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See detailL'application du droit de la consommation aux applications traceuses
Negre, Damien UL

in Poillot, Elise; Lenzini, Gabriele; Resta, Giorgio (Eds.) et al DATA PROTECTION IN THE CONTEXT OF COVID-19 A SHORT (HI)STORY OF TRACING APPLICATIONS (2021)

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See detailLongitudinal Relations Between Views on Aging and Perceived Stress: Evidence for Mutual Associations
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Wettstein, Markus

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(Supplement_1), 287-287

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging ... [more ▼]

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging-related cognitions including social loss, physical decline, and continuous growth. We also examined the potentially moderating role of chronological age. Data of the German Ageing Survey, comprising two measurement occasions (2014 and 2017) and a sample of 4,588 individuals aged between 40 and 95 years, were analyzed. Controlling for socio-demographic and health-related indicators, cross-lagged models indicated mutual longitudinal relations between VoA and stress. Whether the pathway from stress to VoA or the opposite pathway was stronger varied depending on the VoA considered. With increasing age, most VoA domains were less strongly associated with subsequent perceived stress. Our findings suggest that less favorable VoA predict higher perceived subsequent stress, but they are also preceded and predicted by higher levels of perceived stress. [less ▲]

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See detailAI-enabled Automation for Completeness Checking of Privacy Policies
Amaral Cejas, Orlando UL; Abualhaija, Sallam UL; Torre, Damiano et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2021)

Technological advances in information sharing have raised concerns about data protection. Privacy policies containprivacy-related requirements about how the personal data of individuals will be handled by ... [more ▼]

Technological advances in information sharing have raised concerns about data protection. Privacy policies containprivacy-related requirements about how the personal data of individuals will be handled by an organization or a software system (e.g.,a web service or an app). In Europe, privacy policies are subject to compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Aprerequisite for GDPR compliance checking is to verify whether the content of a privacy policy is complete according to the provisionsof GDPR. Incomplete privacy policies might result in large fines on violating organization as well as incomplete privacy-related softwarespecifications. Manual completeness checking is both time-consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we propose AI-based automationfor the completeness checking of privacy policies. Through systematic qualitative methods, we first build two artifacts to characterizethe privacy-related provisions of GDPR, namely a conceptual model and a set of completeness criteria. Then, we develop anautomated solution on top of these artifacts by leveraging a combination of natural language processing and supervised machinelearning. Specifically, we identify the GDPR-relevant information content in privacy policies and subsequently check them against thecompleteness criteria. To evaluate our approach, we collected 234 real privacy policies from the fund industry. Over a set of 48 unseenprivacy policies, our approach detected 300 of the total of 334 violations of some completeness criteria correctly, while producing 23false positives. The approach thus has a precision of 92.9% and recall of 89.8%. Compared to a baseline that applies keyword searchonly, our approach results in an improvement of 24.5% in precision and 38% in recall. [less ▲]

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See detailSuper-Heisenberg scaling in Hamiltonian parameter estimation in the long-range Kitaev chain
Yang, Jing UL; Pang, Shengshi; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL et al

in Physical Review Research (2021)

In quantum metrology, nonlinear many-body interactions can enhance the precision of Hamiltonian parameter estimation to surpass the Heisenberg scaling. Here, we consider the estimation of the interaction ... [more ▼]

In quantum metrology, nonlinear many-body interactions can enhance the precision of Hamiltonian parameter estimation to surpass the Heisenberg scaling. Here, we consider the estimation of the interaction strength in linear systems with long-range interactions and using the Kitaev chains as a case study, we establish a transition from the Heisenberg to super-Heisenberg scaling in the quantum Fisher information by varying the interaction range. We further show that quantum control can improve the prefactor of the quantum Fisher information. Our results explore the advantage of optimal quantum control and long-range interactions in many-body quantum metrology. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates of resilience of older people in times of crisis
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(S 1), 723

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to shield older adults from exposure to the virus due to an age-related higher risk for severe health outcomes. While a reduction of in ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to shield older adults from exposure to the virus due to an age-related higher risk for severe health outcomes. While a reduction of in-person contacts was necessary in particular during the first months of the pandemic, concerns about the immediate and longer-term secondary effects of these measures on subjective well-being were raised. In the present study, we focused on self-reported resilience of older people in a longitudinal design to examine risk and protective factors in dealing with the restrictions. Data from independently living people aged 60+ in Luxembourg were collected via a telephone/online survey after the first lockdown in June (N = 611) and September/October 2020 (N = 523), just before the second pandemic wave made restrictions necessary again. Overall, results showed an increase in life-satisfaction from T1 to T2, although life-satisfaction was still rated slightly lower than before the crisis. Also, about a fifth of participants indicated at T2 difficulties to recover from the crisis. Participants who reported higher resilience to deal with the Covid-19 crisis at T2 showed higher self-efficacy, agreed more strongly with measures taken by the country and felt better informed about the virus. In contrast, participants who reported more difficulties in dealing with the pandemic, indicated reduced social contacts to family and friends at T2, and also felt lonelier. Results will be discussed applying a life-span developmental and systemic perspective on risk and protective factors in dealing with the secondary impacts of the pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration Internationale au Luxembourg: Système d'observation permanente des migrations OCDE
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif à l’immigration. Entre 2019 et 2020 la population luxembourgeoise a continué à augmenter principalement en raison de l’immigration nette, passant de 626.108 à 634.730 ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif à l’immigration. Entre 2019 et 2020 la population luxembourgeoise a continué à augmenter principalement en raison de l’immigration nette, passant de 626.108 à 634.730 habitants (+1,4%), mais d’une manière plus discrète que les années précédentes. La part luxembourgeoise représente 52,8% de la population et les ressortissants étrangers 47,2%. La pandémie a dominé la politique en matière d’immigration et asile pendant l’année 2020 et 2021. Ces politiques ont impacté tous les secteurs au Luxembourg y compris les volets de l’immigration et de l’asile. La fermeture des frontières extérieures de l’Union Européenne, la réintroduction temporaire des contrôles aux frontières internes de l’espace Schengen (décrétées par l’Allemagne, la Belgique et la France) et la perturbation du trafic aérien international ont affecté les mouvements migratoires vers et au départ du Luxembourg. La limitation des mouvements des ressortissants pays tiers (RPT) s’est compliquée suite à la déclaration de l’état de crise entre le 18 mars et le 13 mai 2020 et la fermeture des services d’immigration et asile. Néanmoins, afin d’éviter qu’ils ne tombent dans une situation irrégulière, les autorités luxembourgeoises ont étendu la durée de validité des titres et cartes de séjour et des visas de manière automatique. De même, le traitement des dossiers et la prise de décision par la Direction de l’immigration se sont poursuivis sans interruption. L’interdiction d’entrée des RPT (avec des exceptions pour certaines catégories) a été maintenue jusqu’au 30 juin 2021. Une baisse significative du nombre de titres de séjour délivrés, de demandes d'autorisation temporaire de séjour et de visas de court séjour a été constatée, ainsi qu’une diminution de presque 50% des demandes de protection internationale. Le regroupement familial est resté le principal type de titre de séjour en 2020. Les limitations de mouvements ont aussi une incidence sur les transferts sous le règlement Dublin ainsi que sur les retours vers le pays d’origine. Au cours de l’année 2020, le Luxembourg a continué à maintenir ses engagements de solidarité internationale avec la relocalisation et la réinstallation des demandeurs de protection internationale (DPI) puisque 25 personnes (dont 16 mineurs) ont été relocalisées et 14 réinstallées. La réception des DPI s’est poursuivie car l’Office national de l’accueil (ONA) n’a pas fermé ses guichets. Un défi majeur est constitué par les taux d’occupation élevés dans les structures d’hébergement de l’ONA. La crise du logement affecte particulièrement les bénéficiaires de protection internationale (BPI) qui peinent à trouver un logement en-dehors des structures d’accueil réservées en principe aux DPI. Dans ce contexte l’ONA a poursuivi ses efforts à inciter les communes à promouvoir la mise en place de structures d’hébergement pour DPI et/ou de possibilités d’hébergement pour BPI. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantizations and moduli stacks of curves
Kalugin, Alexey UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

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See detailStochastic Models of Critical Operations
Drent, Melvin UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

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See detailLes armées de la Maison des comtes de Luxembourg. Guerres, société, espaces (XIIIe - premières moitié du XIVe s.)
Sadler, Tom UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

In the 13th century, the House of the Counts of Luxembourg experiences an impressive rise. In 1346, Charles IV, son of John of Luxembourg, cumulates the dignities of his predecessors: count of Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

In the 13th century, the House of the Counts of Luxembourg experiences an impressive rise. In 1346, Charles IV, son of John of Luxembourg, cumulates the dignities of his predecessors: count of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia, king of the Romans and emperor. The army is a major support in this evolution. The study of the armies, the wars, the warfare, but also of the diplomatic relations of the counts of Luxembourg, we seek in this study to highlight the armies as a dynamic phenomenon which is indicative of the transformations affecting the politics of the House of Luxembourg. We must be aware that the house of Luxembourg is not just house of counts. The Luxembourg are sometimes king or emperor. Because of the accumulation of various dignities, several geographical areas must be considered: the county of Luxembourg, northern Italy, the kingdom of Bohemia, Silesia, Tyrol, Brandenburg, the kingdom of France and even Lithuania. The social and political rise of Luxembourg makes it possible to highlight the plurality or diversity as well in the wars as in the armies. Armies and wars are both the product of the transformations and mutations imposed on Luxembourg but also the cause and accelerator of the observed evolution. By providing not only real and material support, but also immaterial support like glory and fame, the armies allow the count house to be eligible for imperial dignity and thus contribute to the journey from the count house to the royal and imperial house. Through their interdependence with society, armies influence the latter. War and society, linked by the tight bond of the economy, shape each other, giving rise to the embryo of a modern state. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards incremental autonomy framework for on-orbit vision-based grasping
Barad, Kuldeep Rambhai UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Dentler, Jan et al

in Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC-2021 (2021, October 29)

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and ... [more ▼]

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and built for a narrow time/complexity domain. In domains like On-orbit Servicing Assembly and Manufacturing (OSAM), this prevents scalability and generalizability, motivating a more consistent approach for the incremental development of robotic autonomy. For this purpose, the problem of vision-based grasping is described as a building block for high autonomy of dexterous space robots. Subsequently, the need for a framework is highlighted to enable bottom-up development of general autonomy with vision-based grasping as the starting point. The preliminary framework presented here comprises three components. First, an autonomy level classification provides a clear description of the autonomous behavior of the system. The stack abstraction provides a general classification of the development layers. Finally, the generic execution architecture condenses the flow of translating a high-level task description into real-world sense-planact routines. Overall, this work lays down foundational elements towards development of general robotic autonomy for scalablity in space application domains like OSAM. [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsvortrag: Evaluierung und Standardisierung des "Sproochentests"
Krämer, Charlotte UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL

Presentation (2021, October 27)

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See detailGenome Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 Allows Monitoring of Variants of Concern through Wastewater
Herold, Malte; Fouquier d'herouël, Aymeric UL; May, Patrick UL et al

in Water (2021), 13(21 3018),

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has shown to be an effective tool for epidemiological surveillance. More specifically, RNA levels determined with RT-qPCR have been shown to track with the infection ... [more ▼]

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has shown to be an effective tool for epidemiological surveillance. More specifically, RNA levels determined with RT-qPCR have been shown to track with the infection dynamics within the population. However, the surveillance of individual lineages circulating in the population based on genomic sequencing of wastewater samples is challenging, as the genetic material constitutes a mixture of different viral haplotypes. Here, we identify specific signature mutations from individual SARS-CoV-2 lineages in wastewater samples to estimate lineages circulating in Luxembourg. We compare circulating lineages and mutations to those detected in clinical samples amongst infected individuals. We show that especially for dominant lineages, the allele frequencies of signature mutations correspond to the occurrence of particular lineages in the population. In addition, we provide evidence that regional clusters can also be discerned. We focused on the time period between November 2020 and March 2021 in which several variants of concern emerged and specifically traced the lineage B.1.1.7, which became dominant in Luxembourg during that time. During the subsequent time points, we were able to reconstruct short haplotypes, highlighting the co-occurrence of several signature mutations. Our results highlight the potential of genomic surveillance in wastewater samples based on amplicon short-read data. By extension, our work provides the basis for the early detection of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Socioeconomic gradient in child health and noncognitive skills: Evidence from the Czech Republic
Borga, Liyousew UL; Munich, Daniel; Kukla, Lubomir

in Economics and Human Biology (2021)

We investigate the presence of a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in children's health and noncognitive skill development, and its evolution with child age using cohort data from the Czech Republic. We ... [more ▼]

We investigate the presence of a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in children's health and noncognitive skill development, and its evolution with child age using cohort data from the Czech Republic. We show that family SES are positively associated with better child health. These effects start to emerge at age 3 and are persistent for all subsequent ages. We find a modest strengthening of the gradient as the children grow older. Similarly, at the lowest distribution of average family income, children lag in their noncognitive skills. We find evidence that children enter school with substantial differences in noncognitive skill endowments based on family SES. This correlation persists when controlling for poor health at birth, the roles of specific and chronic health problems, housing conditions, and partner characteristics. Maternal health status explains some of the association between family income and child noncognitive skills. We account for the endogeniety of SES and non-linearities in measures. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology and Phase Transitions: A First Analytical Step towards the Definition of Sufficient Conditions
di Cairano, Loris UL; Gori, Matteo UL; Pettini, Marco

in Entropy (2021), 23(11),

Different arguments led to supposing that the deep origin of phase transitions has to be identified with suitable topological changes of potential related submanifolds of configuration space of a physical ... [more ▼]

Different arguments led to supposing that the deep origin of phase transitions has to be identified with suitable topological changes of potential related submanifolds of configuration space of a physical system. An important step forward for this approach was achieved with two theorems stating that, for a wide class of physical systems, phase transitions should necessarily stem from topological changes of energy level submanifolds of the phase space. However, the sufficiency conditions are still a wide open question. In this study, a first important step forward was performed in this direction; in fact, a differential equation was worked out which describes how entropy varies as a function of total energy, and this variation is driven by the total energy dependence of a topology-related quantity of the relevant submanifolds of the phase space. Hence, general conditions can be in principle defined for topology-driven loss of differentiability of the entropy [less ▲]

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See detailPROCESS INNOVATION FOR SENSORS IN MOBILE APPLICATIONS BASED ON LASER ASSISTED METAL-POLYMER JOINING
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The laser joining of metals to polymers is currently an interesting research area thanks to the capability of developing lightweight structures. Considering their miscellaneous applications in the ... [more ▼]

The laser joining of metals to polymers is currently an interesting research area thanks to the capability of developing lightweight structures. Considering their miscellaneous applications in the automotive industry, aluminum and polyamide are chosen as the material combination for this study. There are three main challenges regarding laser joining of metals to polymers in general: significant difference between the melting points of the materials, adhesion at the interface, and the mechanical properties of the assembly. The first challenge is addressed by in-situ heating observation and temperature measurement during the joining process. Therefore, polyamide thermal pyrolysis is effectively avoided by optimizing the laser joining parameters and employing power modulation. The second one is studied by applying different surface treatments on the materials (laser-based and abrasive-based). The surfaces were tested by several characterization techniques before and after each surface treatment. The modification of the surface structure through an appropriate surface treatment leads to the improvement of wetting and adhesion between the melted polyamide and aluminum surface. Therefore, the alteration of a mixed failure (adhesive/cohesive) to a fully cohesive failure is the major step to enhance the mechanical properties of the assemblies. However, in the absence of bubbles, the structural modification of polyamide during the joining process is responsible for the failure. Energy-dispersive X-ray1 mapping and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry2 shows the physicochemical bonding between aluminum oxide and the polyamide at the interface. To further enhance the mechanical properties of the assemblies, the structure of the polyamide near the interface of metal/polymer is addressed. For this purpose, laser treatment of polyamide, post-heat treatment, and joining with different feed rates were implemented. Finally, the shear strength of approximately 45 MPa on average is achieved for the assembly of laser-polished aluminum laser-joined to the polyamide with 2 and 5 mm/s feed rate. [less ▲]

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See detailPräsentation der Fallstudie: Handlungswissen für eine Verbesserung des Gewässerzustands im Syrtal
Hondrila, Kristina UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

Den Zustand der Gewässer in Luxemburg zu verbessern ist eine große Herausforderung. Die Präsentation fasst Lerneffekte zusammen, die aus Governance-Prozessen im Flussgebiet der Syr im Zeitraum 2012-2019 ... [more ▼]

Den Zustand der Gewässer in Luxemburg zu verbessern ist eine große Herausforderung. Die Präsentation fasst Lerneffekte zusammen, die aus Governance-Prozessen im Flussgebiet der Syr im Zeitraum 2012-2019 hervorgegangen sind. Sie zeigt, welche Faktoren dazu beitragen können, dass Akteure in Wasserwirtschaft, Umweltschutz und Landwirtschaft zusammenarbeiten und gemeinsames Handlungswissen schaffen, um den Zustand von Flüssen und Bächen trotz zahlreicher Hürden zu verbessern. [less ▲]

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See detailRoadmap on organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite semiconductors and devices
Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Olthof, Selina et al

in APL Materials (2021)

Metal halide perovskites are the first solution processed semiconductors that can compete in their functionality with conventional semiconductors, such as silicon. Over the past several years, perovskite ... [more ▼]

Metal halide perovskites are the first solution processed semiconductors that can compete in their functionality with conventional semiconductors, such as silicon. Over the past several years, perovskite semiconductors have reported breakthroughs in various optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors, light emitting and memory devices, and so on. Until now, perovskite semiconductors face challenges regarding their stability, reproducibility, and toxicity. In this Roadmap, we combine the expertise of chemistry, physics, and device engineering from leading experts in the perovskite research community to focus on the fundamental material properties, the fabrication methods, characterization and photophysical properties, perovskite devices, and current challenges in this field. We develop a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art and offer readers an informed perspective of where this field is heading and what challenges we have to overcome to get to successful commercialization. [less ▲]

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