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See detailPauvre Luxembourg
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailThe decisional value of information in semi-automated decision-making
Demkova, Simona UL

Article for general public (2021)

We live in the age of information. Information is accessible, fast and empowering. By automatically processing and analysing large amounts of information, the governance of modern society has become more ... [more ▼]

We live in the age of information. Information is accessible, fast and empowering. By automatically processing and analysing large amounts of information, the governance of modern society has become more efficient and reliable. The large extent to which novel forms of information processing are being relied on, is changing the very nature of the act of decision-making. This contribution defines such decision-making as ‘semi-automated’ because of the decisional value of the automatically generated information source. This article (see the full version here) starts with a brief background to the European initiatives, introducing automation in information processing, before outlining the impact of such initiatives on the decision-making conduct and the take-overs for the Union legal order at large. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic support for tax policies in COVID-19 times: Evidence from Luxembourg
Olivera, Javier; van Kerm, Philippe UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the ... [more ▼]

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the agreement of respondents over: a one-time net wealth tax, an inheritance tax, a temporary solidarity income tax, and a temporary increase in VAT. All questions include different and randomly assigned tax attributes (tax rates and exemption amounts). We find a clear divide with relativelyhigh support for new wealth and inheritance taxes on the one hand and a low support for increases in VAT and income taxes on the other hand. While 58% of respondents agree or strongly agree with a one-time tax levied on net worth, only24% are in favor of a small increase in VAT. Support for any tax is however negatively associated with the size of the tax as measured by the predicted revenues. Our results indicate that a one-time wealth tax could raise substantial revenues andstill garner public support. [less ▲]

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See detailINTERFACE OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE DEFICIT IN CU(IN,GA)S2 SOLAR CELL: CHARACTERIZATION, SIMULATION AND MITIGATION
Sood, Mohit UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Current commercial photovoltaic technologies are close to their practical limits, and enhancing their power conversion efficiency (PCE) requires a paradigm shift to tandem approaches. Tandem solar cells ... [more ▼]

Current commercial photovoltaic technologies are close to their practical limits, and enhancing their power conversion efficiency (PCE) requires a paradigm shift to tandem approaches. Tandem solar cells can exceed the single junction practical and thermodynamic limits. The desired top cell bandgap to enhance PCE of current photovoltaic technologies is ~1.6 1.7 eV. The bandgap tunability from 1.5 eV to 2.5 eV positions Cu(In,Ga)S2 as a prime top cell candidate for next generation low-cost tandem cells. However, they are limited by a low external open circuit voltage (VOC,ex). In this thesis, we have studied the interface recombination and found it to cause a difference between VOC,ex and internal open-circuit voltage (VOC,in) in Cu(In,Ga)S2 solar cell. We have introduced a quantifiable metric that has not been used before for Cu(In,Ga)S2, to evaluate VOC disparity in terms of “interface VOC deficit” defined as (VOC,in – VOC,ex). The temperature dependent current-voltage measurement allows to investigate the activation energy (Ea) of the dominating recombination path in the device, uncovering the cause of interface VOC deficit in Cu poor and Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices. We find that negative conduction band offset (CBO) at the absorber/buffer interface results in interface VOC deficit in Cu poor Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices. Although the interface VOC deficit can be reduced by replacing the buffer for favorable band alignment at the absorber/buffer interface, a substantial deficiency still exists. We observe that the CBO not only at the absorber/buffer interface but also at the buffer/i-layer interface leads to an interface VOC deficit in devices. This, in general, is not an issue in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices. By optimizing buffer and i-layer, we mitigate and overcome buffer/i-layer losses to get Cu poor Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices with consistently low interface VOC deficit. As a result, an in-house PCE of 15.1 % is achieved together with an externally certified PCE of 14 %. This is, by far, the best Cu(In,Ga)S2 device performance except for the record PCE device. In contrast, the interface VOC deficit and the interface recombination persists in Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)S2 devices and is not resolved by alternative buffers. To identify the possible origin of the interface VOC deficit, we characterize two sister systems CuInS2 and CuInSe2, which offer reduced complexity due to Ga exclusion. The Cu-rich devices of these systems are also known to suffer from interface recombination, and for CuInSe2, it has been linked to the “200 meV” defect. However, the underlying mechanism of how this defect leads to interface recombination remains unknown. Through results obtained from photoelectron spectroscopic measurements, we exclude the possibility of two commonly evoked causes of interface recombination: negative CBO and Fermi-level pinning. Sulfur-based post-deposition treatments on KCN etched Cu-rich CuInS2 absorbers reveal near interface defects as a possible alternative cause of interface VOC deficit. The treatment increases the VOC,ex, which originates from improved Ea and interface VOC deficit in treated devices. The capacitance transient measurements further reveal that slow metastable defects are present in the untreated sample. The treated samples show that the slow transient is suppressed, suggesting the passivation of slow metastable defects. The treatment adapted to Cu rich CuInSe2 displays a reduction in the deep defect signature in admittance spectra, which explains the observed improvement in interface VOC deficit. This indicates that the defects near the absorber/buffer interface, acting as non-radiative recombination centers, as the source of interface VOC deficit. Finally, to understand how the defect leads to interface recombination, a new model based on near interface defects is offered using the holistic analysis and evaluation of the defect characteristics. We can reproduce an interface VOC deficit with all the signatures of an interface recombination-dominated device using numerical simulations. This model provides a solution for the consideration of interface recombination by defects distributed in a thin layer within the bulk absorber, an explanation beyond classical models. The near interface defect model finally explains why Cu rich chalcopyrite solar cells are limited in their VOC,ex despite a good VOC,in, which was not discovered before. The model thus forms a new third explanation for interface recombination signature in devices and is applicable to any device with highly recombinative defects near the interface. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional coatings based on MWCNT-Metal oxide nanocomposite for solar energy harvester application.
Prasadam, Vasu Prasad UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Global energy demand propelled humankind in search of clean and renewable energy sources. Among them, solar energy outstands all the available renewable sources. In this context, concentrated solar ... [more ▼]

Global energy demand propelled humankind in search of clean and renewable energy sources. Among them, solar energy outstands all the available renewable sources. In this context, concentrated solar thermal technology (CST) and hydrogen storage via solar water splitting significant feature contributions in global power generation. Nevertheless, the major challenge in CST technology is achieving a high solar absorption selectivity with thermal stability above 923 K. Whereas the limited chemical stability and low performance remain significant challenges in solar water-splitting technology. We address these technologies' critical issues through multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-metal oxide hybrid materials. MWCNTs are known for their high solar absorption, thermal and electrical conductivity. While metal oxides such as VO2, Al-doped ZnO are known for their infrared reflecting properties with high transparency in the visible region. TiO2 and ZnO have appropriate band positions for water splitting reactions. Here, combining CNTs and metal oxides at the nanoscale leads to unique properties not present in individual constituents. We fabricate the MWCNT-metal oxide through the hybrid chemical vapour deposition-atomic layer deposition (CVD-ALD) process. Here the CVD is implemented to grow MWCNTs, while ALD is used to produce conformal metal oxide shells on the 3D porous MWCNT structures. The MWCNT-VO2 nanostructures performed in this study feature a solar selectivity modulation across the semiconductor-metal transition temperature of VO2, i.e., 67˚C. The thermally induced optical modulation was investigated as a function of the morphology of VO2 phase. The grown VO2 nanoparticles on MWCNT illustrate an enhancement in the spectral emissivity across the SMT temperature. A contrasting optical modulation is displayed by the continuous VO2 layer on MWCNT. Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer (4.7 at %) illustrated solar absorbance of 0.96 and thermal emittance of 0.6. The limited thermal stability of the engineered MWCNT-AZO was enhanced by the deposition of a thin Al2O3 layer at the MWCNT-AZO interface. A core-double shell structure, i.e., CNT-Al2O3-AZO, withstands thermal treatment at 1000 K for 72 h. Solar water splitting study on MWCNT-TiO2 and MWCNT-ZnO nanostructures revealed a significant performance improvement relative to the respective oxides. For MWCNT-TiO2 core-shell structure, an enhancement of photocurrent by 400 % was observed relative to planar Si-TiO2. While in MWCNT-ZnO core-shell structure, similar results as CNT-TiO2 is observed but with higher photocurrent density because of better electrical properties of ZnO. We observed an increase of 458 % of the photocurrent density relative to Si-ZnO. The difference in performance between Si-ZnO/TiO2 and MWCNT-ZnO/TiO2 was associated with the diminished electron-hole recombination, efficient electron collection and increased relative surface in the core-shell structure. [less ▲]

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See detailD´Wuelbefanne vu Kanner a Pandemie-Zäiten. Resultater a Perspektiven
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

Presentation (2021, November 18)

Das internationale Forschungsprojekt „COVID-Kids“ der Universität Luxemburg untersuchte die Erfahrungen und das Wohlbefinden von Kindern und Jugendlichen zwischen 6 und 16 Jahren während der ersten Welle ... [more ▼]

Das internationale Forschungsprojekt „COVID-Kids“ der Universität Luxemburg untersuchte die Erfahrungen und das Wohlbefinden von Kindern und Jugendlichen zwischen 6 und 16 Jahren während der ersten Welle der Pandemie. Die Forscherinnen boten Teilnehmern eine Umfrage von Mai bis Juli 2020 an und führten Interviews mit 22 Kindern aus Luxemburg durch. In diesem Vortrag werden die Hauptergebnisse der Studie vorgestellt. Die Pandemie führte zu einschneidenden Veränderungen im Alltag der Kinder, von denen viele Lebensbereiche betroffen waren. Schon zu Beginn der Pandemie äußerten die Teilnehmer ausgeprägte Ängste und Sorgen, die je nach Alter, Geschlecht und sozioökonomischen Status variierten. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Euro: opportunity or (legal) challenge?
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

in Ianus: Diritto e Finanza (2021), (22), 27

In the euro area today, there are two ways in which the central bank provides money to its economy. The first consists in the issue of physical banknotes, while the second is expressed through the ... [more ▼]

In the euro area today, there are two ways in which the central bank provides money to its economy. The first consists in the issue of physical banknotes, while the second is expressed through the electronic accreditation of deposits on current accounts that credit institutions hold at the central bank. In the last five years, following both the increase in the digitalisation of the modern economy and the example of hegemonic economies (such as China), the possible introduction of a new form of currency to provide a safe and stable mean of payment to citizens of the euro area has had the power to create a growing interest towards such ambitious solutions. As a result, in the very near future we could experience a different way in which money works. We refer to the uncharted world of central bank digital currencies (CBDC). While projects for the creation of central bank digital currencies are booming all around the world, such interest is driven by various reasons that will be analysed in this paper, including the need to react to private initiatives for the creation of cryptocurrencies and stablecoins and, an increasing demand for fast and interconnected digital financial instruments and products. In the euro area, even if the debate for the creation of a Digital Euro has recently started, the ECB has proven to be already engaged in investigations, public consultations, and discussions with focus groups with the aim to provide European citizens, firms, and intermediaries with a “public” payment instrument suitable for a new digital era. In this framework, the role of a Eurosystem central bank digital currency will be analysed from a legal perspective. First, apart from the abovementioned reasons leading to the creation of a CBDC, it will be crucial to examine the structure and design of the Digital Euro, together with its objectives and the needs of its users. Consequently, while investigating on the legal framework which will permit the introduction of this digital currency, through a light review of similar models adopted (or in adoption) by other countries, we will seek to assess whether legal issues might hinder the realisation of this project or its actual implementation, especially concerning the impact on monetary policy, the international role of the euro and the banking sector. [less ▲]

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See detailParent Hamiltonians of Jastrow wavefunctions
Beau, Mathieu; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in SciPost Physics (2021)

We find the complete family of many-body quantum Hamiltonians with ground-state of Jastrow form involving the pairwise product of a pair function in an arbitrary spatial dimension. The parent Hamiltonian ... [more ▼]

We find the complete family of many-body quantum Hamiltonians with ground-state of Jastrow form involving the pairwise product of a pair function in an arbitrary spatial dimension. The parent Hamiltonian generally includes a two-body pairwise potential as well as a three-body potential. We thus generalize the Calogero-Marchioro construction for the three-dimensional case to an arbitrary spatial dimension. The resulting family of models is further extended to include a one-body term representing an external potential, which gives rise to an additional long-range two-body interaction. Using this framework, we provide the generalization to an arbitrary spatial dimension of well-known systems such as the Calogero-Sutherland and Calogero-Moser models. We also introduce novel models, generalizing the McGuire many-body quantum bright soliton solution to higher dimensions and considering ground-states which involve e.g., polynomial, Gaussian, exponential, and hyperbolic pair functions. Finally, we show how the pair function can be reverse-engineered to construct models with a given potential, such as a pair-wise Yukawa potential, and to identify models governed exclusively by three-body interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailSpotlight on Preschoolers: Early Flexibility in Problem Solving
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL

Presentation (2021, November 18)

In this paper, a novel theoretical framework is proposed to organize and integrate previous empirical findings on early development of analogical transfer. Transferring knowledge across situations is a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a novel theoretical framework is proposed to organize and integrate previous empirical findings on early development of analogical transfer. Transferring knowledge across situations is a pivotal skill in dynamically changing environments that humans inhabit and shape. This ability drives human problem solving and innovativeness, as it allows for generalizing knowledge acquired in familiar, past solutions to any unfamiliar, present situation. The ability to detect common functional features and disregard other, functionally irrelevant information begins to develop in the first year of life, and markedly improves in toddlerhood and the preschool years. Although the ability to transfer knowledge across situations has been repeatedly investigated in toddlers and preschoolers over the last decades, these investigations lacked a unifying framework, obscuring the developmental timing of flexible problem solving. In this paper, a unifying framework is proposed and discussed in relation to previous findings, gaps in current state of knowledge and implications for concrete educational interventions. This framework builds on a distinction between “simple” and “complex” transfers. Although all generalization tasks require prioritizing relevant information over irrelevant information, the irrelevant information may play two different roles in transferring knowledge, namely, a distracting or a misleading one. Distracting information was consistently irrelevant under similar past circumstances and remains irrelevant in the present. Misleading information was relevant under similar past circumstances but is now irrelevant and therefore competes with the truly relevant information. Previous research suggests that the ability to disregard misleading information is more difficult, draws differently on executive functions and most likely develops later than the ability to disregard distracting information. The current paper furthers current understanding of how early the abilities critical to human behavioural flexibility develop. In the era of individual engagement in politics and social media, the ability to disregard misleading information is perhaps more important than ever before. Furthermore, focusing on individual problem-solving flexibility, promoted in the current project, has implications for changes in assessment of child’s achievement and progress in the schooling system. Since accumulating information is somewhat prioritized over operating on such information, continuity between problem solving at the preschool level and critical thinking in adolescence may not be secured. There is also little space for assessment of individual, not standardized development. Shifting the current emphasis toward individual flexibility could, at least to some extent, hinder grouping children into performing below, on and above average and promote focusing on individual course of development, both in typically and atypically developing children. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to catch a space debris
Yalcin, Baris Can UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL et al

Poster (2021, November 18)

The partnership between SpaceR and Spacety Luxembourg aims to develop cutting edge active space debris removal solutions that can be implemented into small cube sats The solution will take the advantage ... [more ▼]

The partnership between SpaceR and Spacety Luxembourg aims to develop cutting edge active space debris removal solutions that can be implemented into small cube sats The solution will take the advantage of latest advancements in many tech domains, such as gecko like sticky adhesives and energy efficient shape memory alloy materials. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg Economy: In the Aftermath of the Pandemic
Danescu, Elena UL

in Hartlley, Cathy (Ed.) Western Europe 2022 (2021)

The series of measures, which helped to mitigate the short-term social and economic consequences of the crisis while paving the way for effective medium- and long-term strategies, entailed spending of ... [more ▼]

The series of measures, which helped to mitigate the short-term social and economic consequences of the crisis while paving the way for effective medium- and long-term strategies, entailed spending of approximately €2,050m. (an increase of 21.9% compared with 2019). In terms of structural improvements to SMEs, which underpin the Luxembourg economy, capital grants increased by €142.7m. compared with 2019, while investment expenditure rose by €301.8m. (26.2% higher than in 2019). Social benefits grew by an even higher proportion, increasing by 88.6% between June 2019 and June 2021 (an increase of €797.6m.). [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping and Validating a Short-Form Questionnaire for the Assessment of Seven Facets of Conscientiousness in Large-Scale Assessments
Franzen, Patrick UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Journal of Personality Assessment (2021)

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no ... [more ▼]

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no short instrument assessing facets of conscientiousness in the educational context. Therefore, in the present multi-study report, we develop and validate a short-form questionnaire for the assessment of seven Conscientiousness facets, namely Industriousness, Perfectionism, Tidiness, Procrastination Refrainment, Control, Caution, and Task Planning. To this end, we examined multiple representative samples totaling N = 14,604 Grade 9 and 10 students from Luxembourg. The questionnaire was developed by adapting and shortening an existing scale using an exhaustive search algorithm. The algorithm was specified to select the best item combination based on model fit, reliability, and measurement invariance across the German and French language versions. The resulting instrument showed the expected factorial structure. The relations of the facets with personality constructs and academic achievement were in line with theoretical assumptions. Reliability was acceptable for all facets. Measurement invariance across language versions, gender, immigration status and cohort was established. We conclude that the presented questionnaire provides a short measurement of seven facets of Conscientiousness with valid and reliable scores. [less ▲]

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See detailEthnic Bias after Ethnic Conflict: Preferential Voting and the Serb Minority in Croatian Elections
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Mochtak, Michal UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL

in Ethnopolitics (2021)

In spite of growing interest in democratization and electoral competition after ethnic conflict, we know little about the impact of ethnic violence on voter choice in post-conflict societies. This article ... [more ▼]

In spite of growing interest in democratization and electoral competition after ethnic conflict, we know little about the impact of ethnic violence on voter choice in post-conflict societies. This article uses an original dataset of local-level electoral results, communities’ exposure to war violence, and candidates’ ethnicity derived from names in contemporary Croatia to uncover the relationship between local post-conflict ethnic distribution, ethnic violence, and the electorate’s ethnic bias. Our analysis points to the presence of ethnic bias that is determined by local interethnic balance and exposure to war violence – particularly for communities populated by the Serb minority. [less ▲]

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See detailEngaging in and creatively reproducing translanguaging practices with peers: a longitudinal study with three-year-olds in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Mortini, Simone

in International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (2021)

The increasing societal and linguistic diversity in schools challenge traditional teaching approaches and call for pedagogies that cater to the growing number of multilingual pupils. Translanguaging ... [more ▼]

The increasing societal and linguistic diversity in schools challenge traditional teaching approaches and call for pedagogies that cater to the growing number of multilingual pupils. Translanguaging pedagogies can offer multilinguals a productive learning environment that helps them leverage their resources for learning. Translanguaging studies in early childhood education are still scant, especially those that involve emergent multilinguals, focus on adult–child and peer interactions, and examine children’s agency. The present paper from multilingual Luxembourg examines the engagement of two three-year-olds in adult-led and child-led activities in two early childhood education settings as well the ways in which they creatively reproduced translingual activities and strategies in peer interactions. The data of the qualitative study stem from 128 excerpts, video-recorded over the course of a year. The findings show that the children’s language use and active engagement depended on the pedagogy and the practitioners’ language-supportive strategies. In peer interactions, they creatively reproduced routine activities, thereby transforming formulaic speech, as well as the practitioners’ strategy use. The findings can guide curriculum developers and practitioners when implementing inclusive translanguaging practices in early childhood education. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of translanguaging course on preschool teachers, parents, and children
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Presentation (2021, November 17)

This lecture contained the results concerning the effect of the professional development course in translanguaging pedagogy on preschool teachers, parents, and children in Luxembourg. The mixed-method ... [more ▼]

This lecture contained the results concerning the effect of the professional development course in translanguaging pedagogy on preschool teachers, parents, and children in Luxembourg. The mixed-method design revealed positive effects based on the data from the teacher questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews with teachers, then parent questionnaires and interviews with parents, and tests in literacy and numeracy in school and home languages, and video observations with children. In this lecture I also presented the publications for parents (the book Sumak), for children (Mara's song with the CD), and the website for teachers on translanguaging activities (www.transla-program.org). [less ▲]

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See detailLimits to Perception by Quantum Monitoring with Finite Efficiency
García-Pintos, Luis Pedro; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in Entropy (2021)

We formulate limits to perception under continuous quantum measurements by comparing the quantum states assigned by agents that have partial access to measurement outcomes. To this end, we provide bounds ... [more ▼]

We formulate limits to perception under continuous quantum measurements by comparing the quantum states assigned by agents that have partial access to measurement outcomes. To this end, we provide bounds on the trace distance and the relative entropy between the assigned state and the actual state of the system. These bounds are expressed solely in terms of the purity and von Neumann entropy of the state assigned by the agent, and are shown to characterize how an agent's perception of the system is altered by access to additional information We apply our results to Gaussian states and to the dynamics of a system embedded in an environment illustrated on a quantum Ising chain. [less ▲]

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See detailScientific Models, Computer Simulations, and Agent-Based Models. Hermeneutic and Analytic Perspectives.
Durlacher, Thomas UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

This work is about some of the philosophical problems that arise in the context of agent-based modeling. Agent-based models differ from other modeling techniques primarily in terms of the way they ... [more ▼]

This work is about some of the philosophical problems that arise in the context of agent-based modeling. Agent-based models differ from other modeling techniques primarily in terms of the way they represent their target system. They are a comparatively novel kind of computer simulation and are used to investigate complex systems. In recent decades, agent-based models have been used in disciplines such as economics, archaeology, sociology, and ecology. Typical target systems of agent-based models include markets, foragers, opinion dynamics, and predator-prey interactions. This thesis contributes to the research on agent-based modeling by situating agent-based models in the broader context of scientific modeling and by resolving several important philosophical problems that arise in relation to agent-based modeling research. Those problems mainly concern the character of agent-based models and their capacity to enhance our understanding of social phenomena. The first part of this thesis contributes to ongoing discussions in the philosophy of science about the status of scientific models by providing new perspectives on the function of models, the difference between computer simulations and other modeling techniques, and by analyzing the use of models across several disciplines. The second part of the thesis is concerned with the use of agent-based models in scientific research practice. Several case studies of agent-based modeling projects in archaeology and economics are used to illustrate the role of agent-based models in research practice. These case studies include large-scale projects like the Village Ecodynamics Project and Eurace@Unibi project and smaller models, such as Jeffrey Brantingham’s neutral model. The relationships between agent-based models and complexity science and other social sciences are discussed in order to understand how this modeling type can be used to understand and explain phenomena. Although agent-based models are highly idealized and often do not provide correct explanations, I argue that they can, nonetheless, play a useful role in explanatory research, such as when they are used to identify the difference-makers of phenomena or to rule out potential explanations. [less ▲]

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See detailPresenter: Peripheries at the Centre. Borderland Schooling in Interwar Europe
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2021, November 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 UL)
See detail"You want to undress us to press your case": Negotiating claims to religious truth in a secularizing state
Badder, Anastasia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 17)

For decades, Luxembourg funded its recognized religious communities; recently, with a goal of greater secularization, the state made major changes (and cuts) to its funding scheme. This move revived ... [more ▼]

For decades, Luxembourg funded its recognized religious communities; recently, with a goal of greater secularization, the state made major changes (and cuts) to its funding scheme. This move revived simmering tensions in the Jewish community, comprised of one Orthodox and one Liberal synagogue and represented to the state by a single Orthodox-led administrative body (la communauté israélite du Luxembourg, or CIL). Emboldened by growing membership and fearing a loss of their already-precarious autonomy and financial support, the Liberal congregation has begun pushing for representation on the CIL, which the Orthodox congregation in turn resists. In the process, Orthodox leadership is forced to reflect on their own practices and values in sometimes uncomfortable ways. As they jostle for control of the CIL, each side makes claims to truth, authenticity, and authority based on drastically different ethics and visions of the future for Luxembourg and its Jewish community. In board meetings, general assemblies, and conversations, old conflicts around the 'right' kind of Jewish life and current and future shape and needs of the Jewish community are rearticulated as the two congregations debate who can and should be the state's interlocutor. Based on 31 months of fieldwork, this paper explores how a reorganization of state administrative control reignited an old struggle within Luxembourg's Jewish community and how two congregations with different histories, ethical projects, and anticipated futures fight to define Jewishness, community, and a good Jewish life and to maintain (or gain) the right to represent Judaism to the Luxembourgish state. [less ▲]

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