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See detailATG5 and ATG7 Expression Levels Are Reduced in Cutaneous Melanoma and Regulated by NRF1
Frangez, Ziva; Gerard, Déborah UL; He, Zhahoyue et al

in Frontiers in Oncology (2021)

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See detailA conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration
Gilodi, Amalia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 05)

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to ... [more ▼]

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to treat the concept as self-explanatory, without problematizing neither its conceptualization nor its use and possible negative societal and psychological consequences. Set within the framework of the EU-funded project MIMY (n°870700), investigating the processes of integration of young migrants in 9 European countries, this paper critically evaluates different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and proposes a new multilevel conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration. Focusing on different levels of analysis, the model situates individuals and groups in the broader socio-political hierarchies and power dynamics that inevitably affect them (structural vulnerability), acknowledges how these systems are (re)produced in situated interpersonal relationships (situational vulnerability) and accounts for migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability. Focusing on the interrelationships between levels of analysis, the model highlights how macro conditions and definitions of vulnerability may affect individual experiences, through processes such as stigmatization, internalization of stereotypes, disempowerment, but also how individuals can actively negotiate their ascribed ‘vulnerability’ through processes such as resistance, mobilization and collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailTijd-Schrift: Heemkunde en Lokaal-Erfgoedpraktijk in Vlaanderen
De Meester, Jan; Claes, Tinne; Debbaut, Ronny et al

in Editoriaal. Tijd-Schrift. Erfgoedpraktijk in Vlaanderen. Kinderen. (2021), 11(2),

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See detailVisual primes as culture-sensitive method to understanding acculturation processes
Murdock, Elke UL; Campill, Marc-Antoine; Valsiner, Jaan

Scientific Conference (2021, July 31)

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich ... [more ▼]

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich context to explore acculturation processes. The majority of immigrants have European roots, but the number of non-European immigrants is rising. Within this qualitative study we examined the identity construction processes of eight Japanese women living in Luxembourg using several visual primes guiding the interview. Building on Ying-yi Hong’s work on cultural mixing we developed hybrid images to evoke affective responses and to capture the negotiation processes between cultures. The choice of images was carefully prepared and first involved an ethnographic study of cultural dimensions of Japan and Luxembourg. Based on this analysis we decided to explore the domains of beauty, food, living, leisure and family. For each domain, we chose a prototypical European and Japanese image and created a hybrid image. All images were culturally meaningful and anchored in real life experiences. The Japanese images were tested in a pilot study in Japan. The interviews were carefully planned, each phase involving different visual stimuli. In the opening phase, the interviewer presented a business card in three different designs – European, Japanese and a mixed version. Interviewees could choose their preferred version and explain their choice. Next, a series of 15 matched typical images of Japan and Luxembourg were shown and the interviewees again chose their preferred images and explained their choice. Finally, the five sets of domain-specific images were presented. These provided a context for narration and especially the reaction to the hybrid stimuli showed how participants negotiate their cultural identities. The visual primes made the negotiation strategies visible. Findings from this study and the potential of this culture-sensitive method for accessing the process of acculturation will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural Identity Integration – the importance of the context of the family
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the understanding identifications of persons growing up with multiple cultural experiences and how these influences are negotiated within themselves. The current study draws on a qualitative design and involved a semi-structured interview and two exercises designed to stimulate reflection on cultural influences. We recruited eight female participants, aged between 21 and 25 years, who all grew up in Germany. Their parents originate from a wide range of countries of various cultural distance to Germany. Fairly homogenous in terms of socioeconomic status and educational background, the sample was very diverse in terms of cultural influences. Half of our participants grew up in mixed national families. Building on the multicultural identity integration research we were particularly interested whether participants identify with one cultural group over others (categorization), keep their influences separate (compartmentalization) or link their cultural influences (integration) and drivers for each outcome. The results point towards the important role of parents regarding cultural resources and practices. Our results point to categorization, if there is little or no contact to one parent, compartmentalization, if the relationship between parents is conflicted and integration if both parents engage equally in cultural maintenance. Families are the primary socialization unit and our findings suggest that parental commitment to transfer of cultural values and practices impacts the cultural identity configurations. Findings will be discussed in a systemic perspective of identity construal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailA Cubesat-ready Phase Synchronization Digital Payload for Coherent Distributed Remote Sensing Missions
Querol, Jorge UL; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos UL; Martinez Marrero, Liz UL et al

in 2021 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (2021)

Distributed antenna arrays, fractionated payloads and cooperative platforms can provide unprecedented performance in the next generation of spaceborne communications and remote sensing systems. Remote ... [more ▼]

Distributed antenna arrays, fractionated payloads and cooperative platforms can provide unprecedented performance in the next generation of spaceborne communications and remote sensing systems. Remote phase synchronization of physically separated oscillators is the first step towards a coherent operation of distributed systems. This work shows the preliminary results of a TDD remote phase synchronization algorithm with a master-follower architecture. Herein, we describe the implementation and validation of the proposed algorithm. The implementation has been conducted in a Cubesat-ready software defined radio and validated at the end-to-end satellite communications testbed available at the University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailFace-swap Deepfake Detection Using High-frequency Components
Mejri, Nesryne UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2021)

Over the last years, very deceitful deepfakes applied to human visuals appeared on theInternet. Given their impressive visual quality, they are nowadays considered a potentialthreat for both individuals ... [more ▼]

Over the last years, very deceitful deepfakes applied to human visuals appeared on theInternet. Given their impressive visual quality, they are nowadays considered a potentialthreat for both individuals and organizations. Hence, researchers started investigatingthe flaws of deepfakes to develop automated tools capable of detecting forged content. Asa result, a wide range of deepfake detection methods has been introduced. In particular,deep learning based-approaches have shown impressive performance. Nevertheless, thesemethods are still not sufficiently robust as they usually consider only one type of artifact,either in the spatial or the frequency domain. In this context, this thesis proposes toleverage the high-frequency components extracted from color images jointly with theoriginal color information to detect unusual traces. It introduces an end-to-end trainablemodule that (a) extracts features from precomputed high-frequency components and (b)fuses them with RGB features. The deepfake detection framework not only exploitsthe high-frequency anomalies present in manipulated images but can also be integratedwith the majority of RGB-based deepfake detectors. Experimental results show thatthe proposed approach improves the performance of state-of-the-art networks, such asXceptionNet and EfficientNet, on a challenging deepfake dataset called Celeb-DF. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the move within themselves – cultural distance and negotiation processes of cultural belonging
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one ... [more ▼]

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one cultural point of reference from birth. In the growing body of literature on bi- and multiculturalism different models of cultural acquisition are described, but still little is known about how the negotiation process takes place and what factors facilitate resolution and well-being. The present study builds on a recent theoretical framework on multicultural identity integration developed by Yampolsky et al. and investigates the role of cultural distance in the negotiation process for cultural belonging. For the present study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight young women (Mage = 22.6). All grew up in Germany, yet each had a very different other cultural background ranging from Chile, Columbia, France, Ghana, Hungary, Luxembourg, Russia to Sri Lanka. We asked participants about their sense of belonging, perceived similarities and differences between their cultural influences and their way of positioning themselves within these. Each interview was complemented by two visual exercises illustrating the sense of belonging. The results show that all participants engaged in active negotiation processes and arrived at very different solutions in terms of belonging. The cultural integration process depends on a multitude of factors – cultural distance being one, but parents playing an important role. The findings will be discussed in light of current acculturation models. Explanations will be provided with special focus on implications for migration and acculturation research. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability in the context of migration: a critical assessment of its conceptualizations and uses
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 07)

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its ... [more ▼]

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. [less ▲]

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See detailFederated Learning-based Scheme for Detecting Passive Mobile Attackers in 5G Vehicular Edge Computing
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Annals of Telecommunications (2021)

Detecting passive attacks is always considered difficult in vehicular networks. Passive attackers can eavesdrop on the wireless medium to collect beacons. These beacons can be exploited to track the ... [more ▼]

Detecting passive attacks is always considered difficult in vehicular networks. Passive attackers can eavesdrop on the wireless medium to collect beacons. These beacons can be exploited to track the positions of vehicles not only to violate their location privacy but also for criminal purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel federated learning-based scheme for detecting passive mobile attackers in 5G Vehicular Edge Computing. We first identify a set of strategies that can be used by attackers to efficiently track vehicles without being visually detected. We then build an efficient Machine Learning (ML) model to detect tracking attacks based only on the receiving beacons. Our scheme enables Federated Learning (FL) at the edge to ensure collaborative learning while preserving the privacy of vehicles. Moreover, FL clients use a semi-supervised learning approach to ensure accurate self-labeling. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme to detect passive mobile attackers quickly and with high accuracy. Indeed, only 20 received beacons are required to achieve 95\% accuracy. This accuracy can be achieved within 60 FL rounds using 5 FL clients in each FL round. The obtained results are also validated through simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailLes représentations du genre dans les manuels scolaires: Une étude à l'école fondamentale luxembourgeoise
Kerger, Sylvie UL; Brasseur, Laurence

Report (2021)

Tous les jours, les enfants se servent des manuels scolaires. Mis à part leur rôle pédagogique, les manuels scolaires agissent comme instruments de socialisation et de transmission de valeurs. De ce fait ... [more ▼]

Tous les jours, les enfants se servent des manuels scolaires. Mis à part leur rôle pédagogique, les manuels scolaires agissent comme instruments de socialisation et de transmission de valeurs. De ce fait, les manuels scolaires ont le potentiel de contribuer à l’égalité entre les sexes dans nos sociétés. Nous présentons un état des lieux ainsi que des pistes possibles pour garantir l'égalité entre les sexes dans les manuels scolaires ainsi que dans les pratiques éducatives. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalgesic effects of interacting with a VR game and associated psychophysiological responses
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be an effective tool for pain distraction by redirecting attention away from painful stimuli. Although VR therapy has been successfully implemented in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be an effective tool for pain distraction by redirecting attention away from painful stimuli. Although VR therapy has been successfully implemented in clinical settings, little is known about the underlying factors that modulate analgesic responses, such as cognitive load, executive functions and VR or gaming experience. Methods: A final sample of N = 90 healthy participants played the VR game Subnautica in a high and a low cognitive load condition. In the low load condition, participants explored the VR along a predefined route. In the high load condition, participants had to additionally memorize eight digits presented along the route. Pain heat thresholds as well as psychophysiological measures (ECG, EDA) were recorded during a non-interactive resting state period prior to playing as well as during the two VR sessions. Furthermore, participants completed questionnaires (e.g., pain attitude) and executive functioning tasks (e.g., go/nogo task). Results: Pain thresholds did not differ for high versus low demand. However, participants achieved higher threshold for the interactive playing sessions compared to the resting state period. Psychophysiological markers (e.g., HRV) indicate lower sympathetic activity during the resting state compared to the playing session (resting state < low load < high load). Moreover, pain catastrophizing and fear of pain were significant predictors of pain thresholds. Discussion: Results shed light on the role of inter-individual differences and psychophysiological markers of VR-based pain sensitivity and indicate factors that facilitate/impair distraction effects. This may have important implication for the use of VR-therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailDenken in Kategorien
Bucher, Heike; Kerger, Sylvie UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailEncoding Hidden Information onto Surfaces Using Polymerized Cholesteric Spherical Reflectors
Geng, Yong UL; Kizhakidathazhath, Rijeesh UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Advanced Functional Materials (2021)

The omnidirectional Bragg reflection of cholesteric liquid crystals molded into spheres turns them into narrow-band retroreflectors with distinct circular polarization. It is shown that these cholesteric ... [more ▼]

The omnidirectional Bragg reflection of cholesteric liquid crystals molded into spheres turns them into narrow-band retroreflectors with distinct circular polarization. It is shown that these cholesteric spherical reflectors (CSRs) can encode information onto surfaces for far-field optical read-out without false positives, as the selective retroreflectivity allows the background to be easily subtracted. In order to hide the encoding from detection by the human eye, the retroreflection band is tuned to the near-UV or IR spectra, allowing ubiquitous deployment of CSRs in human-populated environments. This opens diverse application opportunities, for instance, in supporting safe robotic navigation and in augmented reality. A key breakthrough is our ability to permanently embed CSRs in a binder such that undesired scattering and reflections are minimized. This is achieved by realizing CSRs as shells that are polymerized from the liquid crystalline state. The resulting shrinkage around an incompressible fluid deforms the thinnest region of each shell such that it ruptures at a well-defined point. This leaves a single small hole in every CSR that gives access to the interior, allowing complete embedding in the binder with optimized refractive index, minimizing visibility. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Secrecy Performance of NOMA-Based Integrated Satellite Multiple-Terrestrial Relay Networks With Hardware Impairments
Guo, Kefeng; An, Kang; Zhou, Feng et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70

Integrated satellite terrestrial networks and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) have been confirmed to be promising and effective approaches to achieve substantial performance gains for future ... [more ▼]

Integrated satellite terrestrial networks and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) have been confirmed to be promising and effective approaches to achieve substantial performance gains for future wireless paradigms. This paper studies the effect of hardware impairments (HIs) on the secrecy performance of NOMA-based integrated satellite multiple-terrestrial relay networks (ISMTRNs). Particularly, we consider two important wiretapping cases: Case I, colluding case: all eavesdroppers cooperatively overhear the information; and Case II, non-colluding case: one eavesdropper with the best wiretapping quality is chosen to overhear the main channel information. Specially, the closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) of the considered NOMA-based ISMTRNs in the presence of the above two eavesdropping cases and partial relay selection scheme are obtained. To obtain further insights in high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) regime, the asymptotic analysis of SOP with two considered cases are also derived, which give efficient means to evaluate the benefit of NOMA scheme and the impacts of HIs on the SOP. Moreover, we obtain Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the secrecy energy efficiency (SEE). [less ▲]

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See detailTowards the assessment of realistic hybrid precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems with hardware impairments
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios K; Papageorgiou, Georgios K; Kolawole, Oluwatayo Y et al

in IET Communications (2021), 15(12), 1606-1619

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the ... [more ▼]

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the impact of the inevitable residual transceiver hardware impairments (RTHIs), including the residual additive transceiver hardware impairments (RATHIs) and the amplified thermal noise (ATN), has not been sufficiently studied in mmWave hybrid processing. In this work, the hybrid precoder and combiner are designed, which include both digital and analog processing by taking into account the RATHIs and the ATN. In particular, a thorough study is provided to shed light on the degradation of the spectral efficiency (SE) of the practical system. The outcomes show the steady degradation of the performance by the ATN across all SNR values, which becomes increasingly critical for higher values of its variance. Furthermore, it is shown that RATHIs result in degradation of the system only in the high SNR regime. Hence, their impact in mmWave system operating at low SNRs might be negligible. Moreover, an increase concerning the number of streams differentiates the impact between the transmit and receive RATHIs with the latter having a more severe effect. [less ▲]

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See detailBewegte Balladen: Balladen durch Erklärvideos erschließen. Unterrichtsmaterialien für den Deutschunterricht
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailInstitutional Investors and Infrastructure Investing
Kräussl, Roman UL; Andonov, Aleksandar; M. Rauh., Joshua

in Review of Financial Studies (2021), 34(8)(3880-3934),

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See detailHow band tail recombination influences the open-circuit voltage of solar cells.
Wolter, Max UL; Carron, Romain; Avancini, Enrico et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2021)

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