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See detailFedFog: Network-Aware Optimization of Federated Learning over Wireless Fog-Cloud System
Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (in press)

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of ... [more ▼]

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of enabling FL over a wireless fogcloud system (e.g., non-i.i.d. data, users’ heterogeneity), we first propose an efficient FL algorithm based on Federated Averaging (called FedFog) to perform the local aggregation of gradient parameters at fog servers and global training update at the cloud. Next, we employ FedFog in wireless fog-cloud systems by investigating a novel network-aware FL optimization problem that strikes the balance between the global loss and completion time. An iterative algorithm is then developed to obtain a precise measurement of the system performance, which helps design an efficient stopping criteria to output an appropriate number of global rounds. To mitigate the straggler effect, we propose a flexible user aggregation strategy that trains fast users first to obtain a certain level of accuracy before allowing slow users to join the global training updates. Extensive numerical results using several real-world FL tasks are provided to verify the theoretical convergence of FedFog. We also show that the proposed co-design of FL and communication is essential to substantially improve resource utilization while achieving comparable accuracy of the learning model. [less ▲]

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See detailReinforcement Learning for Test Case Prioritization
Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Kahani, Nafiseh; Briand, Lionel UL

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

Continuous Integration (CI) context significantly reduces integration problems, speeds up development time, and shortens release time. However, it also introduces new challenges for quality assurance ... [more ▼]

Continuous Integration (CI) context significantly reduces integration problems, speeds up development time, and shortens release time. However, it also introduces new challenges for quality assurance activities, including regression testing, which is the focus of this work. Though various approaches for test case prioritization have shown to be very promising in the context of regression testing, specific techniques must be designed to deal with the dynamic nature and timing constraints of CI. Recently, Reinforcement Learning (RL) has shown great potential in various challenging scenarios that require continuous adaptation, such as game playing, real-time ads bidding, and recommender systems. Inspired by this line of work and building on initial efforts in supporting test case prioritization with RL techniques, we perform here a comprehensive investigation of RL-based test case prioritization in a CI context. To this end, taking test case prioritization as a ranking problem, we model the sequential interactions between the CI environment and a test case prioritization agent as an RL problem, using three alternative ranking models. We then rely on carefully selected and tailored state-of-the-art RL techniques to automatically and continuously learn a test case prioritization strategy, whose objective is to be as close as possible to the optimal one. Our extensive experimental analysis shows that the best RL solutions provide a significant accuracy improvement over previous RL-based work, with prioritization strategies getting close to being optimal, thus paving the way for using RL to prioritize test cases in a CI context. [less ▲]

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See detailTest Case Selection and Prioritization Using Machine Learning: A Systematic Literature Review
Pan, Rongqi; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ghaleb, Taher et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (in press)

Regression testing is an essential activity to assure that software code changes do not adversely a ect existing functionalities. With the wide adoption of Continuous Integration (CI) in software projects ... [more ▼]

Regression testing is an essential activity to assure that software code changes do not adversely a ect existing functionalities. With the wide adoption of Continuous Integration (CI) in software projects, which increases the frequency of running software builds, running all tests can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. To alleviate that problem, Test case Selection and Prioritiza- tion (TSP) techniques have been proposed to improve regression testing by selecting and prioritizing test cases in order to provide early feedback to developers. In recent years, researchers have relied on Machine Learning (ML) techniques to achieve e ective TSP (ML-based TSP). Such techniques help combine information about test cases, from partial and imperfect sources, into accurate prediction models. This work conducts a systematic literature review focused on ML-based TSP techniques, aiming to perform an in-depth analysis of the state of the art, thus gaining insights regarding fu- ture avenues of research. To that end, we analyze 29 primary studies published from 2006 to 2020, which have been identi ed through a systematic and documented process. This paper addresses ve research questions addressing variations in ML-based TSP techniques and feature sets for training and testing ML models, alternative metrics used for evaluating the techniques, the performance of techniques, and the reproducibility of the published studies. We summarize the results related to our research questions in a high-level summary that can be used as a taxonomy for classifying future TSP studies. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy performance comparison of ventilation-based heating versus water-based heating systems in an efficient residential building
Shirani, Arsalan UL; Merzkirch, Alexander; Leyer, Stephan UL et al

in Fluid Dynamics & Material Processing (in press)

The application of air-based heating systems as a possible approach to reduce the construction costs in highly efficient residential buildings is becoming popular. Air-based heating systems have been well ... [more ▼]

The application of air-based heating systems as a possible approach to reduce the construction costs in highly efficient residential buildings is becoming popular. Air-based heating systems have been well-known for their usage in passive houses during the past three decades. Available studies on such systems tend mostly to focus only on comparing exhaust air heat pump technology with conventional systems in efficient buildings. Moreover, most of the existing studies ignore the usual presence of the electrical heaters as backup. Besides, a comprehensive study and comparison between different air-based heating system concepts is still missing. In this study, four different air-based heating system concepts separated by the type of heat source of heat pump for heating and domestic hot water are defined. These systems are compared to four conventional heating system, including floor heating and direct electrical system employing dynamic annual simulations. According to simulation results, the systems with floor heating have shown the best system efficiencies and the lowest energy demand in comparison to the other systems. The main reason for this was the lower supply temperatures of the floor heating systems. Between the air heating systems, the system equipped with an outdoor air heat pump showed a better energy performance than an exhaust air system. The main reason for this could be attributed to the power limitation of exhaust air heat pump systems. [less ▲]

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See detailProtéger, libérer, assujettir. L’extension territoriale de la commune de Florence au XIVe siècle
Abeles, Solal UL

Book published by École française de Rome (in press)

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See detailA Machine Learning Approach for Automated Filling of Categorical Fields in Data Entry Forms
Belgacem, Hichem UL; Li, Xiaochen; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (in press)

Users frequently interact with software systems through data entry forms. However, form filling is time-consuming and error-prone. Although several techniques have been proposed to auto-complete or pre ... [more ▼]

Users frequently interact with software systems through data entry forms. However, form filling is time-consuming and error-prone. Although several techniques have been proposed to auto-complete or pre-fill fields in the forms, they provide limited support to help users fill categorical fields, i.e., fields that require users to choose the right value among a large set of options. In this paper, we propose LAFF, a learning-based automated approach for filling categorical fields in data entry forms. LAFF first builds Bayesian Network models by learning field dependencies from a set of historical input instances, representing the values of the fields that have been filled in the past. To improve its learning ability, LAFF uses local modeling to effectively mine the local dependencies of fields in a cluster of input instances. During the form filling phase, LAFF uses such models to predict possible values of a target field, based on the values in the already-filled fields of the form and their dependencies; the predicted values (endorsed based on field dependencies and prediction confidence) are then provided to the end-user as a list of suggestions. We evaluated LAFF by assessing its effectiveness and efficiency in form filling on two datasets, one of them proprietary from the banking domain. Experimental results show that LAFF is able to provide accurate suggestions with a Mean Reciprocal Rank value above 0.73. Furthermore, LAFF is efficient, requiring at most 317 ms per suggestion. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpirical risk assessment of maintenance costs under full-service contracts
Deprez, Laurens UL; Antonio, Katrien; Boute, Robert

in European Journal of Operational Research (in press)

We provide a data-driven framework to conduct a risk assessment, including data pre-processing, exploration, and statistical modeling, on a portfolio of full-service maintenance contracts. These contracts ... [more ▼]

We provide a data-driven framework to conduct a risk assessment, including data pre-processing, exploration, and statistical modeling, on a portfolio of full-service maintenance contracts. These contracts cover all maintenance-related costs for a fixed, upfront fee during a predetermined horizon. Charging each contract a price proportional to its risk prevents adverse selection by incentivizing low risk (i.e., maintenance-light) profiles to not renege on their agreements. We borrow techniques from non-life insurance pricing and tailor them to the setting of maintenance contracts to assess the risk and estimate the expected maintenance costs under a full-service contract. We apply the framework on a portfolio of about 5 000 full-service contracts of industrial equipment and show how a data-driven analysis based on contract and machine characteristics, or risk factors, supports a differentiated, risk-based break-even tariff plan. We employ generalized additive models (GAMs) to predict the risk factors’ impact on the frequency (number of) and severity (cost) of maintenance interventions. GAMs are interpretable yet flexible statistical models that capture the effect of both continuous and categorical risk factors. Our predictive models quantify the impact of the contract and machine type, service history, and machine running hours on the contract cost. We additionally utilize the predictive cost distributions of our models to augment the break-even price with the appropriate risk margins to further protect against the inherently stochastic nature of the maintenance costs. The framework shows how maintenance intervention data can set up a differentiated tariff plan. [less ▲]

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See detailAn (Un)Necessary Evil - Users’ (Un)Certainty about Smartphone App Permissions and Implications for Privacy Engineering
Bongard, Kerstin UL; Sterckx, Jean-Louis; Rossi, Arianna UL et al

in 2022 7th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroSPW) (in press)

App permission requests are a control mechanism meant to help users oversee and safeguard access to data and resources on their smartphones. To decide whether to accept or deny such requests and make this ... [more ▼]

App permission requests are a control mechanism meant to help users oversee and safeguard access to data and resources on their smartphones. To decide whether to accept or deny such requests and make this consent valid, users need to understand the underlying reasons and judge the relevance of disclosing data in line with their own use of an app. This study investigates people’s certainty about app permission requests via an online survey with 400 representative participants of the UK population. The results demonstrate that users are uncertain about the necessity of granting app permissions for about half of the tested permission requests. This implies substantial privacy risks, which are discussed in the paper, resulting in a call for user-protecting interventions by privacy engineers. [less ▲]

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See detailReplication studies in top management journals: an empirical investigation of prevalence, types, outcomes, and impact
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Kanwal, Narmeen et al

in Management Review Quarterly (in press)

Replication studies are important for the empirical research process. Yet, while there is an increased awareness of the need for replication in management research, it appears that such studies are rarely ... [more ▼]

Replication studies are important for the empirical research process. Yet, while there is an increased awareness of the need for replication in management research, it appears that such studies are rarely published in leading management journals. Importantly, we lack a comprehensive overview of replication studies in the top management journals that spans all sub-disciplines. Our systematic review closes this gap and provides an overview of the prevalence, types, outcomes, and impact of replication studies in management journals. We find that differences in the prevalence of replications between sub-disciplines exist and that most replications are wide replications. With regard to the replication outcome, our review shows that the share of non-confirming replications is low. Moreover, such replications are cited less often than confirming replications pointing towards a confirmation bias in management research. We discuss the implications of our results for authors, reviewers, and editors of management journals. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent Blockchain-based Edge Computing via Deep Reinforcement Learning: Solutions and Challenges
Nguyen, Dinh C; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Ding, Ming et al

in IEEE Network (in press)

The convergence of mobile edge computing (MEC) and blockchain is transforming the current computing services in wireless Internet-of-Things networks, by enabling task offloading with security enhancement ... [more ▼]

The convergence of mobile edge computing (MEC) and blockchain is transforming the current computing services in wireless Internet-of-Things networks, by enabling task offloading with security enhancement based on blockchain mining. Yet the existing approaches for these enabling technologies are isolated, providing only tailored solutions for specific services and scenarios. To fill this gap, we propose a novel cooperative task offloading and blockchain mining (TOBM) scheme for a blockchain-based MEC system, where each edge device not only handles computation tasks but also deals with block mining for improving system utility. To address the latency issues caused by the blockchain operation in MEC, we develop a new Proof-of-Reputation consensus mechanism based on a lightweight block verification strategy. To accommodate the highly dynamic environment and high-dimensional system state space, we apply a novel distributed deep reinforcement learning-based approach by using a multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed TOBM scheme in terms of enhanced system reward, improved offloading utility with lower blockchain mining latency, and better system utility, compared to the existing cooperative and non-cooperative schemes. The paper concludes with key technical challenges and possible directions for future blockchain-based MEC research. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Axiomatic Approach to the Measurement of Comparative Female Disadvantage
Chakravarty, Satya; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Social Indicators Research (in press)

Female comparative disadvantage refers to the mismatch of the female with respect to achievements in different dimensions of human well-being in comparison with the corresponding achievements of the male ... [more ▼]

Female comparative disadvantage refers to the mismatch of the female with respect to achievements in different dimensions of human well-being in comparison with the corresponding achievements of the male. This paper axiomatically derives a general family of female comparative disadvantage indicators which has very important policy implications. The axioms employed are shown to be ‘independent’. An empirical illustration of the general index is provided using the UNDP data on mean years of schooling, life expectancy at birth and gross national income per capita in 2018. Results show that female comparative disadvantage is not necessarily related to standard measures of human development, such as the HDI, and is present even in countries reaching very high human development. The factor where policy intervention is needed the most is income. [less ▲]

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See detailTriangular Intertwined Frequency Selective Surface
Vasquez-Peralvo, Juan Andres UL

in Vasquez-Peralvo, Juan Andres (Ed.) International symposium on antennas and propagation (in press)

This paper presents a frequency selective surface design and simulation using intertwined triangular structures. It has been discovered that by using the proposed tessellated intertwined lattice, the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a frequency selective surface design and simulation using intertwined triangular structures. It has been discovered that by using the proposed tessellated intertwined lattice, the reduction of the resonance frequency of a frequency selective surface can be improved by 22.58% compared with other triangular structures. Additionally, this structure is used as a MEFSS to improve the miniaturization of the structure and obtain a compact, angular stable band-pass filter. The simulations presented in this paper have been obtained using CST Microwave Studio. [less ▲]

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See detailWide-Beamwidth Circular Polarized Antenna for Diversity Combining Applications
Vasquez-Peralvo, Juan Andres UL

in Vasquez-Peralvo, Juan Andres (Ed.) Global Communications Conference, Rio de Janeiro, 4 - 9 December 2022 (in press)

This paper presents the design, simulation, and manufacturing of a right-hand circularly polarized antenna working in the frequency band 17.7-20.2 GHz with a beamwidth of 42.4$^\circ$ and 5.4$^\circ$ for ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the design, simulation, and manufacturing of a right-hand circularly polarized antenna working in the frequency band 17.7-20.2 GHz with a beamwidth of 42.4$^\circ$ and 5.4$^\circ$ for the H-plane and E-plane, respectively. The presented antenna is part of a set of three antennas, two high-gain antennas, and, presented in this paper, a low directive antenna used for reception. The application we describe in this paper combines the radio-frequency signals obtained from the O3b satellite constellation, using three antennas to apply path diversity later to reconstruct the original signal. Moreover, using an antenna with a beamwidth in one plane allows receiving two satellite signals at the same time, increasing by 3 dB the overall gain. The wide-band capabilities of the antenna are obtained using aperture coupling. In particular, the circular polarization of the antenna is generated using a truncated corner square patch. Further, a metasurface is placed at the top to enhance the axial ratio. Importantly, the simulation results obtained using CST Microwave Studio show that the antenna has a reflection coefficient below -10 dB and an axial ratio below -3 dB in the intended frequency range. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do historians collect new sources? War Experiences in Luxembourg. The Second World War and Today
Janz, Nina UL

Speeches/Talks (2023)

The military offensive launched by the Russian Federation against Ukraine in the early hours of 24 February 2022 and the ensuing war on Ukrainian territory have resulted in immense human suffering, a ... [more ▼]

The military offensive launched by the Russian Federation against Ukraine in the early hours of 24 February 2022 and the ensuing war on Ukrainian territory have resulted in immense human suffering, a humanitarian tragedy and incalculable material damage. The violation of a country’s territorial integrity and sovereignty – an act in clear breach of the United Nations Charter – has shattered the shared framework of values and principles fostered by multilateralism after the Second World War in the hope of achieving world peace, while leading to an unprecedented outpouring of solidarity for Ukraine and the plight of its people from Western democracies and European and international organisations, including NATO, the UN, the European Union and the Council of Europe, and their Member States and private initiatives. As contemporary history is turned on its head, historians, driven by the duty of memory, are stepping up to explain the origins of the conflict, identify the various players, provide an objective analysis of the consequences, record the memories of eyewitnesses and victims – with oral history proving a precious tool –, preserve historical sources and, above all, reflect on the role that intellectual effort can play in paving the way for a return to peace in the new world order taking shape before our eyes. [less ▲]

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See detailI-GWAS: Privacy-Preserving Interdependent Genome-Wide Association Studies
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie; Boutet, Antoine et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (2023)

Genome-wide Association Studies (GWASes) identify genomic variations that are statistically associated with a trait, such as a disease, in a group of individuals. Unfortunately, careless sharing of GWAS ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide Association Studies (GWASes) identify genomic variations that are statistically associated with a trait, such as a disease, in a group of individuals. Unfortunately, careless sharing of GWAS statistics might give rise to privacy attacks. Several works attempted to reconcile secure processing with privacy-preserving releases of GWASes. However, we highlight that these approaches remain vulnerable if GWASes utilize overlapping sets of individuals and genomic variations. In such conditions, we show that even when relying on state-of-the-art techniques for protecting releases, an adversary could reconstruct the genomic variations of up to 28.6% of participants, and that the released statistics of up to 92.3% of the genomic variations would enable membership inference attacks. We introduce I-GWAS, a novel framework that securely computes and releases the results of multiple possibly interdependent GWASes. I-GWAS continuously releases privacy-preserving and noise-free GWAS results as new genomes become available. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial adaptive settlement systems in archaeology. Modelling long-term settlement formation from spatial micro interactions
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Doctoral thesis (2023)

Despite research history spanning more than a century, settlement patterns still hold a promise to contribute to the theories of large-scale processes in human history. Mostly they have been presented as ... [more ▼]

Despite research history spanning more than a century, settlement patterns still hold a promise to contribute to the theories of large-scale processes in human history. Mostly they have been presented as passive imprints of past human activities and spatial interactions they shape have not been studied as the driving force of historical processes. While archaeological knowledge has been used to construct geographical theories of evolution of settlement there still exist gaps in this knowledge. Currently no theoretical framework has been adopted to explore them as spatial systems emerging from micro-choices of small population units. The goal of this thesis is to propose a conceptual model of adaptive settlement systems based on complex adaptive systems framework. The model frames settlement system formation processes as an adaptive system containing spatial features, information flows, decision making population units (agents) and forming cross scale feedback loops between location choices of individuals and space modified by their aggregated choices. The goal of the model is to find new ways of interpretation of archaeological locational data as well as closer theoretical integration of micro-level choices and meso-level settlement structures. The thesis is divided into five chapters, the first chapter is dedicated to conceptualisation of the general model based on existing literature and shows that settlement systems are inherently complex adaptive systems and therefore require tools of complexity science for causal explanations. The following chapters explore both empirical and theoretical simulated settlement patterns based dedicated to studying selected information flows and feedbacks in the context of the whole system. Second and third chapters explore the case study of the Stone Age settlement in Estonia comparing residential location choice principles of different periods. In chapter 2 the relation between environmental conditions and residential choice is explored statistically. The results confirm that the relation is significant but varies between different archaeological phenomena. In the third chapter hunter-fisher-gatherer and early agrarian Corded Ware settlement systems were compared spatially using inductive models. The results indicated a large difference in their perception of landscape regarding suitability for habitation. It led to conclusions that early agrarian land use significantly extended land use potential and provided a competitive spatial benefit. In addition to spatial differences, model performance was compared and the difference was discussed in the context of proposed adaptive settlement system model. Last two chapters present theoretical agent-based simulation experiments intended to study effects discussed in relation to environmental model performance and environmental determinism in general. In the fourth chapter the central place foragingmodel was embedded in the proposed model and resource depletion, as an environmental modification mechanism, was explored. The study excluded the possibility that mobility itself would lead to modelling effects discussed in the previous chapter. The purpose of the last chapter is the disentanglement of the complex relations between social versus human-environment interactions. The study exposed non-linear spatial effects expected population density can have on the system and the general robustness of environmental inductive models in archaeology to randomness and social effect. The model indicates that social interactions between individuals lead to formation of a group agency which is determined by the environment even if individual cognitions consider the environment insignificant. It also indicates that spatial configuration of the environment has a certain influence towards population clustering therefore providing a potential pathway to population aggregation. Those empirical and theoretical results showed the new insights provided by the complex adaptive systems framework. Some of the results, including the explanation of empirical results, required the conceptual model to provide a framework of interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional heterogeneity and individual characteristics in the development of a European tax policy: historical insights from Luxembourg
Danescu, Elena UL

in Danescu, Elena; Dima, Alina Mihaela (Eds.) Fostering recovery through metaverse business modelling - An interdisciplinary analysis of the new paradigm shift (2023, March)

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing above the EU average. Its strong fiscal position is well illustrated by a longstanding AAA credit rating, a significant accumulation of government financial assets, and a distinct fiscal approach. In this light, this paper aims to investigate the specific features of the tax system in Luxembourg from a multidisciplinary perspective by analysing historical sources and exploring the development of these particularities over time, their impact on the socioeconomic context and their repercussions for the European integration process, especially in the design and completion of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). [less ▲]

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See detailParent’s experience in remote learning with digital and physical mathematical modelling
Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt; Kreis, Yves UL

in Research and Practice in Technology Learning (2023), 18

In reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic, the government of Luxembourg suspended in-school teaching and learning towards remote teaching. A survey conducted by the Ministry of Education after three weeks of ... [more ▼]

In reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic, the government of Luxembourg suspended in-school teaching and learning towards remote teaching. A survey conducted by the Ministry of Education after three weeks of confinement, showed that more than half of the parents faced difficulties when using remote teaching with their students. To tackle this new challenge, we adapted our research to the use of augmented reality, digital and physical mathematical modelling in remote mathematics education for elementary schools. The elementary school students (aged 5 to 12) created cultural artifacts (i.e., Easter egg cups) during the confinement. In this paper, we will describe mathematical modelling in remote teaching and further concentrate on parents’ perspectives, who played an essential role in assisting their children. Moreover, we will discuss different didactical principles that emerged from the task design during the study through parents’ eyes. Thus, understanding parents’ perspectives became highly important in enabling us to improve task designs and related pedagogical approaches in remote teaching. The data collected in this study included semi-structured interviews with students, parents, and teachers as well as questionnaires and field notes. We followed an exploratory stance with our data analyses, primarily utilizing grounded theory (Corbin & Strauss, 1990, 2014) approaches. Through the insights we gained from our findings, we aim to explain how the parents perceived teaching and learning mathematical modelling in our experiments, how they scaffolded the given tasks, and what support they required and would need in future remote teaching. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Green Stock Market Bubble
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Circular Economy and Sustainability (2023)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (10 UL)