Last 7 days     Results 61-80 of 1724.   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9   Learning-Assisted User Clustering in Cell-Free Massive MIMO-NOMA NetworksLe; Nguyen, van Dinh ; Dobre, Octavia A. et alin IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (in press)The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC ... [more ▼]The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC certainly results in a suboptimal solution while an exhaustive search method comes at the cost of high complexity, especially for systems of medium-to-large size. To address this problem, we develop two efficient unsupervised machine learning based UC algorithms, namely k-means++ and improved k-means++, to effectively cluster users into disjoint clusters in cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CFmMIMO) system. Adopting full-pilot zero-forcing at access points (APs) to comprehensively assess the system performance, we formulate the sum SE optimization problem taking into account power constraints at APs, necessary conditions for implementing successive interference cancellation, and required SE constraints at user equipments. The formulated optimization problem is highly non-convex, and thus, it is difficult to obtain the global optimal solution. Therefore, we develop a simple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solution. In addition, the performance of collocated massive MIMO-NOMA (COmMIMO-NOMA) system is also characterized. Numerical results are provided to show the superior performance of the proposed UC algorithms compared to baseline schemes. The effectiveness of applying NOMA in CFmMIMO and COmMIMO systems is also validated. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 UL) Urbanicity, behavior problems and HPA axis regulation in preschoolersEffenberger, Pauline; Send, Tabea; Gilles, Maria et alin Psychoneuroendocrinology (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 UL) Comparative administrative law in the EU: the integration function and its limitsMendes, Joana in Bartl, Marija; Lawrence, Jessica (Eds.) The Politics of European Legal Research. Behind the Method (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL) Institutionalism and Comparative Administrative Law Beyond the Liberal State: Extrapolations from Santi Romano as seen by D’AlbertiMendes, Joana in VV., AA. (Ed.) Liber Amicorum Marco D’Alberti (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 UL) Common Universal Meromorphic Functions for Translation and Dilation MappingsMeyrath, Thierry in Computational Methods and Function Theory (in press)We consider translation and dilation mappings acting on the spaces of meromorphic functions on the complex plane and the punctured complex plane, respectively. In both cases, we show that there is a dense ... [more ▼]We consider translation and dilation mappings acting on the spaces of meromorphic functions on the complex plane and the punctured complex plane, respectively. In both cases, we show that there is a dense $G_{\delta}$-subset of meromorphic functions that are common universal for certain uncountable families of these mappings. While a corresponding result for translations exists for entire functions, our result for dilations has no holomorphic counterpart. We further obtain an analogue of Ansari’s Theorem for the mappings we consider, which is used as a key tool in the proofs of our main results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 UL) Unpacking Tourism in the Cold War: International Tourism and Commercialism in Socialist Romania, 1960s-1980sStefan, Oana Adelina in Contemporary European History (in press)The role of market oriented tourist policies in the planned economies of socialist Eastern Europe has been long overlooked. This article examines how the socialist regime in Romania moved from sheer ... [more ▼]The role of market oriented tourist policies in the planned economies of socialist Eastern Europe has been long overlooked. This article examines how the socialist regime in Romania moved from sheer ideological rhetoric to commercialism and market-driven strategies when promoting Romania as a tourist destination in the ‘West’ between the 1960s and the 1980s. It argues that there was a continual shifting between using tourism as an ideological tool and a certain pragmatism that was needed to turn Romania into a desirable tourist destination. [less ▲] Difuzer: Uncovering Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations in Android AppsSamhi, Jordan ; Li, Li; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise et alin 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied ... [more ▼]One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied. Defusing logic bombs remains an unsolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to investigate Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations (SHSOs) as a step towards triaging logic bombs. To that end, we develop a novel hybrid approach that combines static analysis and anomaly detection techniques to uncover SHSOs, which we predict as likely implementations of logic bombs. Concretely, Difuzer identifies SHSO entry-points using an instrumentation engine and an inter-procedural data-flow analysis. Then, it extracts trigger-specific features to characterize SHSOs and leverages One-Class SVM to implement an unsupervised learning model for detecting abnormal triggers. We evaluate our prototype and show that it yields a precision of 99.02% to detect SHSOs among which 29.7% are logic bombs. Difuzer outperforms the state-of-the-art in revealing more logic bombs while yielding less false positives in about one order of magnitude less time. All our artifacts are released to the community. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 UL) JuCify: A Step Towards Android Code Unification for Enhanced Static AnalysisSamhi, Jordan ; Gao, Jun ; Daoudi, Nadia et alin 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art ... [more ▼]Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art static analysis approaches have mostly overlooked the presence of such native code, which, however, may implement some key sensitive, or even malicious, parts of the app behavior. This limitation of the state of the art is a severe threat to validity in a large range of static analyses that do not have a complete view of the executable code in apps. To address this issue, we propose a new advance in the ambitious research direction of building a unified model of all code in Android apps. The JuCify approach presented in this paper is a significant step towards such a model, where we extract and merge call graphs of native code and bytecode to make the final model readily-usable by a common Android analysis framework: in our implementation, JuCify builds on the Soot internal intermediate representation. We performed empirical investigations to highlight how, without the unified model, a significant amount of Java methods called from the native code are unreachable'' in apps' call-graphs, both in goodware and malware. Using JuCify, we were able to enable static analyzers to reveal cases where malware relied on native code to hide invocation of payment library code or of other sensitive code in the Android framework. Additionally, JuCify's model enables state-of-the-art tools to achieve better precision and recall in detecting data leaks through native code. Finally, we show that by using JuCify we can find sensitive data leaks that pass through native code. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 UL) A Large-scale Empirical Analysis of Ransomware Activities in BitcoinWang, Kai; Pang, Jun ; Chen, Dingjie et alin ACM Transactions on the Web (2022), 16(2), 71-729Detailed reference viewed: 84 (0 UL) General Principles of Procedural JusticeDemkova, Simona ; Hofmann, Herwig in Ziegler, Katja S.; Jennings, Sir Robert; Neuvonen, Päivi J. (Eds.) et al Research Handbook on General Principles in EU Law: Constructing Legal Orders in Europe (2022)This chapter addresses general principles of EU law concerning procedural justice. It does so using two sets of procedural rights: first, the right to good administration, and, second, the right to an ... [more ▼]This chapter addresses general principles of EU law concerning procedural justice. It does so using two sets of procedural rights: first, the right to good administration, and, second, the right to an effective remedy. These procedural rights are central to ensuring the rule of law in the EU legal system and the accountability of the exercise of public functions in the EU. General principles of EU law within this chapter are understood as principles of constitutional character applicable throughout Union policies. In addition, many specific EU policies are governed by principles, which although general in nature, are applicable only to a specific policy sector. The working definition within this chapter is that only the former are general principles of EU law and not the latter, which are merely ‘principles’. This chapter traces the development and role of procedural principles and rights in the EU in very broad strokes. It does so in three steps: the chapter starts by briefly outlining the scope of application of the procedural general principles of EU law to sketch the depth and breadth of rights protected in this context (Section II). It then undertakes a quantitative assessment of references to procedural rights in the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) (Section III). The chapter finally concludes by discussing some possible explanations for the rise of procedural rights in EU law as general principles of procedural justice. We discuss how some of the difficulties arising from the existing situation can be remedied by the introduction of an EU regulation on administrative procedures (Section IV). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 UL) Are Value-Added Scores Stable Enough for High-Stakes Decisions?Emslander, Valentin ; Levy, Jessica ; Scherer, Ronny et alScientific Conference (2022, March)Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014 ... [more ▼]Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014; Kane et al., 2013). VA models are widely used for accountability purposes in education and quantify the value a teacher or a school adds to their students’ achievement. For this purpose, these models predict achievement over time and attempt to control for factors that cannot be influenced by schools or teachers (i.e., sociodemographic & sociocultural background). Following this logic, what is left must be due to teacher or school differences (see, e.g., Braun, 2005). To utilize VA models for high-stakes decision-making (e.g., teachers’ tenure, the allocation of funding), these models would need to be highly stable over time. School-level stability over time, however, has hardly been researched at all and the resulting findings are mixed, with some studies indicating high stability of school VA scores over time (Ferrão, 2012; Thomas et al., 2007) and others reporting a lack of stability (e.g., Gorard et al., 2013; Perry, 2016). Furthermore, as there is no consensus on which variables to use as independent or dependent variables in VA models (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019), the stability of VA could vary between different outcome measures (e.g., language or mathematics). If VA models lack stability over time and across outcome measures, their use as the primary information for high-stakes decision-making is in question, and the inferences drawn from them could be compromised. Questions: With these uncertainties in mind, we examine the stability of school VA model scores over time and investigate the differences between language and mathematics achievement as outcome variables. Additionally, we demonstrate the real-life implications of (in)stable VA scores for single schools and point out an alternative, more constructive use of school VA models in educational research. Method: To study the stability of VA scores on school level over time and across outcomes, we drew on a sample of 146 primary schools, using representative longitudinal data from the standardized achievement tests of the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021). These schools included a heterogeneous and multilingual sample of 7016 students. To determine the stability of VA scores in the subject of mathematics and in languages over time, we based our analysis on two longitudinal datasets (from 2015 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2019, respectively) and generated two VA scores per dataset, one for language and one for mathematics achievement. We further analyzed how many schools displayed stable VA scores in the respective outcomes over two years, and compared the rank correlations of VA scores between language and mathematics achievement as an outcome variable. Results and Their Significance: Only 34-38 % of the schools showed stable VA scores from grade 1 to 3 with moderate rank correlations of r = .37 with language and r = .34 with mathematics achievement. We therefore discourage using VA models as the only information for high-stakes educational decisions. Nonetheless, we argue that VA models could be employed to find genuinely effective teaching or school practices—especially in heterogeneous student populations, such as Luxembourg, in which educational disparities are an important topic already in primary school (Hoffmann et al., 2018). Consequently, we contrast the school climate and instructional quality, which might be a driver of the differences between schools with stable high vs. low VA scores. Literature Braun, H. (2005). Using student progress to evaluate teachers: A primer on value-added models. Educational Testing Service. Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers I: Evaluating bias in teacher value-added estimates. American Economic Review, 104(9), 2593–2632. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.104.9.2593 Everson, K. C. (2017). Value-added modeling and educational accountability: Are we answering the real questions? Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 35–70. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316637199 Ferrão, M. E. (2012). On the stability of value added indicators. Quality & Quantity, 46(2), 627–637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-010-9417-6 Gorard, S., Hordosy, R., & Siddiqui, N. (2013). How unstable are “school effects” assessed by a value-added technique? International Education Studies, 6(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n1p1 Kane, T. J., McCaffrey, D. F., Miller, T., & Staiger, D. O. (2013). Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment. Research Paper. MET Project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540959.pdf Levy, J., Brunner, M., Keller, U., & Fischbach, A. (2019). Methodological issues in value-added modeling: An international review from 26 countries. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 31(3), 257–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-019-09303-w LUCET. (2021). Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). https://epstan.lu Perry, T. (2016). English value-added measures: Examining the limitations of school performance measurement. British Educational Research Journal, 42(6), 1056–1080. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3247 Thomas, S., Peng, W. J., & Gray, J. (2007). Modelling patterns of improvement over time: Value added trends in English secondary school performance across ten cohorts. Oxford Review of Education, 33(3), 261–295. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701366116 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 UL) Modal characterisation of simulation relations in probabilistic concurrent gamesZhang, Chenyi; Pang, Jun in Science of Computer Programming (2022), 215Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL) On the Suitability of SHAP Explanations for Refining ClassificationsArslan, Yusuf ; Lebichot, Bertrand ; Allix, Kevin et alin In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2022) (2022, February)In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in ... [more ▼]In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in an ML pipeline is paramount to reduce the workload of experts while increasing customers’ trust. Increasingly, SHAP Explanations are leveraged to facilitate manual analysis. Because they have been shown to be useful to human analysts in the detection of false positives, we postulate that SHAP Explanations may provide a means to automate false-positive reduction. To confirm our intuition, we evaluate clustering and rules detection metrics with ground truth labels to understand the utility of SHAP Explanations to discriminate false positives from true positives. We show that SHAP Explanations are indeed relevant in discriminating samples and are a relevant candidate to automate ML tasks and help to detect and reduce false-positive results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 UL) IML-GCN: Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network for Efficient yet Precise Image ClassificationSingh, Inder Pal ; Oyedotun, Oyebade ; Ghorbel, Enjie et alin AAAI-22 Workshop Program-Deep Learning on Graphs: Methods and Applications (2022, February)In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown ... [more ▼]In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown great performance, they usually make use of very large architectures. To handle this, we propose to combine the small version of a newly introduced network called TResNet with an extended version of Multi-label Graph Convolution Networks (ML-GCN); therefore ensuring the learning of label correlation while reducing the size of the overall network. The proposed approach considers a novel image feature embedding instead of using word embeddings. In fact, the latter are learned from words and not images making them inadequate for the task of multi-label image classification. Experimental results show that our framework competes with the state-of-the-art on two multi-label image benchmarks in terms of both precision and memory requirements. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (4 UL) THS-GWNN: a deep learning framework for temporal network link predictionMo, Xian; Pang, Jun ; Liu, Zhimingin Frontiers of Computer Science (2022), 16(2), 162304Detailed reference viewed: 87 (1 UL) La voie des réformes de l'UEM: "le futur ancien n'est pas notre avenir"Allemand, Frederic in Revue des Affaires Européennes (2022)of a set of reforms in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The economic union is particularly concerned. The reforms implemented so far have been carried out without any change to the substance of the ... [more ▼]of a set of reforms in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The economic union is particularly concerned. The reforms implemented so far have been carried out without any change to the substance of the EU constitutional framework, given that they made use of both the extensive substantive scope of EU legislative decision-making power in the field of economic union and the development of institutional practices to fill gaps or complement the EU legal framework. In so doing, EMU developments are condemned to take place within the limits of constitutional provisions that are outdated in many respects, increasingly complex, confusing and unreadable. Achieving a genuine EMU means breaking out of this status quo. Constitutional revision is no longer an option: it is a prerequisite for the well functioning of EMU. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 UL) Fënnef Filmer vum Projet COMPARE: 1. Aféierung; 2. Literacy – Wat ass dat?: 3. Literacy entwéckelen – Wéi a mat weem?; 4. Elterebesuch – Eng Beräicherung; 5. Um Wee zum Partenariat mat den ElterenKirsch, Claudine ; Colucci, Laura; Lutgen, Pit et alLearning material (2022)Aféierung Aféierung an d’Filmer vum Projet COMPARE An dëser Serie vu Videoe weise mir iech wéi dir Literacy mat klenge Kanner entwéckelen kennt a wéi Zesummenaarbescht mat Elteren a Bibliothéiken iech ... [more ▼]Aféierung Aféierung an d’Filmer vum Projet COMPARE An dëser Serie vu Videoe weise mir iech wéi dir Literacy mat klenge Kanner entwéckelen kennt a wéi Zesummenaarbescht mat Elteren a Bibliothéiken iech heibäi hëllefen. Film 1 Literacy – Wat ass dat? Fréi Erfarunge mat Literacy beaflossen de Kanner hir sproochlech Fähegkeeten, hir Erzielfähegkeet, de Prozess vum Liesen- a Schreiweléieren an hir spéider Leeschtunge an der Schoul. Den éischte Video stellt d'Konzept vu Literacy vir a presentéiert produktiv Situatiounen. Film 2 Literacy entwéckelen – Wéi a mat weem? An dësem Film weise mir iech wéi Dir Literacy zesumme mat Elteren a Bibliothéike kennt entweckelen. Film 3 Elterebesuch – Eng Beräicherung Dëse Video weist iech zwee Beispiller vun Zesummenaarbecht. Eng Educatrice an Elteren erklären de Benefice vun der Zesummenaarbecht fir d’Kanner, d’Elteren an d’Educatricen. Film 4 Um Wee zum Partenariat mat den Elteren An dëser Crèche kachen d’Educatrice reegelméisseg mat de Kanner an heiansdo mat den Elteren. Situatiounen vu Literacy a verschiddene Sprooche komme spontan op. Elteren an d’Chargée vun der Crèche presentéieren d'Auswierkunge vun der Zesummenaarbecht. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 UL) Cinq films du projet COMPARE : 1. Introduction ; 2. Literacy – Qu’est-ce que c’est ?; 3. Développer la literacy – Comment et avec qui ?; 4. Visite des parents – un enrichissement ; 5. Vers un partenariat avec les parentsKirsch, Claudine ; Colucci, Laura; Lutgen, Pit et alLearning material (2022)Introduction Introduction aux films du projet COMPARE Dans cette série de vidéos, nous vous montrerons comment développer la “literacy” avec de jeunes enfants et comment la collaboration avec les parents ... [more ▼]Introduction Introduction aux films du projet COMPARE Dans cette série de vidéos, nous vous montrerons comment développer la “literacy” avec de jeunes enfants et comment la collaboration avec les parents et les bibliothèques vous aident à cet effet. Film 1 Literacy – Qu’est-ce que c’est ? Les expériences précoces de « literacy » ont une incidence sur les compétences linguistiques et narratives des enfants, sur leur processus d'apprentissage de la lecture et de l'écriture, et sur leurs résultats scolaires futurs. La première vidéo introduit le concept de “literacy” et présente des situations productives. Film 2 Développer la literacy – Comment et avec qui ? Dans ce film, nous vous montrons comment développer la « literacy » avec les parents et les bibliothèques. Film 3 Visite des parents – un enrichissement Cette vidéo vous montre deux exemples de collaboration. Une éducatrice et des parents expliquent ce que la collaboration apporte aux enfants, aux parents et aux éducatrices. Film 4 Vers un partenariat avec les parents Dans cette crèche, les éducatrices cuisinent régulièrement avec les enfants et parfois avec les parents. Des situations de « literacy » en plusieurs langues apparaissent spontanément. Des parents ainsi que la chargée de la crèche partagent leurs visions sur les effets de la collaboration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 UL) Five Films of the project COMPARE: 1. Introduction; 2. Literacy – What is it?; 3. Developing literacy – How and with whom?; 4. Developing literacy – How and with whom?; 4. Parent visits – an enrichment Towards a partnership with parentsKirsch, Claudine ; Colucci; Lutgen, Pit et alLearning material (2022)Introduction Introduction to the films of the project COMPARE In this series of videos, we show you how to develop literacy with young children and how collaboration with parents and libraries can help ... [more ▼]Introduction Introduction to the films of the project COMPARE In this series of videos, we show you how to develop literacy with young children and how collaboration with parents and libraries can help you do this. Film 1 Literacy – What is it? Early literacy experiences positively influence children's language and narrative skills, their learning to read and write, and future school achievements. The first video introduces the concept of literacy and presents productive situations. Film 2 Developing literacy – How and with whom? In this movie we show you how to develop Literacy with the help of parents and libraries. Film 3 Parent visits – an enrichment This video shows you two examples of collaboration. An educator and parents explain the benefits of collaboration for the children, the parents and the educators. Film 4 Towards a partnership with parents In this day-care centre, the educators regularly cook with the children and sometimes with the parents. Literacy events in several languages occur spontaneoulsy. Parents and the head of the day-care centre present the effects of collaboration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 UL) Association of ultra-rare coding variants with genetic generalized epilepsy: A case–control whole exome sequencing studyKoko, Mahmoud; Motelow, Joshua E.; Stanley, Kate E. et alin Epilepsia (2022)Abstract Objective We aimed to identify genes associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) by combining large cohorts enriched with individuals with a positive family history. Secondarily, we set ... [more ▼]Abstract Objective We aimed to identify genes associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) by combining large cohorts enriched with individuals with a positive family history. Secondarily, we set out to compare the association of genes independently with familial and sporadic GGE. Methods We performed a case–control whole exome sequencing study in unrelated individuals of European descent diagnosed with GGE (previously recruited and sequenced through multiple international collaborations) and ancestry-matched controls. The association of ultra-rare variants (URVs; in 18 834 protein-coding genes) with epilepsy was examined in 1928 individuals with GGE (vs. 8578 controls), then separately in 945 individuals with familial GGE (vs. 8626 controls), and finally in 1005 individuals with sporadic GGE (vs. 8621 controls). We additionally examined the association of URVs with familial and sporadic GGE in two gene sets important for inhibitory signaling (19 genes encoding γ-aminobutyric acid type A [GABAA] receptors, 113 genes representing the GABAergic pathway). Results GABRG2 was associated with GGE (p = 1.8 × 10−5), approaching study-wide significance in familial GGE (p = 3.0 × 10−6), whereas no gene approached a significant association with sporadic GGE. Deleterious URVs in the most intolerant subgenic regions in genes encoding GABAA receptors were associated with familial GGE (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95 confidence interval [CI] = 1.9–7.8, false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted p = .0024), whereas their association with sporadic GGE had marginally lower odds (OR = 3.1, 95 CI = 1.3–6.7, FDR-adjusted p = .022). URVs in GABAergic pathway genes were associated with familial GGE (OR = 1.8, 95 CI = 1.3–2.5, FDR-adjusted p = .0024) but not with sporadic GGE (OR = 1.3, 95 CI = .9–1.9, FDR-adjusted p = .19). Significance URVs in GABRG2 are likely an important risk factor for familial GGE. The association of gene sets of GABAergic signaling with familial GGE is more prominent than with sporadic GGE. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)