a priori very simple yet surprising observation allows a deeper understanding of existing characterizations and paves the way for an immediate extension of various seemingly normal-based characterizations to a general density by replacing the (negative) identity function in these results with the derivative of that log-density. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of antiepilepitic drug-target interactions in public databases
Zizovic, Milena UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2020)

Epilepsy is affecting people of all age and gender. The disease is traditionally treated with application of antiepileptic drugs. The therapy choice mostly relies on the differential diagnosis which is ... [more ▼]

Epilepsy is affecting people of all age and gender. The disease is traditionally treated with application of antiepileptic drugs. The therapy choice mostly relies on the differential diagnosis which is not always easy to be deducted. The treatment guidelines and antiepileptics are diverged according to major epilepsy types – generalized and focal epilepsy. However, prospective studies of antiepileptic drug effectiveness on the European cohort have shown that pharmacoresponse is patient dependent. In this thesis the antiepileptic drug prescription trend in this cohort in generalized and focal epilepsy patients was investigated. Moreover, the use of antiepileptics in the clinics from the EpiPGX database was compared to the findings of their use in general practices in the UK. To explain the difference in patient response to therapy AED-target interactions were investigated on the level of databases. In addition, with the discovery of new genes implicated in epilepsy and success of drugs of other groups such as quinidine and fampridine in treating the symptoms, the drug-repurposing found its application in epilepsy. In this thesis, quinidine-KCNT1 and fampridine-KCNA2 interactions were investigated in order to estimate the feasibility of using public databases to select drug-target interactions for clinical application. The investigation relied mainly on the ChEMBL database. However, these genes were not found among antiepileptic drug targets in the database. Quinidine and fampridine were assay associated with other AED targets. The results suggest that the therapy choice for treatment of rare forms of epilepsy underlined by channelopathies could be significantly expanded, but that database approach requires high level of drug-target selection criteria and text mining. [less ▲]

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See detailCommunication, public engagement and public history
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 06)

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See detailRound table: Museum of Self-isolation
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 06)

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See detailLightweight Post-quantum Key Encapsulation for 8-bit AVR Microcontrollers
Cheng, Hao UL; Groszschädl, Johann UL; Roenne, Peter UL et al

in Liardet, Pierre-Yvan; Mentens, Nele (Eds.) Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications, 19th International Conference, CARDIS 2020, Virtual Event, November 18–19, 2020, Revised Selected Papers (2020, November)

Recent progress in quantum computing has increased interest in the question of how well the existing proposals for post-quantum cryptosystems are suited to replace RSA and ECC. While some aspects of this ... [more ▼]

Recent progress in quantum computing has increased interest in the question of how well the existing proposals for post-quantum cryptosystems are suited to replace RSA and ECC. While some aspects of this question have already been researched in detail (e.g. the relative computational cost of pre- and post-quantum algorithms), very little is known about the RAM footprint of the proposals and what execution time they can reach when low memory consumption rather than speed is the main optimization goal. This question is particularly important in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) since many IoT devices are extremely constrained and possess only a few kB of RAM. We aim to contribute to answering this question by exploring the software design space of the lattice-based key-encapsulation scheme ThreeBears on an 8-bit AVR microcontroller. More concretely, we provide new techniques for the optimization of the ring arithmetic of ThreeBears (which is, in essence, a 3120-bit modular multiplication) to achieve either high speed or low RAM footprint, and we analyze in detail the trade-offs between these two metrics. A low-memory implementation of BabyBear that is secure against Chosen Plaintext Attacks (CPA) needs just about 1.7 kB RAM, which is significantly below the RAM footprint of other lattice-based cryptosystems reported in the literature. Yet, the encapsulation time of this RAM-optimized BabyBear version is below 12.5 million cycles, which is less than the execution time of scalar multiplication on Curve25519. The decapsulation is more than four times faster and takes roughly 3.4 million cycles on an ATmega1284 microcontroller. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Groupe de Coppet et l’écriture polémique. Introduction
Saintes, Laetitia UL

in Cahiers staëliens (2020), 70

Introduction au dossier "Le Groupe de Coppet et l'écriture polémique" des Cahiers staëliens 70 (2020).

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See detailDual Nationality: An International Law Perspective
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Presentation (2020, November)

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See detailGeoGebraTAO: Geometry Learning using a Dynamic Adaptive ICT-Enhanced Environment to Promote Strong Differentiation of Children’s Individual Pathways
Dording, Carole UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a focus on the individual learning pathways of a highly diverse ... [more ▼]

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a focus on the individual learning pathways of a highly diverse student population. A total of 164 children in Luxembourgish elementary schools, aged between 10 and 13 years, acted as the test group and explored elementary geometric concepts in a sequence of learning assignments created with GeoGebra, a dynamic mathematics system which is integrated into the computer-assisted testing framework TAO. They actively built new knowledge in an autonomous way and at their own pace with only minor support interventions by their teacher. Based on easily exploitable data collected within a sequence of exploratory learning assignments, the GEOGEBRATAO tool analyses the answers provided by the child and performs a diagnostic of the child’s competencies in geometry. With respect to this outcome, the tool manages to identify children struggling with geometry concepts and subsequently proposes a differentiated individual pathway through scaffolding and feedback practices. The children can voluntarily watch short video clips aimed to help them better understand any task that they might have difficulty with. A spaced repetition feature is another highly useful component of the tool. Pre- and post-test results show that the test group (working with the GEOGEBRATAO tool) and a parallel working control group (following a traditional paper-and-pencil geometry course), increased their geometry skills and knowledge through the training program, with the test group performing even better in items related to dynamic geometry. In addition, a more precise analysis within clusters based on similar performances in both pre- and post-tests and the child’s progress within the GEOGEBRATAO activities, provides evidence of some common ways of working with our educational technology tool, leading to overall improvement at an individualized level. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Law and the European Court of Justice: The Politics of Avoiding History
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Journal of the History of International Law (2020, October 21), 22(2-3), 446-472

Using the example of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), this article addresses the lack of historical contextualization which is prevalent in most general accounts of EU law and EU institutions. It ... [more ▼]

Using the example of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), this article addresses the lack of historical contextualization which is prevalent in most general accounts of EU law and EU institutions. It argues that this narrative is the result of a tradition established by the founders of the discipline. For these early ‘Euro-lawyers’, distinguishing the practice of European institutions from earlier international institutions had important political implications. This was especially true with regard to the ECJ. By providing a selective and partly decontextualized narrative of this court and describing it as largely unprecedented in international law, early Euro-lawyers were not only able to bolster the ‘supranational’ and ‘sui generis’ character of their nascent discipline. They were also able to avoid comparisons between the ECJ and prior international courts and tribunals whose similarly wide-ranging powers and integrated nature had been considered as politically problematic. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Public History à Esch
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2020, October 09)

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See detailUnderstanding Alpha Decay
Penasse, Julien UL

Presentation (2020, October 06)

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See detailSine-skewed toroidal distributions and their application in protein bioinformatics
Ley, Christophe UL; Ameijeiras-Alonso, Jose

in Biostatistics (2020)

In the bioinformatics field, there has been a growing interest in modeling dihedral angles of amino acids by viewing them as data on the torus. This has motivated, over the past years, new proposals of ... [more ▼]

In the bioinformatics field, there has been a growing interest in modeling dihedral angles of amino acids by viewing them as data on the torus. This has motivated, over the past years, new proposals of distributions on the torus. The main drawback of most of these models is that the related densities are (pointwise) symmetric, despite the fact that the data usually present asymmetric patterns. This motivates the need to find a new way of constructing asymmetric toroidal distributions starting from a symmetric distribution. We tackle this problem in this article by introducing the sine-skewed toroidal distributions. The general properties of the new models are derived. Based on the initial symmetric model, explicit expressions for the shape and dependence measures are obtained, a simple algorithm for generating random numbers is provided, and asymptotic results for the maximum likelihood estimators are established. An important feature of our construction is that no extra normalizing constant needs to be calculated, leading to more flexible distributions without increasing the complexity of the models. The benefit of employing these new sine-skewed toroidal distributions is shown on the basis of protein data, where, in general, the new models outperform their symmetric antecedents. [less ▲]

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See detailScience Meets Sports: When Statistics Are More Than Numbers
Ley, Christophe UL; Dominicy, Yves

Book published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing (2020)

This book presents the field of sports statistics to two very distinct target audiences, namely academicians, in order to raise their interest in this growing field, and, on the other hand, sports fans ... [more ▼]

This book presents the field of sports statistics to two very distinct target audiences, namely academicians, in order to raise their interest in this growing field, and, on the other hand, sports fans, who, even without advanced mathematical knowledge, will be able to understand the data analysis and gain new insights into their favourite sports. The book thus offers a unique perspective on this attractive topic by combining sports analytics, data visualisation and advanced statistical procedures to extract new findings from sports data such as improved rankings or prediction methods. Bringing together insights from football, tennis, basketball, track and field, and baseball, the book will appeal to aficionados of any sport, and, thanks to its cutting-edge data analysis tools, will provide the reader with completely new insights into their favourite sport in an engaging and user-friendly way. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-Throughput Elliptic Curve Cryptography Using AVX2 Vector Instructions
Cheng, Hao UL; Groszschädl, Johann UL; Tian, Jiaqi UL et al

in Dunkelman, Orr; Jacobson Jr., Michael J.; O'Flynn, Colin (Eds.) Selected Areas in Cryptography, 27th International Conference, Halifax, NS, Canada (Virtual Event), October 21-23, 2020, Revised Selected Papers (2020, October)

Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) execution engines like Intel’s Advanced Vector Extensions 2 (AVX2) offer a great potential to accelerate elliptic curve cryptography compared to implementations ... [more ▼]

Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) execution engines like Intel’s Advanced Vector Extensions 2 (AVX2) offer a great potential to accelerate elliptic curve cryptography compared to implementations using only basic x64 instructions. All existing AVX2 implementations of scalar multiplication on e.g. Curve25519 (and alternative curves) are optimized for low latency. We argue in this paper that many real-world applications, such as server-side SSL/TLS handshake processing, would benefit more from throughput-optimized implementations than latency-optimized ones. To support this argument, we introduce a throughput-optimized AVX2 implementation of variable-base scalar multiplication on Curve25519 and fixed-base scalar multiplication on Ed25519. Both implementations perform four scalar multiplications in parallel, where each uses a 64-bit element of a 256-bit vector. The field arithmetic is based on a radix-2^29 representation of the field elements, which makes it possible to carry out four parallel multiplications modulo a multiple of p=2^255−19 in just 88 cycles on a Skylake CPU. Four variable-base scalar multiplications on Curve25519 require less than 250,000 Skylake cycles, which translates to a throughput of 32,318 scalar multiplications per second at a clock frequency of 2 GHz. For comparison, the to-date best latency-optimized AVX2 implementation has a throughput of some 21,000 scalar multiplications per second on the same Skylake CPU. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (10 UL)