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See detailIntersectional Inequalities in Science
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Larivière, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2022), 119(2), 2113067119

The US scientific workforce is primarily composed of White men. Studies have demonstrated the systemic barriers preventing women and other minoritized populations from gaining entry to science; few ... [more ▼]

The US scientific workforce is primarily composed of White men. Studies have demonstrated the systemic barriers preventing women and other minoritized populations from gaining entry to science; few, however, have taken an intersectional perspective and examined the consequences of these inequalities on scientific knowledge. We provide a large-scale bibliometric analysis of the relationship between intersectional identities, topics, and scientific impact. We find homophily between identities and topic, suggesting a relationship between diversity in the scientific workforce and expansion of the knowledge base. However, topic selection comes at a cost to minoritized individuals for whom we observe both between- and within-topic citation disadvantages. To enhance the robustness of science, research organizations should provide adequate resources to historically underfunded research areas while simultaneously providing access for minoritized individuals into high-prestige networks and topics. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Detective Work: Environmental Cheminformatics and the Exposome
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2022, January 10)

The multitude of chemicals to which we are exposed is ever increasing, with over 110 million chemicals in the largest open chemical databases, over 350,000 in global use inventories, and over 70,000 ... [more ▼]

The multitude of chemicals to which we are exposed is ever increasing, with over 110 million chemicals in the largest open chemical databases, over 350,000 in global use inventories, and over 70,000 estimated to be in household use alone. Detectable molecules in exposomics can be captured using non-target high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), but despite the size of the chemical space, scientists cannot yet identify most of the tens of thousands of features in each sample, leading to critical bottlenecks in identification and data interpretation. This talk will cover European and worldwide community initiatives and resources to help connect environmental expert knowledge and observations towards a better understanding of the exposome, including various open cheminformatics and computational mass spectrometry approaches such as the NORMAN Suspect List Exchange, MassBank, MetFrag and PubChemLite for Exposomics. [less ▲]

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See detailDairy Intake and Parkinson's Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study
Domenighetti, Cloé; Sugier, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ashok Kumar Sreelatha, Ashwin et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Abstract Background Previous prospective studies highlighted dairy intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in men. It is unclear whether this association is causal or explained ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Previous prospective studies highlighted dairy intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in men. It is unclear whether this association is causal or explained by reverse causation or confounding. Objective The aim is to examine the association between genetically predicted dairy intake and PD using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods We genotyped a well-established instrumental variable for dairy intake located in the lactase gene (rs4988235) within the Courage-PD consortium (23 studies; 9823 patients and 8376 controls of European ancestry). Results Based on a dominant model, there was an association between genetic predisposition toward higher dairy intake and PD (odds ratio [OR] per one serving per day = 1.70, 95 confidence interval = 1.12–2.60, P = 0.013) that was restricted to men (OR = 2.50 [1.37–4.56], P = 0.003; P-difference with women = 0.029). Conclusions Using MR, our findings provide further support for a causal relationship between dairy intake and higher PD risk, not biased by confounding or reverse causation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2022 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain matters – lex cryptographia and the displacement of legal symbolics and imaginaries
Becker, Katrin UL

in Law and Critique (2022)

This article focusses on the social and legal implications that blockchain technology brings about, not only due to its ideological framework, but also, and especially, due to the concept of law it ... [more ▼]

This article focusses on the social and legal implications that blockchain technology brings about, not only due to its ideological framework, but also, and especially, due to the concept of law it inaugurates. Thus, this article claims, that, by interlocking technological and legal structures, blockchain technology initiates a profound displacement of legal symbolics and imaginaries. It shows how blockchain law, by emancipating itself from three essential dimensions of law—language, territory, and the body—implies a profound disruption of how we perceive law and its legitimacy. Starting with an overview of the technological details of blockchain, the paper then addresses its ideological context and traces the underlying ideas, values and functions and their relation with—and impact on—the general perception of law and legal issues. By critically assessing the claim that blockchain will liberate the subject from any heteronymic constraints, this paper analyses to what extent this technology has social and legal implications that reach far beyond its virtual, purely blockchain-related scope of applications—and why this technology should matter to us all. [less ▲]

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See detailBurying the Dead from the Battle of the Bulge
Janz, Nina UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Casualties of soldiers in the German and American Army - During the Battle of the Bulge more than 100.000 soldiers died. How did the Wehrmacht, the U.S. Army and the Civilians treat the dead?

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See detailInterpolating Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics Hamiltonian with Artificial Neural Networks
Bipeng Wang; Weibin Chu; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2022)

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See detailMAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ENHANCED ENTRY SYSTEM FOR SPACE TRANSPORTATION (MEESST) AS A KEY BUILDING BLOCK FOR LOW-COST INTERPLANETARY MISSIONS
La Rosa Betancourt, Manuel; Collier-Wright, Marcus; Boegel, Elias et al

in Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (2022), 74(12), 448-453

Aside from the launch environment, atmospheric re-entry imposes one of the most demanding environments which a spacecraft can experience. The combination of high spacecraft velocity and the presence of ... [more ▼]

Aside from the launch environment, atmospheric re-entry imposes one of the most demanding environments which a spacecraft can experience. The combination of high spacecraft velocity and the presence of atmospheric particles leads to partially ionised gas forming around the vehicle, which significantly inhibits radio communications, and leads to the generation of high thermal loads on the spacecraft surface. Currently, the latter is solved using expensive, heavy, and often expendable thermal protection systems (TPS). The use of electromagnetic fields to exploit Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles has long been considered as an attractive solution for this problem. By displacing the ionised gas away from the spacecraft, the thermal loads can be reduced, while also opening a magnetic window for radio waves, mitigating the blackout phenomenon. The application of this concept has to date not been possible due to the large magnetic fields required, which would necessitate the use of exceptionally massive and power-hungry copper coils. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) have now reached industrial maturity. HTS coils can now offer the necessary low weight and compactness required for space applications. The MEESST consortium the has been awarded a grant from the EU Horizon 2020 programme for the development and demonstration of a novel HTS-based re-entry system based with its foundation on MHD principles. The project will first harmonize existing numerical codes, and then design, manufacture, and test a HTS magnet. The study shows that the use of MEESST technology can have a positive impact on the cost-effectiveness and available payload of interplanetary missions. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Arbeitsmarkt der Sozialen Arbeit 2020 = Le marché de l'emploi du secteur social en 2020
Böwen, Petra UL; Flammang, Manou Laure UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Dieser Newsletter beschreibt den Arbeitsmarkt der Sozialen Arbeit in Luxemburg 2020 und die Entwicklung der Zahlen in einigen Bereichen für 2018 bis 2020. Die Daten stammen von einem fortlaufenden ... [more ▼]

Dieser Newsletter beschreibt den Arbeitsmarkt der Sozialen Arbeit in Luxemburg 2020 und die Entwicklung der Zahlen in einigen Bereichen für 2018 bis 2020. Die Daten stammen von einem fortlaufenden Forschungsprojekt des PraxisBüros der Universität Luxemburg. Der Newsletter stellt eine Auswahl an Statistiken dar, z.B. bezüglich der meist gefragten Qualifikationsniveaus, der Verteilung der Praxisfelder, der Verteilung der Stellenangebote zwischen öffentlichen, kommunalen, gemeinnützigen und privaten Trägern und der erfassten enormen Diskrepanz zwischen Nachfrage und Angebot an qualifizierten Professionellen in der Sozialen Arbeit. Desweiteren werden Entwicklungstrends- vor allem zu Thema Aus- und Weiterbildung aufgezeigt. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom hybrid polariton to dipolariton using non-Hermitian Hamiltonians to handle particle lifetimes
Chenu, Aurélia UL; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chien, Ching-Hang et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter (2022)

We consider photons strongly coupled to the excitonic excitations of a coupled quantum well, in the presence of an electric field. We show how, under a field increase, the hybrid polariton made of a ... [more ▼]

We consider photons strongly coupled to the excitonic excitations of a coupled quantum well, in the presence of an electric field. We show how, under a field increase, the hybrid polariton made of a photon coupled to hybrid carriers lying in the two wells transforms into a dipolariton made of a photon coupled to direct and indirect excitons. We also show how the cavity photon lifetime and the coherence time of the carrier wave vectors that we analytically handle through non-hermitian Hamiltonians affect these polaritonic states. While the hybrid polaritons display a spectral singularity where the eigenvalues coalesce, known as an exceptional point, that depends on detuning and lifetimes, we find that the three dipolaritonic states display an anticrossing without exceptional point due to the interaction between photons, direct, and indirect excitons. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Frame Fingerprinting and Controller Area Networks Security in Connected Vehicles
Buscemi, Alessio UL; Turcanu, Ion; Castignani, German et al

in IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference, Virtual Conference 8-11 January 2022 (2022, January)

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected ... [more ▼]

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected vehicles also introduces new security issues affecting both inter and intra-vehicle communications. In fact, existing intra-vehicle communication systems, such as Controller Area Network (CAN), lack security features, such as encryption and secure authentication for Electronic Control Units (ECUs). Instead, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) seek security through obscurity by keeping secret the proprietary format with which they encode the information. Recently, it has been shown that the reuse of CAN frame IDs can be exploited to perform CAN bus reverse engineering without physical access to the vehicle, thus raising further security concerns in a connected environment. This work investigates whether anonymizing the frames of each newly released vehicle is sufficient to prevent CAN bus reverse engineering based on frame ID matching. The results show that, by adopting Machine Learning techniques, anonymized CAN frames can still be fingerprinted and identified in an unknown vehicle with an accuracy of up to 80 %. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithmic Decision Making with Python Resources: From multicriteria performance records to decision algorithms via bipolar-valued outranking digraphs
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

Book published by Springer (2022)

This book describes Python3 programming resources for implementing decision aiding algorithms in the context of a bipolar-valued outranking approach. These computing resources, made available under the ... [more ▼]

This book describes Python3 programming resources for implementing decision aiding algorithms in the context of a bipolar-valued outranking approach. These computing resources, made available under the name Digraph3, are useful in the field of Algorithmic Decision Theory and more specifically in outranking-based Multiple-Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA). The first part of the book presents a set of tutorials introducing the Digraph3 collection of Python3 modules and its main objects such as bipolar-valued digraphs and outranking digraphs. The second part illustrates in eight methodological chapters multiple-criteria evaluation models and decision algorithms. These chapters are mostly problem oriented and show how to edit a new multiple-criteria performance tableau, how to build a best choice recommendation, how to compute the winner of an election and how to rank or rate with incommensurable criteria. The book's third part presents three real decision case studies, while the fourth part addresses more advanced topics, such as computing ordinal correlations between bipolar-valued outranking digraphs, computing kernels in bipolar-valued digraphs, testing for confidence or stability of outranking statements when facing uncertain or solely ordinal criteria significance weights, and tempering plurality tyranny effects in social choice problems. The last part is more specifically focused on working with undirected graphs, tree graphs and forests. The closing chapter explores comparability, split, interval and permutation graphs. The book is primarily intended for graduate students in management sciences, computational statistics and operations research. Chapters presenting algorithms for ranking multicriteria performance records will be of computational interest for designers of web recommender systems. Similarly, the relative and absolute quantiles-rating algorithms, discussed and illustrated in several chapters, will be of practical interest for public or private performance auditors. [less ▲]

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See detailDer stumme Chor des Volkes. Populistische Repräsentation im Classical Hollywood
Pause, Johannes UL

in Dembeck, Till; Forhmann, Jürgen (Eds.) Die Rhetorik des Populismus und das Populäre. Körperschaftsbildungen in der Gesellschaft (2022)

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See detailThe Social Construction of Self-Sovereign Identity: An Extended Model of Interpretive Flexibility
Weigl, Linda UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing ... [more ▼]

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing appropriation and the social embedding of SSI have resulted in diverging interpretations. These vague and value-laden interpretations can damage the public discourse and risk misrepresenting values and affordances that technology offers to users. To unpack the various social and technical understandings of SSI, we adopt an ‘interpretive flexibility’ lens. Based on a qualitative inductive interview study, we find that SSI’s interpretation is strongly mediated by surrounding institutional properties. Our study helps to better navigate these different perceptions and highlights the need for a multidimensional framework that can improve the understanding of complex socio-technical systems for digital government practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailDeFi, Not So Decentralized: The Measured Distribution of Voting Rights
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless blockchains to achieve decentralization along technical, economic, and political lines. The distribution of tokenized voting rights aims for political decentralization. Tokenized voting rights achieved notoriety within the nascent field of decentralized finance (DeFi) in 2020. As an alternative to centralized crypto-asset exchanges and lending platforms (owned by companies like Coinbase and Celsius), DeFi developers typically create non-custodial projects that are not majority-owned or managed by legal entities. Holders of tokenized voting rights can instead govern DeFi projects. To scrutinize DeFi’s distributed governance strategies, we conducted a multiple-case study of non-custodial, Ethereum-based DeFi projects: Uniswap, Maker, SushiSwap, Yearn Finance, and UMA. Our findings are novel and surprising: quantitative evaluations of DeFi’s distributed governance strategies reveal a failure to achieve political decentralization. [less ▲]

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See detailBig Data and the Future of the Humanities.
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL; Mein, Georg UL

in Baumann, Isabell Eva; Dembeck, Till; Mein, Georg (Eds.) The Ends of Humanities (2022)

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See detailMännerbund, Staatsschiff, Multitude. U-Boote und Raumfahrzeuge als politische Körper
Gradinari, Irina; Pause, Johannes UL

in COLLATERAL: Online Journal for Cross-Cultural Close Reading (2022), 32

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See detailNormative Coherence for Development and Regionalism: Gender equality in ASEAN’s migration policies
Häbel, Sandra; Koff, Harlan UL; Adam, Marie

in Development Policy Review (2022)

Motivation:The United Nations2030 Agenda recognizesregions as important actors in implementing the sustainable development agenda.At the same time, regions are often criticized for lackingeffective ... [more ▼]

Motivation:The United Nations2030 Agenda recognizesregions as important actors in implementing the sustainable development agenda.At the same time, regions are often criticized for lackingeffective implementation, especially in relation to gender equality.Purpose:This study examines whether the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) implements its global commitment to gender equality at a regional level. Methods and approach:We apply qualitative analysis of key ASEAN documents in order to determinehow gender equality is implemented regionally. We particularly focus onframeworks related to female migrant workers in ASEAN. Findings: The analysis shows that ASEAN is formally committed to improving gender equality at a regional level, however, female migrants often end up in unfavourable conditions and precarious work relationships without any institutionalized protection because ASEAN's gender equality initiatives are largely concentrated in the Cultural Community and absent from the Economic Community, indicating an absence of normative coherence for developmentwith regard to gender equality. Policy implications:This limited impact of emerging regional commitments to gender equality arises from incoherencies in ASEAN’s normative governance. [less ▲]

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See detailRegionalgeschichte als Nationalgeschichte. Traditionen, Institutionen und Perspektiven in Luxemburg
Pauly, Michel UL

in Hirbodian, Sigrid; Jörg, Christian; Wegner, Tjark (Eds.) Zwischen Region, Nation und Europa. Landesgeschichte in europäischer Perspektive (2022)

Der Beitrag erläutert Entstehung und Entwicklung der landesgeschichtlichen Forschung in Luxemburg seit dem 19. Jahrhundert, präsentiert die entsprechrenden Institutionen bis hin zur Gründung einer ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag erläutert Entstehung und Entwicklung der landesgeschichtlichen Forschung in Luxemburg seit dem 19. Jahrhundert, präsentiert die entsprechrenden Institutionen bis hin zur Gründung einer Universität (2003) und versucht ausländische Einflüsse zu identifizieren sowie Zukunftsperspektiven zu skizzieren. [less ▲]

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