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See detailInfluences of acute stress on inhibitory control - does age matter? An ERP study
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Schoofs, Daniela; Hesse, Eva et al

Poster (2017, September)

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) based cognitive functions have been shown to be impaired with increasing age. Furthermore, the PFC has been found to be highly sensitive to stress and the stress hormone cortisol ... [more ▼]

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) based cognitive functions have been shown to be impaired with increasing age. Furthermore, the PFC has been found to be highly sensitive to stress and the stress hormone cortisol, which are assumed to influence executive functions. Although stress, allegorical for the life in the 21st century, concerns and affects both the young and the elderly in work life, little is known about the mutual impact of stress and aging on executive functioning. The present EEG study investigated the impact of acute stress on the core executive function inhibitory control in young and older males. Forty-nine participants were either stressed via the Trier Social Stress Test or underwent a control condition. Subse- quently, they performed a Go Nogo task while EEG, reaction times, errors and salivary cortisol were measured. Though older participants reacted slower to Go stimuli relative to young participants, both groups showed the same accuracy rate for Go and Nogo stimuli. Surprisingly, stress improved accuracy compared to the control group. The similar pattern was found in the EEG data with an enhanced error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) in the stress group. Beside this, elderly showed a reduced Ne compared to the young. No interaction between stress and age was observed. The present results suggest that stress may have beneficial effects on inhibitory control and error monitoring, irrespectively of the age. However, fur- ther research is needed to clarify if this is valid for other executive functions and under which circumstances negative impacts manifest. [less ▲]

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See detailCollaborative teaching and inclusion: Benefits and challenges [symposium discussant]
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Scientific Conference (2017, August 29)

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See detailCommodification of language in migration and transnational contexts
Tavares, Bernardino UL

in Transnational Social Review (2017)

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See detailCylinder size affects cat performance in the motor self-regulation task
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; Osvath, Mathias

in Applied ethology 2017 (2017, August)

We tested domestic cats in the so-called cylinder task, and found that they perform better if the cylinder is larger. We also found that their highest performance parallels that of great apes and corvids ... [more ▼]

We tested domestic cats in the so-called cylinder task, and found that they perform better if the cylinder is larger. We also found that their highest performance parallels that of great apes and corvids, which are known as the best performing animals on this task. The cylinder task is used to test animals’ motor self-regulation: the inhibition of unproductive, but prepotent, movements in favour of productive movements that require a slight detour. Recently a large- scale study tested 36 species on this task and found that absolute brain size correlate with the performance; with great apes as top performers. Another study showed that corvids perform as good as great apes despite having smaller absolute brain size. We questioned whether average brained animals has as poor motor self-regulation as suggested, as it appears highly maladaptive; instead the results could be a reflection of the sensorimotor set-up of different species in relation to the materials used. No cats has yet been tested on the task. As ambush and sneak hunters, cats would arguably have high levels of motor self-regulation, but on the other hand their brain size and neuronal numbers are not above average in mammals. Eight adult domestic cats were tested in four versions of the task. We manipulated the size and materials to test whether that influenced performance: two large cylinders (16 cm diameter) out of glass and plastic respectively, and two small cylinders (9 cm diameter) of the same two materials. Each of the four conditions had two phases with a 24-hour delay in between. Each phase consisted of 10 consecutive trials. On the first day, a subject learned to retrieve a reward from an opaque cylinder. Next day, the cat was tested on a transparent cylinder. A retrieval of the reward without touching the cylinder’s front counted as a successful trial. The success rate differed between conditions, and reached 98.75% in the ‘big glass’ condition, and 97.5% in the ‘big plastic’ condition, and 83.75% in the ‘small glass’, and finally 73.75% in the ‘small plastic’ condition. Two-Factor ANOVA for two within variables revealed a significant main effect of the cylinder size on the success rate [F(1,7)=64.06, P<0.001]. Neither a main effect of the material nor an interaction effect of size and material was statistically significant. The size effect was seen in all subjects. Failure rates did not decrease over time in any condition, so no learning curve was detected. Our results show that cats parallel great apes and corvids in the cylinder task as long as it is 16 cm in diameter and made of glass, despite their average mammalian neural characteristics. There are several possible explanations such as that a bigger size allows for more options of retrieval (e.g. mouth or paw), and/or requires less precise retrieval; it could also be that the distance to the reward is perceived as different. This calls into question whether the large-scale study took into account the sensorimotor architecture of each species, and more importantly, whether the task always measures motor self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal Light as a Mixture of Sets of Pulses: the Quasi-1D Example
Brańczyk, Agata M.; Chenu, Aurélia UL; Sipe, J. E.

in Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical Physics (2017)

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See detailWhat have networks ever done for us?
During, Marten UL

Presentation (2017, June 22)

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See detailEnlightenment Networks of Colonial Medical Expertise
Takats, Sean UL

Scientific Conference (2017, June 16)

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See detail1517, la naissance du protestantisme: rupture ou continuité ?
Weis, Monique UL

Speeches/Talks (2017)

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See detailReprésentation du martyre et martyre de la représentation
Weis, Monique UL; Dekoninck, Ralph

Speeches/Talks (2017)

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See detailLa crise épistémologique des humanités numériques
Takats, Sean UL

Presentation (2017, February 06)

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See detailLa liberté de conscience. Approche historique
Weis, Monique UL

Speeches/Talks (2017)

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See detailDie Kreise Bitburg und Prüm auf Landkarten des 19. Jahrhunderts
Solchenbach, Karl UL

Speeches/Talks (2017)

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See detailVers une nouvelle figure du chercheur?
Takats, Sean UL

Presentation (2017, January 13)

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See detailL’idée de civilisation dans la pratique conventionnelle des États occidentaux aux XIXe et XXe siècles
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Droits: Revue français de théorie, de philosophie et de cultures juridiques (2017), (66), 37-55

Based on an analysis of more than 450 treaties and other international instruments, this article shows how the terms 'civilisation' or 'civilised' were used in 19th and 20th century state practice and how ... [more ▼]

Based on an analysis of more than 450 treaties and other international instruments, this article shows how the terms 'civilisation' or 'civilised' were used in 19th and 20th century state practice and how the meaning given to these terms evolved over time. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher traces, noncommutative motives, and the categorified Chern character
Scherotzke, Sarah UL; Sibilla, Nicolo; Hoyois, Marc

in Advances in Mathematics (2017)

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See detailUnequal Protection Approach for RLL-constrained LDPC Coded Recording System Using Deliberate Flipping
Chou, Hung-Pu UL; Sham, Chiu-Wing; Hong-fu, Chou

in Proceedings of 2017 International SoC Design Conference (ISOCC) (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (5 UL)