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See detailAuthenticity. Historical Data Integrity and the Layered Materiality of Digital Objects
Fickers, Andreas UL

in Balbi, Gabriele; Ribeiro, Nelson; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) et al Digital Roots. Historicizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age (2021)

As media environments and communication practices evolve over time, so do theoretical concepts. This book analyzes some of the most well-known and fiercely discussed concepts of the digital age from a ... [more ▼]

As media environments and communication practices evolve over time, so do theoretical concepts. This book analyzes some of the most well-known and fiercely discussed concepts of the digital age from a historical perspective, showing how many of them have pre-digital roots and how they have changed and still are constantly changing in the digital era. Written by leading authors in media and communication studies, the chapters historicize 16 concepts that have become central in the digital media literature, focusing on three main areas. The first part, Technologies and Connections, historicises concepts like network, media convergence, multimedia, interactivity and artificial intelligence. The second one is related to Agency and Politics and explores global governance, datafication, fake news, echo chambers, digital media activism. The last one, Users and Practices, is finally devoted to telepresence, digital loneliness, amateurism, user generated content, fandom and authenticity. The book aims to shed light on how concepts emerge and are co-shaped, circulated, used and reappropriated in different contexts. It argues for the need for a conceptual media and communication history that will reveal new developments without concealing continuities and it demonstrates how the analogue/digital dichotomy is often a misleading one. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction: sémiotiques de l'archive
Fickers, Andreas UL; Dondero, Maria Guilia; Tore, Gian Maria UL et al

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2021), 12

Ce numéro de Signata vise à poser la question de l’archive d’un point de vue sémiotique et sémio-pragmatique. On entend ici par « sémiotique » non pas une discipline unique, mais une pluralité de manières ... [more ▼]

Ce numéro de Signata vise à poser la question de l’archive d’un point de vue sémiotique et sémio-pragmatique. On entend ici par « sémiotique » non pas une discipline unique, mais une pluralité de manières de questionner le sens, les formes et les valeurs au sein des disciplines historiques, sociologiques, philosophiques, linguistiques, médiatiques, artistiques, etc. Le but du dossier est ainsi la constitution d’une cartographie qui embrasse les différentes approches qui, dans le domaine de l’archive, peuvent faire émerger les questionnements liés au sens. [less ▲]

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See detailOn deformation quantization of quadratic Poisson structures
Merkoulov (merkulov), Serguei UL; Khoroshkin, Anton

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study the deformation complex of the dg wheeled properad of Z-graded quadratic Poisson structures and prove that it is quasi-isomorphic to the even M. Kontsevich graph complex. As a first application ... [more ▼]

We study the deformation complex of the dg wheeled properad of Z-graded quadratic Poisson structures and prove that it is quasi-isomorphic to the even M. Kontsevich graph complex. As a first application we show that the Grothendieck-Teichmüller group acts on the genus completion of that wheeled properad faithfully and essentially transitively. As a second application we classify all universal quantizations of Z-graded quadratic Poisson structures together with the underlying (so called) homogeneous formality maps. [less ▲]

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See detailToken Economy
Sunyaev, Ali; Kannengießer, Niclas; Beck, Roman et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021)

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See detailThe Geostationary Ring: Practice and Law, Martha Mejia-Kaiser, Nijhoff/ Brill, Leiden 2020
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Blount, Percy UL

in Air and Space Law (2021), 46(3), 475-478

The book is a comprehensive analysis of the international regime of the geostationary orbit.

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See detailCOVID19 Disease Map, a computational knowledge repository of virus-host interaction mechanisms.
Ostaszewski, Marek UL; Niarakis, Anna; Mazein, Alexander UL et al

in Molecular systems biology (2021), 17(10), 10387

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets ... [more ▼]

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians and computational biologists. The diagrams of the C19DMap, curated from the literature, are integrated with relevant interaction and text mining databases. We demonstrate the application of network analysis and modelling approaches by concrete examples to highlight new testable hypotheses. This framework helps to find signatures of SARS-CoV-2 predisposition, treatment response or prioritisation of drug candidates. Such an approach may help deal with new waves of COVID-19 or similar pandemics in the long-term perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying activities of daily living impairment in Parkinson’s disease using the Functional Activities Questionnaire
Becker, Sara; Pauly, Claire UL; Lawton, Michael et al

in Neurological Sciences (2021)

Objective Cognitive-driven activity of daily living (ADL) impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is increasingly discussed as prodromal marker for dementia. Diagnostic properties of assessments for this ... [more ▼]

Objective Cognitive-driven activity of daily living (ADL) impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is increasingly discussed as prodromal marker for dementia. Diagnostic properties of assessments for this specifc ADL impairment are sparsely investigated in PD. The ability of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) for diferentiating between PD patients with normal cognition and with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), according to informant and self-reports, was examined. Global cognitive function in groups with and without mild ADL impairment was compared according to diferent cut-ofs. Methods Multicenter data of 589 patients of an international cohort (CENTRE-PD) were analyzed. Analyses were run separately for informant-rated and self-rated FAQ. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to defne the optimal FAQ cut-of for PD-MCI (≥1), and groups were additionally split according to reported FAQ cut-ofs for PD-MCI in the literature (≥3,≥5). Binary logistic regressions examined the efect of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score in PD patients with and without mild ADL impairment. Results Two hundred and twenty-fve (38.2%) patients were classifed as PD-MCI. For all three cut-of values, sensitivity was moderate to low (<0.55), but specifcity was moderately high (>0.54) with a tendency of higher values for self-reported defcits. For the self-report, the cut-of≥3 showed a signifcant efect of the MoCA (B= −0.31, p=0.003), where FAQ≥3 patients had worse cognition. No efect for group diferences based on informant ratings was detected. Conclusion Our data argue that self-reported ADL impairments assessed by the FAQ show a relation to the severity of cognitive impairment in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of the biomass formulation for cancer metabolic modeling and drug prediction.
Moscardo Garcia, Maria UL; Pires Pacheco, Maria Irene UL; Bintener, Tamara Jean Rita UL et al

in iScience (2021), 24(10), 103110

Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions include all known biochemical reactions occurring in a cell. A typical application is the prediction of potential drug targets for cancer treatment. The precision of ... [more ▼]

Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions include all known biochemical reactions occurring in a cell. A typical application is the prediction of potential drug targets for cancer treatment. The precision of these predictions relies on the definition of the objective function. Generally, the biomass reaction is used to illustrate the growth capacity of a cancer cell. Today, seven human biomass reactions can be identified in published metabolic models. The impact of these differences on the metabolic model predictions has not been explored in detail. We explored this impact on cancer metabolic model predictions and showed that the metabolite composition and the associated coefficients had a large impact on the growth rate prediction accuracy, whereas gene essentiality predictions were mainly affected by the metabolite composition. Our results demonstrate the importance of defining a consensus biomass reaction compatible with most human models, which would contribute to ensuring the reproducibility and consistency of the results. [less ▲]

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See detailO'Dair, Marcus: Distributed Creativity
Smethurst, Reilly UL; Fridgen, Gilbert UL

in Zeitschrift für Urheber- und Medienrecht (2021), (11),

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See detailClimate Change and Pandemics: The Need for a Renewed EU Risk-Management Strategy
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Comparative Law Yearbook of International Business (2021)

Coronavirus and climate change are not two different crises. They represent two sides of the same significant turmoil relating to the progressive degradation of our environmental and health ecosystems ... [more ▼]

Coronavirus and climate change are not two different crises. They represent two sides of the same significant turmoil relating to the progressive degradation of our environmental and health ecosystems. Against this backdrop, and in light of, not only, the cyclical time of pandemics, but also of the predictable occurrence of a new pandemic associated with the worsening of the climate crisis, what should EU law do to prevent and better manage the occurrence of such risks? To answer this question, the core claim of this paper is that the EU should implement a common, coordinated, and consistent risk management strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines from fibroblasts of unrelated Parkinson’s patients carrying the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene (LCSBi005, LCSBi006)
Novak, Gabriela; Finkbeiner, Steven; Skibinski, Gaia et al

in Stem Cell Research (2021), 57

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See detailWhat You See is What it Means! Semantic Representation Learning of Code based on Visualization
Keller, Patrick UL; Kabore, Abdoul Kader UL; Plein, Laura et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021)

Recent successes in training word embeddings for NLP tasks have encouraged a wave of research on representation learning for sourcecode, which builds on similar NLP methods. The overall objective is then ... [more ▼]

Recent successes in training word embeddings for NLP tasks have encouraged a wave of research on representation learning for sourcecode, which builds on similar NLP methods. The overall objective is then to produce code embeddings that capture the maximumof program semantics. State-of-the-art approaches invariably rely on a syntactic representation (i.e., raw lexical tokens, abstractsyntax trees, or intermediate representation tokens) to generate embeddings, which are criticized in the literature as non-robustor non-generalizable. In this work, we investigate a novel embedding approach based on the intuition that source code has visualpatterns of semantics. We further use these patterns to address the outstanding challenge of identifying semantic code clones. Wepropose theWySiWiM(“What You See Is What It Means”) approach where visual representations of source code are fed into powerfulpre-trained image classification neural networks from the field of computer vision to benefit from the practical advantages of transferlearning. We evaluate the proposed embedding approach on the task of vulnerable code prediction in source code and on two variationsof the task of semantic code clone identification: code clone detection (a binary classification problem), and code classification (amulti-classification problem). We show with experiments on the BigCloneBench (Java), Open Judge (C) that although simple, ourWySiWiMapproach performs as effectively as state of the art approaches such as ASTNN or TBCNN. We also showed with datafrom NVD and SARD thatWySiWiMrepresentation can be used to learn a vulnerable code detector with reasonable performance(accuracy∼90%). We further explore the influence of different steps in our approach, such as the choice of visual representations or theclassification algorithm, to eventually discuss the promises and limitations of this research direction. [less ▲]

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See detailLe principe de précaution en droit de l'Union européenne
Donati, Alessandra UL

Book published by Bruylant (2021)

By acknowledging the flexible and complex nature of the precautionary principle under EU law and by referring to methodological pluralism, the goal of this book is to provide a polycentric interpretation ... [more ▼]

By acknowledging the flexible and complex nature of the precautionary principle under EU law and by referring to methodological pluralism, the goal of this book is to provide a polycentric interpretation of this principle based on diversity rather than uniformity. The polycentric interpretation is anchored in the construction of the conceptual network of the precautionary principle. This allows for the unitas multiplex between the different definitions and applications of this principle to be identified and assessed. The core claim of the book is that the polycentric interpretation of the precautionary principle can be built on two concepts: anticipation and action that represent the two main knots of its conceptual network. These knots are not isolated, but they are connected via some links to other knots that constitute the main concepts allowing identifying and applying the precautionary principle under EU law. [less ▲]

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See detailThe precautionary principle under European Union Law
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Hitotsubashi Journal of Law and Politics (2021)

By acknowledging the flexible and complex nature of the precautionary principle in EU law, the purpose of this paper is to provide a polycentric interpretation of this principle based on diversity rather ... [more ▼]

By acknowledging the flexible and complex nature of the precautionary principle in EU law, the purpose of this paper is to provide a polycentric interpretation of this principle based on diversity rather than uniformity. To achieve this objective, a methodology derived from the methodological pluralism is employed. This allows for the unitas multiplex between the different definitions and applications of the precautionary principle to be researched. The core claim of this paper is that the polycentric interpretation of the precautionary principle can be built on two concepts: anticipation and action. In the first part of this paper, I argue that anticipation implies the qualification by law and the evaluation by the science of uncertain risks. In the second part, I consider that, after having anticipated the time of action, decision-makers should act based on the precautionary principle. However, the action undertaken has different meanings and consequences from the procedural and substantive perspective. From the procedural side, the decision-makers should take into account this principle, while they remain free, on the substantive side, to adopt a precautionary measure. [less ▲]

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See detailSARS-CoV-2 transmission risk from asymptomatic carriers: Results from a mass screening programme in Luxembourg
Wilmes, Paul UL; Zimmer, Jacques UL; Schulz, Jasmin et al

in The Lancet Regional Health. Europe (2021), 4

Background To accompany the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown measures, Luxembourg implemented a mass screening (MS) programme. The first phase coincided with an early summer epidemic wave in 2020. Methods rRT ... [more ▼]

Background To accompany the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown measures, Luxembourg implemented a mass screening (MS) programme. The first phase coincided with an early summer epidemic wave in 2020. Methods rRT-PCR-based screening for SARS-CoV-2 was performed by pooling of samples. The infrastructure allowed the testing of the entire resident and cross-border worker populations. The strategy relied on social connectivity within different activity sectors. Invitation frequencies were tactically increased in sectors and regions with higher prevalence. The results were analysed alongside contact tracing data. Findings The voluntary programme covered 49 of the resident and 22 of the cross-border worker populations. It identified 850 index cases with an additional 249 cases from contact tracing. Over-representation was observed in the services, hospitality and construction sectors alongside regional differences. Asymptomatic cases had a significant but lower secondary attack rate when compared to symptomatic individuals. Based on simulations using an agent-based SEIR model, the total number of expected cases would have been 42·9 (90 CI [-0·3, 96·7]) higher without MS. Mandatory participation would have resulted in a further difference of 39·7 [19·6, 59·2]. Interpretation Strategic and tactical MS allows the suppression of epidemic dynamics. Asymptomatic carriers represent a significant risk for transmission. Containment of future outbreaks will depend on early testing in sectors and regions. Higher participation rates must be assured through targeted incentivisation and recurrent invitation. Funding This project was funded by the Luxembourg Ministries of Higher Education and Research, and Health. [less ▲]

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See detailAffaire Commission c/ Italie du 5 septembre 2019 : des manquements de l’Italie et des limites du principe de précaution dans la gestion de la crise de la Xylella
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Revue Européenne de Droit de la Consommation (2021)

L’affaire Commission c/ Italie du 5 septembre 2019 marque une étape importante dans la gestion de la crise de la Xylella. En condamnant l’Italie pour avoir manqué à ses obligations d’enlèvement de ... [more ▼]

L’affaire Commission c/ Italie du 5 septembre 2019 marque une étape importante dans la gestion de la crise de la Xylella. En condamnant l’Italie pour avoir manqué à ses obligations d’enlèvement de végétaux infectés par la Xylella et de vigilance de la progression de cette bactérie, la Cour de justice indique aux autres États membres la voie à suivre pour essayer de contenir la diffusion de cette bactérie « tueuse » d’oliviers. À partir de cet arrêt, on s’interroge sur les limites du principe de précaution qui, bien qu’évoqué comme instrument de prévention et de gestion de la crise de la Xylella, n’a pas permis d’arrêter la propagation de cette bactérie non seulement en Italie, mais aussi, désormais, en France, en Espagne et au Portugal. [less ▲]

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