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See detailTwo centuries of music education in Luxembourg. 'Learning to teach' in the focus of two traditions
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 15)

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung ... [more ▼]

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung Luxemburgs – sie setzt für die musikalische Bildung um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts ein – ist das Wissen um den historischen Kontext unerlässlich. Publikationen erster musikpädagogischer Werke, in der Mehrzahl Liederbücher, werden mit didaktischen Anweisungen eingeleitet, stehen nicht selten unter der Einflussnahme der katholischen Kirche und werden in einschlägigen Publikationsorganen behandelt. Dabei spielt die Bewegung des Cäcilianismus eine herausgehobene Rolle. Der erste spezialisierte Musikunterricht (Instrumentalunterricht und Gesangsunterricht) erfolgt in Privatinitiative, bis im Jahr 1844 der Gemeinderat der Stadt Luxemburg der Gründung der ersten öffentlichen Musikschule im Großherzogtum zustimmt. Die Besetzung von Direktorenposten und Lehrern abwechselnd mit deutsch- und mit französischsprachigen Persönlichkeiten führt zu einem Sonderweg musikpädagogischen Wirkens. Seit dem Jahrhundertwechsel sind die Grundsteine des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts gelegt. Die geographische Nähe zum Pariser bzw. zum Brüsseler Konservatorium führen jedoch überwiegend zur Übernahme der dort vorherrschenden Traditionen. Das Thema des Symposiums 'Das Lehren lernen' bewahrheitet sich hier in der Negation. Angehende Lehrer sind zuerst Musiker, dann Lehrer. Das Erwerben von Expertise erfolgt vielfach durch Lernen in der Praxis. Diese Tendenz setzt sich z.T. bis heute fort. Studiengänge für musikpädagogische Praxis werden in französischsprachigen Ländern sehr spät angeboten und existieren in Luxemburg bis heute nicht. Auf der anderen Seite folgt der Musikunterricht (Gesangunterricht) in Grund- und Sekundarschulen eher der Vorgehensweise in deutschsprachigen Ländern. Die gegenseitige Beeinflussung im Fokus der beiden Traditionen ist in diesem Bereich weniger ausgeprägt. Für meinen Vortrag schlage ich einen historischen Überblick über die Entwicklung der Musikpädagogik in Luxemburg anhand von der Organisation des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts vor. Die Ausbildung der Lehrenden im Bereich der Kirchenmusik gehört als integrativer Bestandteil in den Vortrag mit einbezogen. [less ▲]

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See detailÉTRANGERS FAMILIERS Les travailleurs frontaliers en Suisse : Conceptualisation, Emploi, Quotidien et Pratiques
Bolzman, claudio; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Duchêne-Lacroix, Cédric

Book published by L'harmattan (2021)

Souvent appréciés, parfois décriés, les travailleurs frontaliers occupent une place importante dans le paysage économique, politique et social de Suisse. Dans certains cantons, ils constituent depuis ... [more ▼]

Souvent appréciés, parfois décriés, les travailleurs frontaliers occupent une place importante dans le paysage économique, politique et social de Suisse. Dans certains cantons, ils constituent depuis plusieurs décennies un des facteurs de la croissance économique. Pourtant, ils sont relativement peu connus. A cheval entre deux pays, leurs modes de vie, leur statut spécifique, leur pratique de la frontière interrogent. Ils sont ainsi qualifiés d’Etrangers familiers par les différents auteurs de cet ouvrage. Leur emploi, leur quotidien et leurs pratiques sont passés au crible, à la lumière d’entretiens mais également de données statistiques, révélant au passage la diversité des situations selon les cantons, et la grande variété des profils des frontaliers. C’est finalement tout un système organisé autour du travailleur frontalier lui-même qui est au cœur de cet ouvrage, retraçant l’emploi, le parcours des frontaliers, mais également leur quotidien et les questions relatives à leur intégration. [less ▲]

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See detailNonstandard n-distances based on certain geometric constructions
Kiss, Gergely; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The concept of n-distance was recently introduced to generalize the classical definition of distance to functions of n arguments. In this paper we investigate this concept through a number of examples ... [more ▼]

The concept of n-distance was recently introduced to generalize the classical definition of distance to functions of n arguments. In this paper we investigate this concept through a number of examples based on certain geometrical constructions. In particular, our study shows to which extent the computation of the best constant associated with an n-distance may sometimes be difficult and tricky. It also reveals that two important graph theoretical concepts, namely the total length of the Euclidean Steiner tree and the total length of the minimal spanning tree constructed on n points, are instances of n-distances. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-Urban Mining Automation and Digitalisation for a Closed- Loop Circular Construction
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL et al

Poster (2021, October 13)

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance ... [more ▼]

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance of the circular economy, construction actors are aligning their practices to be more circular and sustainable. The concept of material banks is born out of this awareness in order to document the lifecycle information of materials and facilitate re-using them. The introduction of new cycles before individual materials reach their final lifecycle stages results in reduced negative environmental impacts. This paper presents a workflow by positioning different digital technologies to automate the procedures for reuse assessment: from the deconstructed building to M/C bank to new construction projects. This automation supports a practical material and component reuse, while it provides the necessary infrastructure to digitise and digitalise the post-deconstruction materials to be visualised, selected and used by future designers in Building Information Modelling (BIM)-based design and management environments. To this aim, the coupling of BIM, reality capturing technologies, additive manufacturing techniques, IoT and RFID sensors is also anticipated. [less ▲]

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See detailEl Estado de Bienestar de la 4T y La Tercera Vía
Huitrón García, Patricia Manuela; Cebotari, Victor UL; Rodríguez Rosario, David Gustavo

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailBismut-Stroock Hessian formulas and local Hessian estimates for heat semigroups and harmonic functions on Riemannian manifolds
Chen, Qin-Qian; Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this article, we develop a martingale approach to localized Bismut-type Hessian formulas for heat semigroups on Riemannian manifolds. Our approach extends the Hessian formulas established by Stroock ... [more ▼]

In this article, we develop a martingale approach to localized Bismut-type Hessian formulas for heat semigroups on Riemannian manifolds. Our approach extends the Hessian formulas established by Stroock (1996) and removes in particular the compact manifold restriction. To demonstrate the potential of these formulas, we give as application explicit quantitative local estimates for the Hessian of the heat semigroup, as well as for harmonic functions on regular domains in Riemannian manifolds. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging High-Frequency Components for Deepfake Detection
Mejri, Nesryne UL; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos UL; Aouada, Djamila UL

in IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (2021)

In the past years, RGB-based deepfake detection has shown notable progress thanks to the development of effective deep neural networks. However, the performance of deepfake detectors remains primarily ... [more ▼]

In the past years, RGB-based deepfake detection has shown notable progress thanks to the development of effective deep neural networks. However, the performance of deepfake detectors remains primarily dependent on the quality of the forged content and the level of artifacts introduced by the forgery method. To detect these artifacts, it is often necessary to separate and analyze the frequency components of an image. In this context, we propose to utilize the high-frequency components of color images by introducing an end-to-end trainable module that (a) extracts features from high-frequency components and (b) fuses them with the features of the RGB input. The module not only exploits the high-frequency anomalies present in manipulated images but also can be used with most RGB-based deepfake detectors. Experimental results show that the proposed approach boosts the performance of state-of-the-art networks, such as XceptionNet and EfficientNet, on a challenging deepfake dataset. [less ▲]

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See detailCyborg, IA et société "cyborgisée" : l’avènement d’une société-ruche
Derian, Maxime UL

in Collectif (Ed.) Aux frontières de l'humain (2021)

If the cyborg remains a human - repaired, augmented or diminished -, the emergence of metaphorical or real figures such as the latter as well as hybrids, robots, drones and AIs, is perhaps the expression ... [more ▼]

If the cyborg remains a human - repaired, augmented or diminished -, the emergence of metaphorical or real figures such as the latter as well as hybrids, robots, drones and AIs, is perhaps the expression of an anthropological major shift. Indeed, beyond the question of the enhanced humanity, transhumanism and the possibility of posthumanism, it seems topical to ask whether it is not society itself that is in the process of becoming 'cyborgised' on a global scale. In such a case, rather than listing the anthropotechnical technologies (of human modification) that have appeared since the invention of computers, it seems appropriate to anticipate and attempt to understand the ethical, political, economic and social issues emblematic of these technologies. Hence the concept of the 'hive-society', used to describe this possible major break in history marked by the advent of an organisation that is above all administered by - and sometimes for - digital machines. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced Characterizations of Silica Surface in Rubber Compounds by Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Yan, Chuanyu UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

This thesis details the development, validation, and application of advanced solid-state nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) techniques for the characterization of the silica surface in raw ... [more ▼]

This thesis details the development, validation, and application of advanced solid-state nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) techniques for the characterization of the silica surface in raw materials and in rubber compounds. The performance of the quantitative techniques (29Si DP-CPMG, SVD and 29Si multiCP) and qualitative techniques (29Si CP-CPMG and {1H-29Si}-1H MCPi) are investigated using model and close-to-real life samples. The insights gained from this study are useful for the surface-specific characterization of silica and could offer clues for similar topics. [less ▲]

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See detailSix provocations for 6G
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 06)

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See detailSEMKIS-DSL: a Domain-Specific Language for Specifying Neural Networks’ Key-Properties
Jahic, Benjamin UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Ries, Benoit UL

Report (2021)

Neural networks are becoming increasingly part of today’s software systems. These neural networks are simplified models of the human brain that are mainly capable of learning from large datasets to ... [more ▼]

Neural networks are becoming increasingly part of today’s software systems. These neural networks are simplified models of the human brain that are mainly capable of learning from large datasets to compute some function based on recognized data. Engineering these datasets and these neural network-based software systems is a complicated and challenging task. Software engineers require methods and tools to engineer these datasets and neural networks for their customers and to satisfy their requirements. In general, they lack methods and tools to support the engineering of dataset and neural networks that satisfy the customer’s requirements. They follow traditional approaches consisting of time-consuming, imprecise and manual activities. Typically, these approaches are not supported by any tool that precisely analyse and specify the neural network’s recognition skills. In our previous work, we have introduced the notion of key-properties for describing the neural network’s recognition skills. In this paper, we define a domain-specific language to support our SEMKIS software engineering methodology for the dataset augmentation to improve network’s key-properties. We present the SEMKIS-DSL for the specification of the key-properties of a neural network. We illustrate the concepts of our DSL with a running example specifying a neural network for recognizing a digital meter counter state. This running example demonstrates a specification of the neural network’s key-properties using the SEMKIS-DSL and a successful improvement of the neural network’s recognition skills. [less ▲]

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See detailA Formalisation of Abstract Argumentation in Higher-Order Logic
Steen, Alexander UL; Fuenmayor Pelaez, David UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We present an approach for representing abstract argumentation frameworks based on an encoding into classical higher-order logic. This provides a uniform framework for computer-assisted assessment of ... [more ▼]

We present an approach for representing abstract argumentation frameworks based on an encoding into classical higher-order logic. This provides a uniform framework for computer-assisted assessment of abstract argumentation frameworks using interactive and automated reasoning tools. This enables the formal analysis and verification of meta-theoretical properties as well as the flexible generation of extensions and labellings with respect to well-known argumentation semantics. [less ▲]

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See detailRequirements And Threat Models of Adversarial Attacks and Robustness of Chest X-ray classification
Ghamizi, Salah UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural Networks. While most of the studies focus on natural images with standardized benchmarks like ImageNet and CIFAR, little ... [more ▼]

Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural Networks. While most of the studies focus on natural images with standardized benchmarks like ImageNet and CIFAR, little research has considered real world applications, in particular in the medical domain. Our research shows that, contrary to previous claims, robustness of chest x-ray classification is much harder to evaluate and leads to very different assessments based on the dataset, the architecture and robustness metric. We argue that previous studies did not take into account the peculiarity of medical diagnosis, like the co-occurrence of diseases, the disagreement of labellers (domain experts), the threat model of the attacks and the risk implications for each successful attack. In this paper, we discuss the methodological foundations, review the pitfalls and best practices, and suggest new methodological considerations for evaluating the robustness of chest xray classification models. Our evaluation on 3 datasets, 7 models, and 18 diseases is the largest evaluation of robustness of chest x-ray classification models. We believe our findings will provide reliable guidelines for realistic evaluation and improvement of the robustness of machine learning models for medical diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLabor Market Effects of Technology Shocks biased Toward the Traded Sector
Bertinelli, Luisito UL; Cardi; Restout

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Motivated by recent evidence pointing at an increasing contribution of asymmetric shocks across sectors to economic fluctuations, we explore the labor market effects of technology shocks biased toward the ... [more ▼]

Motivated by recent evidence pointing at an increasing contribution of asymmetric shocks across sectors to economic fluctuations, we explore the labor market effects of technology shocks biased toward the traded sector. Our VAR evidence for seventeen OECD countries reveals that the non-traded sector alone drives the increase in total hours worked following a technology shock that increases permanently traded relative to non-traded TFP. The shock generates a reallocation of labor toward the non-traded sector which contributes to 35% on average of the rise in non-traded hours worked. Both labor reallocation and variations in labor income shares are found empirically connected with factor-biased technological change. Our quantitative analysis shows that a two-sector open economy model with flexible prices can reproduce the labor market effects we document empirically once we allow for imperfect mobility of labor, gross substitutability between home- and foreign-produced traded goods, and factor-biased technological change. When calibrating the model to country-specific data, its ability to account for the cross-country reallocation and redistributive effects we estimate increases once we let factor-biased technological change vary between sectors and across countries. [less ▲]

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See detailA global carbon tax? Why firm mobility and heterogeneity matters
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailThe role of economic complexity on the formation of gender roles
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDichtungsanalyse von Elastomer-O-Ringen unter Hochdruck bei Raum- und Tieftemperatur
Repplinger, Christian UL; Sellen, Stephan UL; Maas, Stefan UL

in Repplinger, Christian (Ed.) 47. VDI-Jahrestagung: Schadensanalyse 2021 - Wasserstoff in metallischen Bauteilen und Mediale und klimatische Beanspruchung von polymeren Produkten (2021, October)

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See detailAnalysis of residual stress relaxation of aluminum alloys EN AW 6061/-82 T6 under cyclic loading
Repplinger, Christian UL; Sellen, Stephan UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL et al

in Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures (2021)

Stress relaxation describes the reduction of stress under static or cyclic loading at a constant strain level. Several processes induce intentionally residual stresses, for example, autofrettage of thick ... [more ▼]

Stress relaxation describes the reduction of stress under static or cyclic loading at a constant strain level. Several processes induce intentionally residual stresses, for example, autofrettage of thick-walled pressurized tubes to improve their fatigue life. This well-known process induces residual compressive stresses at the critical inner surface by using a single static but controlled over- loading internal pressure. Relaxation of residual stresses due to cyclic loading in service would endanger the effectiveness of autofrettage and could finally lead to unexpected fatigue failure. In this study, strain-controlled experiments up to 500,000 load cycles and amending nonlinear finite element simulations were done for the aluminum alloys EN AW 6061 T6 and EN AW 6082 T6 to study potential cyclic stress relaxation in four-point bending tests after con- trolled single static plasticization for residual stress generation. This analysis identifies almost stable residual stresses for both materials under different cyclic strain-controlled load levels. [less ▲]

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