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See detailRoundtable : (Digital) Cultural Heritage at risk. Lessons learned for future preservation strategies
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, November 23)

www.c2dh.uni.lu The Russian invasion of Ukraine on the 24th of February 2022 shattered long held beliefs and certainties including the idea that all things digital exist in an ephemeral sphere outside of ... [more ▼]

www.c2dh.uni.lu The Russian invasion of Ukraine on the 24th of February 2022 shattered long held beliefs and certainties including the idea that all things digital exist in an ephemeral sphere outside of the grim realities of the physical world. Instead, the war emphasized the fragility of servers,data and critical infrastructure to physical threats and their exposure to online attacks. At the same time and thanks to social networks and digital communication tools, new forms of ad-hoc support emerged that gave rise to the agency of individuals in supporting and safeguarding Ukrainian (digital) Cultural Heritage. This round table aims to reflect upon the challenges imposed on these efforts from multiple perspectives – be it from the technical point of view on providing backups and fallback infrastructures up to the impact of data protection regulations and coordination strategies for volunteers. In a discussion between internationally renowned experts we want to take stock in the lessons learned and to understand how to make (digital) cultural heritage more resilient. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain development at single cell resolution in health and disease
Kyriakis, Dimitrios UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Using RNA sequencing, we can examine distinctions between different cell types and capture a moment in time of the dynamic activities taking place inside a cell. Researchers in fields like developmental ... [more ▼]

Using RNA sequencing, we can examine distinctions between different cell types and capture a moment in time of the dynamic activities taking place inside a cell. Researchers in fields like developmental biology have embraced this technology quickly as it has improved over the past few years, and there are now many single-cell RNA sequencing datasets accessible. A surge in the development of computational analysis techniques has occurred along with the invention of technologies for generating single-cell RNA sequencing data. In my thesis, I examine computational methods and tools for single-cell RNA sequencing data analysis in 3 distinct projects. In the fetal brain project, I tried to decipher the complexity of the human brain and its development, and the link between development and neuropsychiatric diseases at early fetal brain development. I provide a unique resource of fetal brain development across a number of functionally distinct brain regions in a brain region-specific manner at single nuclei resolution. In total, I retrieved 50,937 single nuclei from four individual time points (Early; gestational weeks 18 and 19, and late; gestational weeks 23 and 24) and four distinct brain regions (cortical plate, hippocampus, thalamus, and striatum). In my dissertation, I also tried to investigate the underlying mechanisms of Parkinsons disease (PD), the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons (mDA) in the midbrain. I examined the disease process using single cells of mDA neurons developed from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) expressing the ILE368ASN mutation in the PINK1 gene, at four different maturation time points. Differential expression analysis resulted in a potential core network of PD development which linked known genetic risk factors of PD to mitochondrial and ubiquitination processes. In the final part of my thesis, I perform an analysis of a dataset from brain biopsies from patients with Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) stroke. In this project, I tried to investigate the dynamic spectrum of polarization of the immune cells to pro/anti-inflammatory states. I also tried to identify markers that potentially can be used to predict the outcome of the ICH patients. Overall, my thesis discusses a wide range of single-cell RNA sequencing tools and methods, as well as how to make sense of real datasets using already-developed tools. These discoveries may eventually lead to a more thorough understanding of Parkinson’s disease, ICH stroke but also psychiatric diseases and may facilitate the creation of novel treatments. v [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic Ideas and Political Action in Shaping Economic and Monetary Union: Pierre Werner and Luxembourg
Danescu, Elena UL

in Danescu, Elena; Dima, Alina (Eds.) Fostering recovery through metaverse business modelling - An interdisciplinary analysis of the new paradigm shift (2022, November 19)

The international financial centre in Luxembourg grew considerably in the 1960s, driven by proactive government policy, flexible regulation, a willingness to harness external opportunities and the ... [more ▼]

The international financial centre in Luxembourg grew considerably in the 1960s, driven by proactive government policy, flexible regulation, a willingness to harness external opportunities and the establishment of Community institutions and European funding institutions in the country. As Luxembourg was in a currency union with Belgium within the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union and did not have its own Central Bank, these developments were all the more meaningful. When the European integration process experienced a series of major crises – including the failure of the European Defence Community and European Political Community in 1954, the empty chair crisis in 1966 and General de Gaulle’s veto on British accession in 1962 and 1967 –, Luxembourg set out on the path of European monetary integration, under the impetus of Finance Minister and Prime Minister Pierre Werner. In October 1970, the Werner Report provided a detailed blueprint for Economic and Monetary Union and laid the foundations for the euro. The Luxembourg financial centre would serve as a “laboratory” for the future single currency. This paper makes extensive use of relevant European and international archives and original interviews, adopting an interdisciplinary approach to analyse Luxembourg’s leading role in reconciling different views on EMU and fostering political commitment to a European currency among the Member States. [less ▲]

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See detailEch kucken net
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2022)

Denis Scuto, historian, former Luxembourg national team footballer, former record-holder of first league matches played in Luxembourg (424 matches from 1982 to 2002) and today vice-director of the ... [more ▼]

Denis Scuto, historian, former Luxembourg national team footballer, former record-holder of first league matches played in Luxembourg (424 matches from 1982 to 2002) and today vice-director of the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) explains why he will not be watching the 2022 World Cup in Qatar. [less ▲]

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See detailModular Orders on Defaults in Formal Argumentation
Pardo Ventura, Pere UL; Strasser, Christian

in Journal of Logic and Computation (2022)

Default logic and formal argumentation are paradigmatic methods in the study of nonmonotonic inference. Defeasible information often comes in different strengths stemming from different degrees of ... [more ▼]

Default logic and formal argumentation are paradigmatic methods in the study of nonmonotonic inference. Defeasible information often comes in different strengths stemming from different degrees of reliability in epistemic applications or from varying strengths of authorities issuing norms in deontic applications. In both paradigms methods have been developed to deal with prioritized knowledge bases and normative systems. Questions of comparability of these methods therefore naturally arise. Argumentation theory has been developed with a strong emphasis on unification. It is therefore a desideratum to obtain natural representations of various approaches to (prioritized) default logic within frameworks of structured argumentation, such as ASPIC. Important steps in this direction have been presented in Liao et al. (2016, 2018). In this work we identify and address some problems in earlier translations, we broaden the focus from total to modular orderings of defaults, and we consider non-normal defaults. [less ▲]

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See detailForschungsergebnisse und Forschungslücken zu Mehrsprachigkeit in der non-formalen Bildung in Luxemburg
Neumann, Sascha; Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 17)

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See detailThe crucial role of language in mathematical development
Hornung, Caroline UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 17)

Basic mathematics skills build on nonverbal number sense But these innate non-verbal skills are insufficient to develop symbolic exact number concepts and to learn arithmetic. Language development allows ... [more ▼]

Basic mathematics skills build on nonverbal number sense But these innate non-verbal skills are insufficient to develop symbolic exact number concepts and to learn arithmetic. Language development allows the acquisition of number words and math vocabulary, crucial for developing basic exact number concepts and arithmetic skills. This presentations highlights five key aspects on how language influences mathematical development. First, language is a building block for basic math skills. Second, number naming systems affect number transcoding. Third, multilingual students calculate better in the language in which they have learned numbers. Forth, children's home language influences their mathematics achievement. And finally, the mastery of the language of instruction has a strong impact on mathematics achievement. The implication of these key aspects are discussed with regard to education and instruction in schools. [less ▲]

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See detailRent, sell, and remanufacture: The manufacturer’s choice when remanufacturing can be outsourced
liu, Jian; Mantin, Binyamin UL; Song, Xuefeng

in European Journal of Operational Research (2022), 303(1), 184-200

Manufacturers have increasingly started offering rental options for the products they sell. Renting products offers an opportunity: segmenting consumers. However, this also raises a challenge: what to do ... [more ▼]

Manufacturers have increasingly started offering rental options for the products they sell. Renting products offers an opportunity: segmenting consumers. However, this also raises a challenge: what to do with the returned products? One solution is to remanufacture these products and then rent or resell them. Subsequently, should remanufacturing be outsourced to a third-party firm that can remanufacture at a lower cost? Here, we use a multi-period setting and examine the optimal decisions for different selling and renting constellations. Importantly, we allow the manufacturing costs of the sales and rental products to differ, as they seem to be critical in determining the manufacturer's renting and selling decisions and remanufacturing strategies. For example, under integrated (i.e. in-house) remanufacturing, when the new rental product's manufacturing cost is sufficiently high, no remanufacturing happens. Under both remanufacturing strategies—integrated and outsourced—the manufacturer does not rent new products in the second period if the manufacturing costs of the sales and rental products are identical. If the rental product's manufacturing cost is either sufficiently low or high, then integrated remanufacturing is more profitable; when this manufacturing cost is within a moderate range, the manufacturer outsources remanufacturing to an independent remanufacturer. Surprisingly, in some situations, the production quantity of the new sales product may even increase with its manufacturing cost. This is because the manufacturer may extract an even higher margin compared with the new rental product. Finally, we also consider several extensions such as uncertainty regarding the quality of the returned goods, simultaneous selling and renting of remanufactured goods, and longer horizons and the product's life cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailIntersectional Inequalities in Science
Kozlowski, Diego UL

Presentation (2022, November 16)

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See detailPrivacy-preserving federated learning for residential short-term load forecasting
Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Lee, Chul Min UL et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 326

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these ... [more ▼]

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these forecasts as they provide detailed load data. However, using smart meter data for load forecasting is challenging due to data privacy requirements. This paper investigates how these requirements can be addressed through a combination of federated learning and privacy preserving techniques such as differential privacy and secure aggregation. For our analysis, we employ a large set of residential load data and simulate how different federated learning models and privacy preserving techniques affect performance and privacy. Our simulations reveal that combining federated learning and privacy preserving techniques can secure both high forecasting accuracy and near-complete privacy. Specifically, we find that such combinations enable a high level of information sharing while ensuring privacy of both the processed load data and forecasting models. Moreover, we identify and discuss challenges of applying federated learning, differential privacy and secure aggregation for residential short-term load forecasting. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural stability despite increased fragmentation: The 2021 county elections in Croatia
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Fel, Leo UL

in Regional and Federal Studies (2022)

The 2021 county elections in Croatia were the perfect example of political change amidst continuity. Relatively new parties and independent candidates made significant inroads against the dominant players ... [more ▼]

The 2021 county elections in Croatia were the perfect example of political change amidst continuity. Relatively new parties and independent candidates made significant inroads against the dominant players of the center-right and the center-left, most notably in the capital city of Zagreb, where a novel leftist political platform won the elections conclusively. The rise of new and credible alternatives resulted in increased fragmentation of the county assemblies and likely more unstable regional governments in the near future. On the other hand, the party that has dominated Croatian politics since independence, Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), continued that dominance on the county-level by winning 15 out of 21 offices of county prefects. More important, the determinants of electoral support for the principal political blocs have remained unchanged from the pattern observed in all national elections since the end of Croatia’s War of Independence more than two and a half decades ago. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of the revised Audiovisual Media Services Directive - Background Analysis of the main aspects of the 2018 AVMSD revision
Cole, Mark David UL; Etteldorf, Christina

Report (2022)

This Background Analysis covers the main novelties and changes that came with the revision of the AVMSD by Directive (EU) 2018/1808. It presents implementation issues concerning the application of the ... [more ▼]

This Background Analysis covers the main novelties and changes that came with the revision of the AVMSD by Directive (EU) 2018/1808. It presents implementation issues concerning the application of the country-of-origin principle, new rules on VSPs as well as for the promotion of European works and discusses questions of coherency and consistency of the regulatory framework before closing with an overview of further relevant aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Implementation and Future of the revised Audiovisual Media Services Directive: Policy Recommendations - Concomitant expertise for Implementation report
Cole, Mark David UL; Etteldorf, Christina

Report (2022)

KEY FINDINGS The AVMSD should be reinforced as centrepiece of audiovisual content regulation on EU level. Deficiencies within the AVMSD and overlapping with other legal acts need to be addressed such as ... [more ▼]

KEY FINDINGS The AVMSD should be reinforced as centrepiece of audiovisual content regulation on EU level. Deficiencies within the AVMSD and overlapping with other legal acts need to be addressed such as balancing the country-of-origin principle with necessary exceptions. The current state of implementation with late transpositions hinders final conclusions regarding the innovative new rules. Nevertheless, focus of the monitoring of the new AVMSD application should be on the assessment of measures taken by video-sharing platform providers. European works promotion obligations need careful analysis before being able to discuss possible future adjustments, based on the actual impact the provisions have on the audiovisual market. Institutional structures with national authorities operating independently of market and political powers and cooperating efficiently on European level in an equally independent manner need to be safeguarded for an effective, fundamental rights observant oversight. Reactions to providers under control of third countries, as with the measures under AVMSD and the economic sanctions package against Russian operators, show the importance of being able to rely on media law based and robust response schemes in the future. In order to improve coherence and consistency of the regulatory framework, discussion on proposed legal acts, namely the European Media Freedom Act should be seen in the context of implementation analysis of the current AVMSD to be done by the European Parliament. [less ▲]

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See detailDas Versprechen der Zirkularität
Hild, Paula UL; Schulz, Christian UL

in Standort (2022)

Against the backdrop of the recent political dynamics in the EU and in many of its member states regarding the Circular Economy, the present article discusses the impact of the concept so far and the ... [more ▼]

Against the backdrop of the recent political dynamics in the EU and in many of its member states regarding the Circular Economy, the present article discusses the impact of the concept so far and the challenges related to its implementation. In particular, it sheds a critical light on the following three aspects: first, the selective reception of the approach by key actors in industry and politics; second, the obvious implementation problems in trade and industry; and third, the underlying, growth-fixated economic model. Results from our own empirical work on the Luxembourg construction industry illustrate the reasoning. The article argues for a holistic and growth-critical understanding of circularity that not only gives space to orientation of efficiency and consistency but above all also to considerations of sufficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized Autonomous Organizations and the Decentralization of Justice
Becker, Katrin UL

Presentation (2022, November 11)

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See detailDefect Formation and Healing at Grain Boundaries in Lead-Halide Perovskites
Kaiser, Waldemar; Hussain, Kashif; Singh, Ajay UL et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry A (2022)

Polycrystalline perovskite solar cells show high power conversion efficiencies despite the presence of grain boundaries (GBs). The benign nature of GBs on the electronic properties and structural ... [more ▼]

Polycrystalline perovskite solar cells show high power conversion efficiencies despite the presence of grain boundaries (GBs). The benign nature of GBs on the electronic properties and structural stability in metal-halide perovskites contradicts their propensity for point defect formation, a controversy that is far from being understood. In this work, we combine ab initio molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations on the S5[130] GB of cesium lead iodide, CsPbI3, to shed light on the structural and electronic properties of such GBs. Our results present the first evidence of structural healing of GBs driven by the facile migration of iodine ions, resulting in stabilized GB structures with reduced hole trap states and shallow electron trap states by strain-induced Pb–Pb dimers. Drift-diffusion simulations reveal that shallow electron trap states in GB mainly lower open-circuit voltage by enhanced non-radiative recombination. Finally, we observe the spontaneous formation of iodine Frenkel defects with reduced formation energies compared to the perovskite bulk. Overall, our study reveals a controversy of GBs showing a moderate impact on the electronic properties by structural healing but a detrimental impact on the point defect densities, both being connected to the facile migration of iodine ions in GBs. [less ▲]

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See detailForschung in Geodäsie und Geoinformation an der Uni.lu
Teferle, Felix Norman UL

Presentation (2022, November 10)

This is a summary of selected research carried out by the team GGE of the DoE in 2017-2022.

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 UL)