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See detailThird-country national victims of trafficking in human beings: Detection, identification and protection in Luxembourg
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

This study provides an overview of the current procedures and practices regarding the detection, identification and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings from third-countries in Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

This study provides an overview of the current procedures and practices regarding the detection, identification and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings from third-countries in Luxembourg. Since 2016, Luxembourg saw a number of significant developments with regard to legislation, institutional and policy reforms, as well as debates and awareness campaigns related to the detection, identification, and protection of (presumed) third-country national victims of trafficking in human beings. These include, among others, several legislative developments strengthening procedural safeguards and the fight against certain forms of exploitation; the establishment of a National Action Plan on ‘Trafficking in Human Beings’ (including a confidential roadmap for relevant stakeholders in the field) and a National Action Plan on ‘Prostitution’ (which also relates to trafficking in human beings); an enhanced cooperation on the Benelux level; the creation of the Search for Fugitives and Victim Protection Unit of the Judicial Police (including reinforcement in 2021); the appointment of contact person for the fight against trafficking in human beings at the Directorate of Immigration and a ‘trafficking’ reference person in each of its departments; the reinforcement of the support for victims of trafficking (including the establishment of a common space (‘INFOTRAITE’) for the two approved assistance services SAVTEH and COTEH); an increase and broadening of the basic and specialised training for various stakeholders; and the organisation of information and awareness raising campaigns. At the same time, the national referral mechanism in Luxembourg has remained the same since its establishment: all stakeholders who detect a (presumed) third-country national victim of trafficking in human beings are obliged to refer cases to the Organised Crime Unit and the Search for Fugitives and Victim Protection Unit of the Judicial Police. Only the Judicial police can formally identify a victim of trafficking and notify the Directorate of Immigration of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs in view of issuing a reflection period of 90 days to the third-country national. Before the expiration of the reflection period, the Directorate of Immigration consults with the Police in order to determine whether a residence permit for victims of trafficking in human beings may be issued to the third-country national. For all the details, including challenges and good practices in the area of detecting, identifying, and protecting victims of trafficking in human beings in Luxembourg, have a look at the EMN Luxembourg Study. [less ▲]

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See detailIntersectional Inequalities in Science
Kozlowski, Diego UL

Presentation (2021, December 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 UL)
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See detailWeb Materialities
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December 03)

Although Web development was driven by a conceptual repertoire of dematerialisation, of eliminating borders between “Netizens” and ensuring the independence of cyberspace (John Perry Barlow), in the 1990s ... [more ▼]

Although Web development was driven by a conceptual repertoire of dematerialisation, of eliminating borders between “Netizens” and ensuring the independence of cyberspace (John Perry Barlow), in the 1990s the accessibility of the Web was largely subject to material challenges associated with infrastructures, equipment, Internet billing and regulation. They were also linked with groups of technicians and communities of practice, the development of ISPs, the acquisition of equipment or the use of cyber cafés. Taking the example of France in the 90s as a starting point, this contribution will shed light on the agencies at work in a bid to demonstrate why digital materiality matters in Web histories. [less ▲]

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See detailIl linguaggio cinematografico di Dante Alighieri nella "Divina Commedia"
Cicotti, Claudio UL

Presentation (2021, December 03)

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See detailPresenter: Peripheries at the Centre. Borderland Schooling in Interwar Europe
Venken, Machteld UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December 03)

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See detailTransforming secondary education in the Belgian–German borderlands (1918–1939)
Venken, Machteld UL

in History of Education (2021)

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach pupils to become citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after the First World ... [more ▼]

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach pupils to become citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after the First World War into lived social spaces. This article uses Arnold Van Gennep’s notion that a shift in social status possesses a spatiality and temporality of its own, in order to analyse how principals of secondary schools negotiated transformation in the Belgian–German borderlands. It asks whether and how they were called on to offer training that would make the borderlands more cohesive with the rest of Belgium in terms of the social origins of pupils and the content of study, and examines the extent to which they were historical actors with room for their own decision-making on creating and abolishing a liminal phase, thereby leading secondary education through its rites of passage. [less ▲]

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See detailSeebeck effect in nanomagnets
Fedorov, Dmitry UL; Gradhand, Martin; Tauber, Katarina et al

in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (2021), 34

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See detailThe precautionary principle and the authorisation of Covid-19 vaccines under EU
Donati, Alessandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The decision of the EU Commission, based on positive advice from the European Medicines Agency, to grant conditional marketing authorisation to Covid-19 vaccines should be qualified as a precautionary ... [more ▼]

The decision of the EU Commission, based on positive advice from the European Medicines Agency, to grant conditional marketing authorisation to Covid-19 vaccines should be qualified as a precautionary measure. Under the established case law of the CJEU, the conditions for the application of this principle are met. Such conditions are the existence of a risk to the environment and public health and uncertainty. Given this qualification as a precautionary measure, whether the Commission had complied with the procedural obligations that surround the implementation of this principle under EU law was assessed. Some shortcomings are identified concerning the risk assessment conducted by the European Medicines Agency and the risk management carried out by the Commission. [less ▲]

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See detailConciliatory reasoning, self-defeat, and abstract argumentation
Knoks, Aleks UL

in Review of Symbolic Logic (2021), First View

According to conciliatory views on the significance of disagreement, it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case your epistemic peer’s take on it is different. These ... [more ▼]

According to conciliatory views on the significance of disagreement, it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case your epistemic peer’s take on it is different. These views are intuitively appealing, but they also face a powerful objection: in scenarios that involve disagreements over their own correctness, conciliatory views appear to self-defeat and, thereby, issue inconsistent recommendations. This paper provides a response to this objection. Drawing on the work from defeasible logics paradigm and abstract argumentation, it develops a formal model of conciliatory reasoning and explores its behavior in the troubling scenarios. The model suggests that the recommendations that conciliatory views issue in such scenarios are perfectly reasonable---even if outwardly they may look odd. [less ▲]

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See detailPan Am and Socialist Romania: Flying from New York to Bucharest in the 1970s
Stefan, Oana Adelina UL

Presentation (2021, December 02)

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See detailSupporting Grocery Shopping to Achieve a Healthy and Sustainable Diet – How Developing a Behavioural Theory Informs Dynamic Smartphone Applications
Blanke, Julia UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Health and sustainability are becoming increasingly important in current lifestyles. In this context healthy and sustainable grocery shopping is one key aspect to facilitate a balanced and environmentally ... [more ▼]

Health and sustainability are becoming increasingly important in current lifestyles. In this context healthy and sustainable grocery shopping is one key aspect to facilitate a balanced and environmentally friendly diet. Many people are interested in changing their habits to become healthier and to consider their impact on the environment through the choices they make. But many do not consider where a healthy and sustainable diet starts. In other words, people frequently have a vague idea that grocery shopping is an important aspect of a healthy and sustainable lifestyle, but they lack sufficient knowledge and action plans to act accordingly. Therefore, the observable behaviour in many cases shows what is called the intention-action/behaviour gap, the attitude-behaviour gap, or the knowing-doing gap (Ajzen, 2016; Grunert, 2011; Hoek, Pearson, James, Lawrence, & Friel, 2017; de Schutter, 2015; Bailey & Harper, 2015). To break this deadlock people, who are interested in such a lifestyle change, need the required information and support to create appropriate action plans to lead them through their grocery shopping without incurring excessive cognitive impact. The risk of such cognitive strain is that people give up easily on their good intentions and fall back into old unhealthy or environmentally impacting habits. Smartphones are ubiquitous and therefore could potentially solve many of these problems, but the design of suitable applications is mostly ad-hoc and not based on thorough modelling. On the other hand, existing behavioural models are considered to be too static and not up to the task of dynamically assessing and influencing behaviour as would be required by a smartphone-based intervention (Riley, et al., 2011; Spruijt-Metz & Nilsen, 2014). To address these problems this work proposes three major contributions: first, a novel comprehensive model of behaviour built on well-established theories used in psychology and the social science. The novelty is the consistent integration of well-proven pre-existing theories into one single comprehensive model that aims to capture the benefits and tries to overcome the limitations of each base theory. Based on this model, the second contribution of this work is the evaluation of motivation and intention to buy healthy and sustainable groceries. It has been found that health is more important than sustainability in this regard, and that health-related goals are easier to act on than sustainability related goals resulting in a bigger intention-action gap for sustainable grocery shopping. To address these issues, the third major contribution of this work is a model-derived design framework for smartphone-based interventions that provides comprehensive guidelines for developing applications to assess and support a specific behaviour, such as grocery shopping, while at the same time aiming at addressing a superordinate issue, such as health and sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe NIS2 Directive is on its way
Schmitz, Sandra UL

Presentation (2021, December 01)

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See detailHistoire de la construction européenne et mise en données du monde
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Stratégies et acteurs. Construire l’Europe au XXe siècle (2021)

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be tabulated – creates for the history of European integration. It uses cases of online digital libraries to show the consequences of digitization policy choices on the way historians can analyse these sources and, as a consequence, write history. We then explain the principle of ‘distant reading’, which stems from the work of the historian Franco Moretti, and try, with a few examples of research already carried out or to be carried out, to illustrate its possibilities for this historiographical school. All in all, we attempt to describe what it is to ‘write the history of European integration’ in the digital era. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre force et diplomatie spatiale : le missile russe Nudol s'invite à la table des négociations
Zarkan, Laetitia UL; Degrange, Valentin; Peter, Hugo

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLearning-Based Multiplexing of Grant-Based and Grant-Free Heterogeneous Services with Short Packets
Tran, Duc Dung UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2021, December)

In this paper, we investigate the multiplexing of grant-based (GB) and grant-free (GF) device transmissions in an uplink heterogeneous network (HetNet), namely GB-GF HetNet, where the devices transmit ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the multiplexing of grant-based (GB) and grant-free (GF) device transmissions in an uplink heterogeneous network (HetNet), namely GB-GF HetNet, where the devices transmit their information using low-rate short data packets. Specifically, GB devices are granted unique time-slots for their transmissions. In contrast, GF devices can randomly select time-slots to transmit their messages utilizing the GF non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which has emerged as a promising enabler for massive access and reducing access latency. However, random access (RA) in the GF NOMA can cause collisions and severe interference, leading to system performance degradation. To overcome this issue, we propose a multiple access (MA) protocol based on reinforcement learning for effective RA slots allocation. The proposed learning method aims to guarantee that the GF devices do not cause any collisions to the GB devices and the number of GF devices choosing the same time-slot does not exceed a predetermined threshold to reduce the interference. In addition, based on the results of the RA slots allocation using the proposed method, we derive the approximate closed-form expressions of the average decoding error probability (ADEP) for all devices to characterize the system performance. Our results presented in terms of access efficiency (AE), collision probability (CP), and overall ADEP (OADEP), show that our proposed method can ensure a smooth operation of the GB and GF devices within the same network while significantly minimizing the collision and interference among the device transmissions in the GB-GF HetNet. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Assisted User Clustering in Cell-Free Massive MIMO-NOMA Networks
Le, Quang Nhat; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Dobre, Octavia A. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(12), 12872-12887

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC ... [more ▼]

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC certainly results in a suboptimal solution while an exhaustive search method comes at the cost of high complexity, especially for systems of medium-to-large size. To address this problem, we develop two efficient unsupervised machine learning based UC algorithms, namely k-means++ and improved k-means++, to effectively cluster users into disjoint clusters in cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CFmMIMO) system. Adopting full-pilot zero-forcing at access points (APs) to comprehensively assess the system performance, we formulate the sum SE optimization problem taking into account power constraints at APs, necessary conditions for implementing successive interference cancellation, and required SE constraints at user equipments. The formulated optimization problem is highly non-convex, and thus, it is difficult to obtain the global optimal solution. Therefore, we develop a simple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solution. In addition, the performance of collocated massive MIMO-NOMA (COmMIMO-NOMA) system is also characterized. Numerical results are provided to show the superior performance of the proposed UC algorithms compared to baseline schemes. The effectiveness of applying NOMA in CFmMIMO and COmMIMO systems is also validated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (17 UL)
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See detailGender Differences and Extreme Events
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailGender Differences and Extreme Events
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 UL)