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See detailVers un renforcement du contrôle juridictionnel à la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne ? L’exemple du contentieux du principe de précaution
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Cahiers de Droit Européen (2020)

L’analyse du contentieux du principe de précaution démontre qu’une évolution discrète et peu assumée peut être perçue dans la jurisprudence de la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne. En principe, la ... [more ▼]

L’analyse du contentieux du principe de précaution démontre qu’une évolution discrète et peu assumée peut être perçue dans la jurisprudence de la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne. En principe, la Cour déclare se borner à un contrôle restreint dans son intensité à l’appréciation d’une erreur manifeste et limité dans son objet à l’évaluation de la légalité des mesures prises par les décideurs, à l’exclusion des avis scientifiques rendus par les experts en amont de celles-ci. Cependant, de facto la Cour opère parfois un contrôle juridictionnel renforcé. Ce renforcement se traduit par l’approfondissement, sur le plan procédural, de l’intensité du contrôle et par l’élargissement, sur le plan substantiel, de son objet pour y inclure l’appréciation des données scientifiques à la base de l’adoption des mesures de précaution. [less ▲]

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See detailLa crisi del coronavirus: alla (ri)scoperta del principio di precauzione
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Bio Law Journal (2020)

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See detailArrêt Antony C. Tweedale/Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments: la transparence de la procédure d’évaluation du glyphosate à l’épreuve du Tribunal de l’Union européenne
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Revue Européenne de Droit de la Consommation (2020)

La transparence de la procédure d’évaluation scientifique du glyphosate est au cœur de l’arrêt Antony C. Tweedale contre Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments rendu le 7 mars 2019 par le Tribunal ... [more ▼]

La transparence de la procédure d’évaluation scientifique du glyphosate est au cœur de l’arrêt Antony C. Tweedale contre Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments rendu le 7 mars 2019 par le Tribunal de l’Union européenne. En l’espèce, en annulant la décision de l’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (« EFSA ») qui avait nié au requérant le droit d’accès à certaines parties de deux études relatives à la toxicité du glyphosate, le Tribunal réaffirme l’importance de disposer d’une expertise scientifique transparente (II). Ce besoin de transparence est encore plus marqué dans le cas du glyphosate dont la procédure d’autorisation a révélé plusieurs zones d’opacité (III) [less ▲]

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See detailLe principe de précaution: un outil de gestion des crises en droit de l’Union européenne ?
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Journal de Droit Européen (2020)

 Le principe de précaution a été largement invoqué dans le cadre de la crise de la Covid-19 pour justifier les mesures restrictives adoptées par les autorités  Le principe de précaution n’est cependant ... [more ▼]

 Le principe de précaution a été largement invoqué dans le cadre de la crise de la Covid-19 pour justifier les mesures restrictives adoptées par les autorités  Le principe de précaution n’est cependant pas un instrument de gestion des crises, mais un outil de prévention des risques qui pourraient donner lieu à une crise  Pour prévenir la survenance d’une crise, le principe de précaution doit être mis en œuvre par les décideurs en temps ......................................................................................... [less ▲]

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See detailClimate change and pandemics: the EU risk-management strategy under scrutiny
Donati, Alessandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Coronavirus and climate change are not two different crises. They represent two sides of the same significant turmoil relating to the progressive degradation of our environmental and health ecosystems ... [more ▼]

Coronavirus and climate change are not two different crises. They represent two sides of the same significant turmoil relating to the progressive degradation of our environmental and health ecosystems. Against this backdrop, and in light of, not only, the cyclical time of pandemics, but also of the predictable occurrence of a new pandemic associated with the worsening of the climate crisis, what should EU law do to prevent and better manage the occurrence of such risks? To answer this question, the core claim of this paper is that the EU should implement a common, coordinated, and consistent risk management strategy [less ▲]

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See detailDiscretionary power, scientific uncertainty and right to life in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic: Lessons learnt from the Administrative Tribunal of Guadeloupe and the French Council of State
Donati, Alessandra UL

in European Journal of Risk Regulation (2020)

Administrative Tribunal of Guadeloupe 28 March 2020, case n° 2000295 (Judge for interim relief); French Council of State 4 April 2020, cases n° 439904, 439905 (Judge for interim relief) Based on the ... [more ▼]

Administrative Tribunal of Guadeloupe 28 March 2020, case n° 2000295 (Judge for interim relief); French Council of State 4 April 2020, cases n° 439904, 439905 (Judge for interim relief) Based on the precautionary principle and to protect the right to life under Article L. 521-2 of the French Code of Administrative Justice, the Administrative Tribunal of Guadeloupe (Judge for interim relief) ordered the Regional Health Agency of Guadeloupe and the University Hospital Centre of Guadeloupe to procure 200,000 COVID-19 screening tests corresponding to half of the population of Guadeloupe and to buy the doses necessary for the treatment of the COVID-19 epidemic with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for 20,000 patients. On appeal, the French Council of State, by disregarding the application of the precautionary principle and with controversial reasoning concerning the relationship between discretionary power and scientific uncertainty, annulled the decision of the Administrative Tribunal of Guadeloupe. [less ▲]

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See detailThe glyphosate saga, a further but not a final step: the CJEU confirms the validity of the regulation on plant protection products in light of the precautionary principle
Donati, Alessandra UL

in European Journal of Risk Regulation (2020)

Case C-616/17, Blaise and others, [2019] ECLI:EU:C:2019:800 There are no grounds to question the validity of the regulation (EC) n° 1107/2009 on the placing of plant protection products (including ... [more ▼]

Case C-616/17, Blaise and others, [2019] ECLI:EU:C:2019:800 There are no grounds to question the validity of the regulation (EC) n° 1107/2009 on the placing of plant protection products (including glyphosate) on the market in light of the precautionary principle. [less ▲]

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See detailThe precautionary approach in the economic partnership agreement between EU and Japan: a threat to the European precautionary principle?
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Tambou, Olivia; Yumiko, Nakanishi (Eds.) The EU-Japan Relationship (2020)

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See detailGlobal Investor Protection: Securities Law Enforcement Around the World
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Fordham Journal of Corporate and Financial Law (2020), 25

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See detailEU Financial Market Governance and the Covid-19 Crisis: ESMA’s Nimble, Responsive, and Speedy Response in Coordinating National Authorities through Soft-Law Instruments
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL; Moloney, Niamh

in European Company and Financial Law Review (2020)

The initial evidence indicates that EU financial market governance has performed well in its response to the Covid-19 crisis. In the European Union (EU), the need for coordination and cooperation over ... [more ▼]

The initial evidence indicates that EU financial market governance has performed well in its response to the Covid-19 crisis. In the European Union (EU), the need for coordination and cooperation over this crisis has been a particular concern given that national competent autho- rities (NCAs) operate under the single rulebook and supervisory action must, accordingly, be consistent. The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has, however, shown itself to be nimble, responsive, and speedy in deploying its supervisory powers, including those additional powers it has recently been granted under the 2019 ESA Reform Regulation. This has particularly been the case as regards the application by NCAs of ‘supervisory forbearance’ and as regards the application of market disclosures rules, notably the financial reporting standard IFRS 9. ESMA has also been successful in coordinating the few NCAs which decided to impose restrictions on short selling. ESMA’s actions during the Covid-19 crisis underline the de facto power it wields through its soft supervisory convergence powers and the entrepreneurial but effective approach it deploys in their use. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring preschool children’s knowledge of the principle of static equilibrium in the context of building blocks: Validation of a test instrument.
Weber, Anke Maria UL; Leuchter, Miriam

in British Journal of Educational Psychology (2020), 90

Background. Preschoolers’ knowledge of the principle of static equilibrium is an important research focus for understanding children’s science content knowledge. Hitherto studies have mainly used ... [more ▼]

Background. Preschoolers’ knowledge of the principle of static equilibrium is an important research focus for understanding children’s science content knowledge. Hitherto studies have mainly used behavioural observation with small samples. Thus, extending these studies with a validated test instrument is desirable. Aims. The aim was to validate an instrument (the Centre-of-Mass Test), which is concerned with preschoolers’ knowledge of the principle of static equilibrium, using item response theory. In Study 1, the construct structure was tested, and in Study 2, its relationship with stabilities of symmetrical blocks, figural reasoning, figural perception, mental rotation, level of interest, self-concept, motivation, and language capacity was investigated. Samples. A total of 217 five- and six-year-old children participated in Study 1 and 166 five- and six-year-old children in Study 2. Methods. All tests were administered as paper–pencil picture tests in groups and single interviews. Results. In Study 1, the Centre-of-Mass Test’s conformity with a 1PL-testlet model with an overall knowledge of static equilibrium and with two subtests, estimation of stable and unstable constructions, was confirmed. Using a 95% binomial distribution, children were categorized into three knowledge categories: geometrical-centre, centre-of-mass, and undifferentiated knowledge. In Study 2, knowledge of the principle of static equilibrium showed positive correlations with figural perception and reasoning, language capacity, and estimation of the stabilities of symmetrical objects. Conclusions. The Centre-of-Mass Test measures knowledge of the principle of static equilibrium as a unidimensional construct and mirrors preschoolers’ estimations found in previous studies. The acquisition of a more sophisticated static equilibrium knowledge is related to spatial knowledge and language capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of a construction play on 5- to 6-year-old children’s reasoning about stability.
Weber, Anke Maria UL; Reuter, Timo; Leuchter, Miriam

in Frontiers in Psychology (2020), 11

Theory: Young children have an understanding of basic science concepts such as stability, yet their theoretical assumptions are often not concerned with stability. The literature on theory theory and ... [more ▼]

Theory: Young children have an understanding of basic science concepts such as stability, yet their theoretical assumptions are often not concerned with stability. The literature on theory theory and theory-evidence coordination suggests that children construct intuitive theories about their environment which can be adjusted in the face of counterevidence that cannot be assimilated into the prior theory. With increasing age, children acquire a Center theory when balancing objects and try to balance every object at their middle, succeeding with symmetrical objects. Later, they acquire the basic science concept of stability through learning that the weight distribution of an object is of importance. Thus, they acquire a Mass theory and succeed in balancing asymmetrical objects as well. Fluid and crystallized intelligence might contribute to children’s acquisition of Mass theory. Moreover, their Mass theory might be supported by implementing a playful intervention including (a) material scaffolds and (b) verbal scaffolds. Aims: We investigated which theories children have about stability and whether these theories can be adjusted to Mass theory by implementing a playful intervention. Method: A total of 183 5- to 6-year-old children took part in the study with a pre-post-follow-up intervention design. Children’s Mass theory was assessed with an interview in which children explained constructions’ stabilities. The children received a playful intervention with two differing degrees of scaffolding (material scaffolds or material + verbal scaffolds) or no scaffolding. Results: At first few children used a Mass theory to explain their reasoning. However, after being confronted with counterevidence for the asymmetrical constructions, children changed their explanation and applied a Mass theory. More children in the play group with the highest degree of scaffolding, i.e., material + verbal scaffolds, acquired a Mass theory compared to the other groups. Fluid as well as crystallized intelligence contributed to children’s acquisition of a Mass theory. Discussion: Counterevidence can support children in their acquisition of a Mass theory. A playful intervention with scaffolding supports children even more. [less ▲]

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See detail#Je Suis Sir Cornflakes: Racialization and Resemiotization in French Nationalist Twitter
Tebaldi, Catherine UL

in International Journal of the Sociology of Language (2020)

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See detailUncertainty in Argumentation Schemes: Negative Consequences and Basic Slippery Slope
Liga, Davide UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Logic and Argumentation (2020)

This study is an approach to encompass uncertainty in the well-known Argumentation Scheme from Negative Consequences and in the more recent “Basic Slippery Slope Argument” proposed by Douglas Walton. This ... [more ▼]

This study is an approach to encompass uncertainty in the well-known Argumentation Scheme from Negative Consequences and in the more recent “Basic Slippery Slope Argument” proposed by Douglas Walton. This work envisages two new kinds of uncertainty that should be taken into account, one related to time and one related to the material relation between premises and conclusion. Furthermore, it is argued that some modifications to the structure of these Argumentation Schemes or to their Critical Questions could facilitate the process of Knowledge Extraction and modeling from these two argumentative patterns. For example, the study suggests to change the premises of the Basic Slippery Slope related to the Control and the Loss of Control. [less ▲]

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See detailArgumentation Schemes as Templates? Combining Bottom-up and Top-down Knowledge Representation
Liga, Davide UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Computational Models of Natural Argument (2020)

This paper describes a long-term research goal which aims at creating a middleware interface between Argumentation Schemes and natural language. This idea comes from the need to face some challenges ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a long-term research goal which aims at creating a middleware interface between Argumentation Schemes and natural language. This idea comes from the need to face some challenges related to the automatic extraction of Argumentation Schemes from Nat- ural Language: for example the ability to extract Argumentation Schemes at different level of granularity. In the paper we describe how this process can be designed and how the structures of Argumentation Schemes can be modeled to this aim. [less ▲]

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See detailTransfer Learning with Sentence Embeddings for Argumentative Evidence Classification
Liga, Davide UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Computational Models of Natural Argument (2020)

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