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See detailAvoiding the Next Silent Spring: Our Chemical Past, Present, and Future
Arp, Hans Peter H.; Aurich, Dagny UL; Schymanski, Emma UL et al

in Environmental Science and Technology (2023)

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring,1 published just over 60 years ago, outlined how the indiscriminate use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a potent, environmentally persistent insecticide, was ... [more ▼]

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring,1 published just over 60 years ago, outlined how the indiscriminate use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a potent, environmentally persistent insecticide, was damaging the world's ecosystems, animals and food supply. There were many other chemicals more persistent than DDT accumulating in the environment when Carson was writing, including per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Whilst man-made, PFAS were not intended to cause harm, contrary to pesticides such as DDT. Today, ambient PFAS levels are contaminating rain, soil and drinking water resources worldwide to such an extent that they have caused substantial, irreversible health and environmental damage.2 Like DDT, PFAS were long in use by the time Rachel Carson was writing Silent Spring (see Figure 1). However, their environmental presence went unnoticed by Carson and other contemporary environmental researchers. PFAS were entering the environment under the radar, except to those who were manufacturing and emitting them.3 [less ▲]

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See detailBenefits of Using Cognitive Models Within a Mathematics Large-Scale Assessment
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Inostroza Fernandez, Pamela Isabel UL; Michels, Michael Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2023, April 13)

For several decades, researchers have suggested cognitive models as superior basis for item development (Hornke & Habon, 1986; Leighton & Gierl, 2011). Such models would make item writing decisions ... [more ▼]

For several decades, researchers have suggested cognitive models as superior basis for item development (Hornke & Habon, 1986; Leighton & Gierl, 2011). Such models would make item writing decisions explicit and therefore more valid. By further formalizing such models, even automated item generation with its manifold advantages for economic test construction, and increased test security is possible. If item characteristics are stable, test equating would be rendered unnecessary allowing for individual but equal tests, or even adaptive or multistage testing without extensive pre-calibration. Finally, validated cognitive models would allow for applying Diagnostic Classification Models that provide fine-grained feedback on students’ competencies (Leighton & Gierl, 2007; Rupp, Templin, & Henson, 2010). Remarkably, despite constantly growing need for validated items, educational large-scale assessments (LSAs) have largely forgone cognitive models as template for item writing. Traditional, often inefficient item writing techniques prevail and participating students are offered a global competency score at best. This may have many reasons, above all the focus of LSAs on the system and not individual level. Many domains lack the amount of cognitive research necessary for model development (e.g. Leighton & Gierl, 2011) and test frameworks are mostly based on didactical viewpoints. Moreover, developing an empirically validated cognitive model remains a challenge. Considering the often time-sensitive test development cycles of LSAs, the balance clearly goes against the use of cognitive models. Educational LSAs are meant to stay, however, and the question remains, whether increased effort and research on this topic might pay off in the long run by leveraging all benefits cognitive models have to offer. In total, 35 cognitive item models were developed by a team of national subject matter experts and then used for algorithmically producing items for the mathematical domain of numbers & shapes. Each item model was administered in 6 experimentally varied versions to investigate the impact of problem characteristics which cognitive psychology identified to influence the problem-solving process. Based on samples from Grade 1 (n = 5963), Grade 3 (n = 5527), Grade 5 (n = 5291), and Grade 7 (n = 3018), this design allowed for evaluating whether psychometric characteristics of produced items per model are stable, and can be predicted by problem characteristics. After item calibration (1-PL model), each cognitive model was analyzed in-depth by descriptive comparisons of resulting IRT parameters, and using the LLTM (Fischer, 1973). In a second step, the same items were analyzed using the G-DINA model (Torre & Minchen, 2019) to derive classes of students for the tested subskills. The cognitive models served as basis for the Q-matrix necessary for applying the diagnostic measurement model. Results make a convincing case for investing the (substantially) increased effort to base item development on fine-grained cognitive models. Model-based manipulations of item characteristics were largely stable and behaved according to previous findings in the literature. Thus, differences in item difficulty could be shaped and were stable over different administrations. This remained true for all investigated grades. The final diagnostic classification models distinguished between different developmental stages in the domain of numbers & operations, on group, as well as on individual level. Although not all competencies might be backed up by literature from cognitive psychology yet, our findings encourage a more exploratory model building approach given the usual long-term perspective of LSAs. [less ▲]

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See detailCurvature-mediated Programming of Liquid Crystal Microflows
Fedorowicz, Kamil; Prosser; Sengupta, Anupam UL

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Using experiments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the curvature of microscale conduits allow programming of liquid crystal (LC) flows. Focusing on a nematic LC flowing through U- and L ... [more ▼]

Using experiments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the curvature of microscale conduits allow programming of liquid crystal (LC) flows. Focusing on a nematic LC flowing through U- and L-shaped channels of rectangular cross-section, our results reveal that curved flow paths can trigger gradients of flow-induced director field in the transverse direction. The emergent director field feeds back into the flow field, ultimately leading to LC flows controlled by the channel curvature. This curvature-mediated flow control, identified by polarizing optical microscopy and supported by the nematofluidic solutions, offers novel concepts in LC-based microfluidic valves and throttles, wherein the throughput distribution is determined by the Ericksen number and the variations in the local curvature. Finally, this work highlights the role of deformation history on flow-induced director alignments, when the viscous and elastic effects comparable in strength. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to solve invariant systems of differential equations on SL(2,R)?
Palmirotta, Guendalina UL

Presentation (2023, April 07)

In the Euclidean case, it is well-known, by Malgrange and Ehrenpreis, that linear differential operators with constant coefficients are solvable. However, what happens, if we genuinely extend this ... [more ▼]

In the Euclidean case, it is well-known, by Malgrange and Ehrenpreis, that linear differential operators with constant coefficients are solvable. However, what happens, if we genuinely extend this situation and consider systems of linear invariant differential operators, is still solvable? In the case of $\mathbb{R}^n$ (for some positive integer $n$), the question has been proved mainly by Hörmander. We will show that this remains still true for Riemannian symmetric spaces of non-compact type $X=G/K$, in particular for hyperbolic planes. More precisely, we will present a possible strategy to solve this problem by using the Fourier transform and its Paley-Wiener(-Schwartz) theorem for (distributional) sections of vector bundles over $\mathbb{H}^2=SL(2, \mathbb{R})/SO(2)$. This work was part of my doctoral dissertation supervised by Martin Olbrich. [less ▲]

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See detailHarlem Shake à la BnF … À la recherche d’un phénomène viral dans les archives du Web
Pailler, Fred UL; Faye, Alexandre; Aubry, Sara et al

Scientific Conference (2023, April 05)

Le 30 janvier 2013, George Kusunoki Miller, un étudiant australo-japonais résidant aux États-Unis, publie une vidéo où il danse dans sa chambre sur une musique de DJ Baauer accompagné de trois amis vêtus ... [more ▼]

Le 30 janvier 2013, George Kusunoki Miller, un étudiant australo-japonais résidant aux États-Unis, publie une vidéo où il danse dans sa chambre sur une musique de DJ Baauer accompagné de trois amis vêtus de combinaisons zentai. Trois jours plus tard, un collectif de skateboarders australiens répond à cette publication en imitant la vidéo et y ajoutant une construction en deux temps : un personnage casqué danse seul dans un environnement où les autres sont absorbés par des tâches quotidiennes, et lorsque la musique s’intensifie, tout le monde se trouve subitement déguisé et emporté en une transe intense. La vidéo devient virale au cours du mois de février 2013, elle est remixée et rejouée par des milliers de personnes, et ce largement au-delà de l’Australie, et notamment en France. Ce phénomène viral est devenu une référence pour en décrire d’autres. Il présente à lui seul une mise en abyme de la contagion virale (Marino, 2014). Il combine des caractéristiques telles que la dimension mondiale, transculturelle et translinguistique, des circulations trans-plateformes, ainsi qu’un caractère démesuré et éphémère à la fois. Dans le cadre du projet Hivi, dédié à l’histoire de la viralité en ligne et du projet BUZZ-F, plus particulièrement consacré aux phénomènes viraux en France, mené avec le soutien du BnF Datalab sur l’année académique 2021-2022, il a servi d’exemple saillant de viralité et d’étude de cas pour analyser sa préservation et sa recherchabilité dans les archives du Web. Ce cas d’étude présente en effet au regard de l’archivage du Web plusieurs enjeux intéressants : - d’abord sa date de démarrage, en 2013, à une période où l’archivage des réseaux sociaux-numériques et des plateformes vidéos est moins développé qu’aujourd’hui (outre que le Harlem Shake se déploie notamment sur YouTube, mais la plateforme n’est pas encore en position dominante et se voit concurrencer par d’autres plateformes de vidéos ou par la création de sites dédiés à ce phénomène Internet) - sa représentation dans les archives du Web, de la BnF comme de l’Ina, dont il convient de déterminer les formes numériques archivées (contenus html et vidéos, traces sous forme de liens) - l’absence de recherchabilité en plein texte sur cette période dans la collecte large des archives de la BnF. L’écho du phénomène est par contre immédiatement palpable dans la presse nationale comme régionale, accessible via la collecte BnF de la presse en ligne. Son interrogation révèle la présence dans les archives de multicaptures ou doublons, qui peuvent éventuellement être des marqueurs de la viralité - la nécessité d’articuler lecture qualitative et quantitative pour saisir le phénomène dans sa complexité (participants, audience (Ashon, 2013), circulation (Jenkins, 2009), usages (Soha et Zachary, 2016), etc.) - son insertion dans une tradition des vidéos de performances collectives, qui invitait à se pencher par exemple sur des phénomènes viraux plus anciens comme le lipdub. Cette présentation est revenue sur le travail commun mené pour identifier le Harlem Shake au sein des archives de la BnF, identifier, créer et documenter des jeux de données utiles et représentatifs, les contextualiser, en proposer des visualisations. Elle éclaire les apports mais aussi les biais et limites identifiés, les stratégies de recherche mises en place (via les URL, le calcul de la viralité à partir des doublons représentant des valeurs extrêmes et ses difficultés d’interprétation, etc.). Elle envisage les perspectives ouvertes pour la recherche mais aussi pour l’archivage du Web (notamment en terme d’indexation de la page web entière plutôt que du seul texte, de repérage des vidéos disparues du web vivant, de dédoublonnage, etc.). Cette communication, présentée par Alexandre Faye et Fred Pailler, articule plusieurs aspects de l’appel à communication : présentations de projets scientifiques mobilisant les corpus web et les humanités numériques ; présentations de retours d’expérience de projets de recherche utilisant le web comme source : obstacles rencontrés, “success stories” ; présentation d’expérimentations et de dispositifs favorisant l’accès aux archives numériques et aux corpus web. Elle est à l’intersection des axes 2 (Politiques, pratiques et techniques archivistiques et archives web : du document aux corpus) et 3 (Relations entre dispositif technique et données scientifiques : l’archive web en réseau). [less ▲]

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See detailLe goût de l’archive numérique et les archives du web
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

Presentation (2023, April 04)

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See detailEducators, parents and children engaging in literacy activities in multiple languages: an exploratory study
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Bergeron-Morin, Lisandre

in International Journal of Multilingualism (2023)

There is a consensus that home languages are the foundation on which to develop additional languages and that collaboration between homes and institutions of early childhood education and care (ECEC) can ... [more ▼]

There is a consensus that home languages are the foundation on which to develop additional languages and that collaboration between homes and institutions of early childhood education and care (ECEC) can contribute to the development of children’s language and literacy skills. Nevertheless, educators seem rarely to draw on multiple languages in literacy activities. Furthermore, situations where educators and parents jointly read to children are scarce. Luxembourg, which has implemented a programme of multilingual education in ECEC, is an ideal context to investigate literacy practices and language use of educators and parents. Drawing on observations in two multilingual centres in Luxembourg as well as interviews, the present study examines the interactions between the educators and the three-year-old children and those between the educators, parents, and children when the parents occasionally read books in the centres. The findings show that the educators in both centres used several languages and that the types of interactions differed. When the parents offered literacy activities, their use of languages and the roles they played also differed, varying from being fully involved to taking a marginal role. The findings can help educators and policymakers develop inclusive and participatory literacy practices which actively involve children and parents. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand Meloni réécrit l'histoire...
Scuto, Denis UL

in Tageblatt (2023)

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See detailSEMKIS-DSL: A Domain-Specific Language to Support Requirements Engineering of Datasets and Neural Network Recognition
Jahic, Benjamin UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Ries, Benoit UL

in Information (2023), 14(4),

Neural network (NN) components are being increasingly incorporated into software systems. Neural network properties are determined by their architecture, as well as the training and testing datasets used ... [more ▼]

Neural network (NN) components are being increasingly incorporated into software systems. Neural network properties are determined by their architecture, as well as the training and testing datasets used. The engineering of datasets and neural networks is a challenging task that requires methods and tools to satisfy customers’ expectations. The lack of tools that support requirements specification languages makes it difficult for engineers to describe dataset and neural network recognition skill requirements. Existing approaches often rely on traditional ad hoc approaches, without precise requirement specifications for data selection criteria, to build these datasets. Moreover, these approaches do not focus on the requirements of the neural network’s expected recognition skills. We aim to overcome this issue by defining a domain-specific language that precisely specifies dataset requirements and expected recognition skills after training for an NN-based system. In this paper, we present a textual domain-specific language (DSL) called SEMKIS-DSL (Software Engineering Methodology for the Knowledge management of Intelligent Systems) that is designed to support software engineers in specifying the requirements and recognition skills of neural networks. This DSL is proposed in the context of our general SEMKIS development process for neural network engineering. We illustrate the DSL’s concepts using a running example that focuses on the recognition of handwritten digits. We show some requirements and recognition skills specifications and demonstrate how our DSL improves neural network recognition skills. [less ▲]

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See detailLessons from Investment Treaty Arbitration
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

in Haslehner, Werner; Rust, Alexander; Kofler, Georg (Eds.) et al Alternative Dispute Resolution in Taxation (2023, April 01)

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See detailSangen a geselleg Lidder zu Lëtzebuerg
Sagrillo, Damien François UL; Urwald, Georges

in Urwald, Georges (Ed.) De Georgely: Lëtzebuerger Lidderbuch (2023)

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See detailEduCHI 2023 - 5th Annual Symposium on HCI Education
Gray, Colin; Macdonald, Craig; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in CHI'23 Extended Abstracts (2023, April)

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See detailAppendix: Alphabetical List of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals and their Members
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Erpelding, Michel; Ruiz Fabri, Hélène (Eds.) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, 1919–1939: An Experiment in the International Adjudication of Private Rights (2023)

Based on unpublished archival sources, notably a list compiled by the secretary-general of the last Mixed Arbitral Tribunals (MATs), Antony (or Antoine) Zarb, this appendix provides the reader with a list ... [more ▼]

Based on unpublished archival sources, notably a list compiled by the secretary-general of the last Mixed Arbitral Tribunals (MATs), Antony (or Antoine) Zarb, this appendix provides the reader with a list of all 39 MATs and their members, including judges, state agents, and legal secretaries. While nec­ essarily incomplete, the information provided therein should nevertheless constitute a useful resource for future research on the MATs and their ties to other international courts and tribunals. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction: International Adjudication and the Legacy of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals
Erpelding, Michel UL; Ruiz Fabri, Hélène

in Erpelding, Michel; Ruiz Fabri, Hélène (Eds.) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, 1919–1939: An Experiment in the International Adjudication of Private Rights (2023)

This introduction provides the reader with a general characterization of the 39 Mixed Arbitral Tribunals (MATs) created by the 1919-1923 peace treaties to address disputes between private persons and ... [more ▼]

This introduction provides the reader with a general characterization of the 39 Mixed Arbitral Tribunals (MATs) created by the 1919-1923 peace treaties to address disputes between private persons and between private persons and states as a result of the First World War. Noting that the rich literature published on the MATs was followed by near-silence after 1945, it mentions the numerous questions that they still raise today, before explaining how the various contributions to the book edited by the authors address them. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, 1919–1939: An Experiment in the International Adjudication of Private Rights
Erpelding, Michel UL; Ruiz Fabri, Hélène

Book published by Nomos - 1st (2023)

The creation of 39 Mixed Arbitral Tribunals (‘MATs’) was a major contribution of the post-World War I peace treaties to the development of international adjudication. With over 90 000 claims handled, the ... [more ▼]

The creation of 39 Mixed Arbitral Tribunals (‘MATs’) was a major contribution of the post-World War I peace treaties to the development of international adjudication. With over 90 000 claims handled, the MATs were the busiest international courts of the interwar period. Moreover, in a departure from most other international courts and tribunals at that time, they allowed individuals to file claims against sovereign states before them. After 1945, they inspired the creators of the European Court of Justice before disappearing into quasi-oblivion. Relying on legal and historical research, including new archival findings, this volume is specifically dedicated to these pioneering institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Example of International Legal Mobilisation: The German–Belgian Mixed Arbitral Tribunal and the Case of the Belgian Deportees
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Erpelding, Michel; Ruiz Fabri, Hélène (Eds.) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, 1919–1939: An Experiment in the International Adjudication of Private Rights (2023)

This chapter presents the lawsuit of the Belgian deportees examined by the German-Belgian MAT in 1923-24, a single case with major political ramifications. Between 1916 and 1918, Germany had deported tens ... [more ▼]

This chapter presents the lawsuit of the Belgian deportees examined by the German-Belgian MAT in 1923-24, a single case with major political ramifications. Between 1916 and 1918, Germany had deported tens of thousands of Belgian workers as forced labourers for its war-relevant industries and armed forces, sparking an international outcry amongst both Allied and neutral states. Pursuant to Part VIII of the Versailles Treaty, Germany was under the obligation to compensate Belgium for these deportations to forced labour. However, when the former deportees realised that the sums agreed to by Germany and partly handed out to them by the Belgian State were far below their expectations, they tried to obtain satisfaction before the Belgian-German MAT. Coordinated by a young Brussels lawyer, Jacques Pirenne, this early example of international legal mobilisation was followed with concern by both Germany and Belgium. Both feared that were the Belgian-German MAT to accept jurisdiction over the deportees’ claims, this might considerably increase Germany’s war debt vis-à-vis Belgium, thus further deteriorating the relations between both countries which were already strained because of the Ruhr crisis. Relying in part on previously uncommented archival material from Belgium, Germany and France and using contemporary press reports, including photographs, the chapter provides the reader with an in-depth description and analysis of the trial during its various procedural stages. After presenting the reader with the factual and legal background of the case, it takes a close look at the arguments of the parties during both the written and the oral phases of the proceedings. Analysing the MAT’s decision, it questions its frequent characterisation as a major German victory, before concluding on its long-term legacy. [less ▲]

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See detailEpilogue: The Early and Long End of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, 1920–1939
Erpelding, Michel UL; Zollmann, Jakob

in Erpelding, Michel; Ruiz Fabri, Hélène (Eds.) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, 1919–1939: An Experiment in the International Adjudication of Private Rights (2023)

This chapter sheds light on the often-neglected question of how the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, after entering the international stage as a result of the post-World War I peace treaties, disappeared into ... [more ▼]

This chapter sheds light on the often-neglected question of how the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, after entering the international stage as a result of the post-World War I peace treaties, disappeared into near oblivion. It first notes that the main Central Power, Germany, often tried to avoid the establishment of MATs in the first place or to impose deadlines limiting the number of claims submitted to those MATs which it had not been able to thwart. After examining the efforts already made by governments during the 1920s to phase out various MATs, it addresses the attempts made by some actors within the MAT-system to establish permanent MATs (partly reminiscent of present- day investor-state arbitration) between a number of Western countries and describe how government officials from these countries eventually derailed these attempts. It then moves on to the liquidation of the last remaining MATs, which was mostly completed on the eve of the Second World War, although three MATs actually continued to operate – albeit in a way that could hardly be considered judicial – until 1943. The chapter concludes by an account of the constitution, wartime preservation and peacetime destruction of the MATs’ archival records. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic encounters in sociolinguistic enquiry: Meeting participants, reflexivity and anonymity
Tavares, Bernardino UL

in Ibarrondo, Ludovic; Erfurt, Jürgen (Eds.) Linguistic heterogeneity: Questions of methodology, analysis tools and contextualization (2023)

This paper discusses and problematizes three conflated ethically related questions, namely the encounters with the participants, reflexivity and anonymity in research. Within the framework of ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses and problematizes three conflated ethically related questions, namely the encounters with the participants, reflexivity and anonymity in research. Within the framework of sociolinguistics and other disciplines, ethnography has been a prominent research methodology used to generate data through participant observation and interviews. Based on data from an ethnographic project concerning the intersections between language and migration into Luxembourg, this paper aims to offer a critique of positivist ideologies which argue that researchers need to keep distance from the object of study in order to be objective in research. This distancing often means anonymizing blindly (i.e. without checking consent) the research participants. However, one must remember that one is researching ‘human subjects’ who, similar to the researchers, have their own agendas, desires and life goals (Juffermans, 2010). The paper empirically demonstrates that there is a need to ‘move away from representing identities of researcher and research participants in fixed and binary terms’ (Martin- Jones et al., 2017, 190) of insider and outsider. It concludes that ‘unless required by sensitive nature of the data collected’ (Juffermans, 2015,15), anonymity needs to be negotiated to the extent that it does not erase the voice and choice of agentive participants. [less ▲]

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See detailTax Arbitration and the EU Treaties
Haslehner, Werner UL

in Haslehner, Werner; Kofler, Georg; Lyons, Timothy (Eds.) et al Alternative Dispute Resolution and Tax Disputes (2023)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 UL)