Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail“La citadelle ‘pieds dans l’eau’”,
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Freigeister. Fragments d’une scène artistique au Luxembourg et au-delà (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 UL)
See detailGlacier-fed stream biofilms harbour diverse resistomes and biosynthetic gene clusters 2021.11.18.469141
Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; de Nies, Laura UL; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a universal phenomenon whose origins lay in natural ecological interactions such as competition within niches, within and between micro- to higher-order ... [more ▼]

Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a universal phenomenon whose origins lay in natural ecological interactions such as competition within niches, within and between micro- to higher-order organisms. However, the ecological and evolutionary processes shaping AMR need to be better understood in view of better antimicrobial stewardship. Resolving antibiotic biosynthetic pathways, including biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), and corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) may therefore help in understanding the inherent mechanisms. However, to study these phenomena, it is crucial to examine the origins of AMR in pristine environments with limited anthropogenic influences. In this context, epilithic biofilms residing in glacier-fed streams (GFSs) are an excellent model system to study diverse, intra- and inter-domain, ecological crosstalk.Results We assessed the resistomes of epilithic biofilms from GFSs across the Southern Alps (New Zealand) and the Caucasus (Russia) and observed that both bacteria and eukaryotes encoded twenty-nine distinct AMR categories. Of these, beta-lactam, aminoglycoside, and multidrug resistance were both abundant and taxonomically distributed in most of the bacterial and eukaryotic phyla. AMR-encoding phyla included Bacteroidota and Proteobacteria among the bacteria, alongside Ochrophyta (algae) among the eukaryotes. Additionally, BGCs involved in the production of antibacterial compounds were identified across all phyla in the epilithic biofilms. Furthermore, we found that several bacterial genera (Flavobacterium, Polaromonas, etc.) including representatives of the superphylum Patescibacteria encode both ARGs and BGCs within close proximity of each other, thereby demonstrating their capacity to simultaneously influence and compete within the microbial community.Conclusions Our findings highlight the presence and abundance of AMR in epilithic biofilms within GFSs. Additionally, we identify their role in the complex intra- and inter-domain competition and the underlying mechanisms influencing microbial survival in GFS epilithic biofilms. We demonstrate that eukaryotes may serve as AMR reservoirs owing to their potential for encoding ARGs. We also find that the taxonomic affiliation of the AMR and the BGCs are congruent. Importantly, our findings allow for understanding how naturally occurring BGCs and AMR contribute to the epilithic biofilms mode of life in GFSs. Importantly, these observations may be generalizable and potentially extended to other environments which may be more or less impacted by human activity.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.AMRAntimicrobial resistanceARGsAntimicrobial resistance gene(s)BGCBiosynthetic gene clustersCACaucasusCPRCandidate Phyla radiationGFSsGlacier-fed stream(s)GLGlacierIRS-RSisoleucyl-tRNA synthetase - high resistanceIMPIntegrate Meta-Omics PipelineKEGGKyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and GenomesMAGsMetagenome-assembled genome(s)NRPSNon-ribosomal peptide synthetasesPKSPolyketide synthases (type I and type II)RiPPsPost-translationally modified peptide(s)SASouthern Alps [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailZombies, Conspiracies, and Esthetics in Crisis. A Computational Engagement with Genre Esthetics
Pause, Johannes UL; Walkowski, Niels-Oliver UL

in Ritzer, Ivo (Ed.) Media and Genre. Dialogues in Aesthetics and Cultural Analysis (2021)

This chapter analyzes narrative representations of political crises in two different genres—the zombie film and the political thriller—by focusing on the question whether a movie only speaks of such ... [more ▼]

This chapter analyzes narrative representations of political crises in two different genres—the zombie film and the political thriller—by focusing on the question whether a movie only speaks of such societal disruptions, or if it also develops an esthetics of disruption that provokes or challenges its viewers. A political esthetics of disruption would be one that could show reality as not-yet-framed, as something that is open for interpretation, meaning and conflict. Such moments of esthetic and political in-determination can appear on different levels of cinematic representation; they can refer to the formulas and stereotypes of genre, to the semantics of space in mainstream cinema, to pictorial traditions or to the political imaginary as a whole. In their analysis, the authors approach movies on at least three different levels: on the level of content with a focus on the political crisis the film presents; on the level of narrative structure; and on the level of esthetic design, which they analyze by a computational calculation of the course of esthetic parameters across the movies. Based on these case studies, the article summarizes methodological implications of the demonstrated digitized approach by advocating an organic and embedded application of computation in film genre analysis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 UL)
See detailGenomic and metabolic adaptations of biofilms to ecological windows of opportunities in glacier-fed streams 2021.10.07.463499
Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Bourquin, Massimo; Fodelianakis, Stilianos et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Microorganisms dominate life in cryospheric ecosystems. In glacier-fed streams (GFSs), ecological windows of opportunities allow complex microbial biofilms to develop and transiently form the basis of the ... [more ▼]

Microorganisms dominate life in cryospheric ecosystems. In glacier-fed streams (GFSs), ecological windows of opportunities allow complex microbial biofilms to develop and transiently form the basis of the food web, thereby controlling key ecosystem processes. Here, using high-resolution metagenomics, we unravel strategies that allow biofilms to seize this opportunity in an ecosystem otherwise characterized by harsh environmental conditions. We found a diverse microbiome spanning the entire tree of life and including a rich virome. Various and co-existing energy acquisition pathways point to diverse niches and the simultaneous exploitation of available resources, likely fostering the establishment of complex biofilms in GFSs during windows of opportunity. The wide occurrence of rhodopsins across metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), besides chlorophyll, highlights the role of solar energy capture in these biofilms. Concomitantly, internal carbon and nutrient cycling between photoautotrophs and heterotrophs may help overcome constraints imposed by the high oligotrophy in GFSs. MAGs also revealed mechanisms potentially protecting bacteria against low temperatures and high UV-radiation. The selective pressure of the GFS environment is further highlighted by the phylogenomic analysis, differentiating the representatives of the genus Polaromonas, an important component of the GFS microbiome, from those found in other ecosystems. Our findings reveal key genomic underpinnings of adaptive traits that contribute to the success of complex biofilms to exploit environmental opportunities in GFSs, now rapidly changing owing to global warming.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (1 UL)
See detailWorkplace Productivity and Management Practices
Polachek, Solomon; Russo, Giovanni; Van Houten, Gijs et al

Book published by Emerald (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDroit international privé de l'Union européenne (2020)
Kinsch, Patrick UL; d'Avout, Louis et al.

in Journal du Droit International (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCONFUZZION: A Java Virtual Machine Fuzzer for Type Confusion Vulnerabilities
Bonnaventure, William; Khanfir, Ahmed UL; Bartel, Alexandre et al

in IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security (QRS), 2021 (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (12 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailKyriakopoulou E. and Picard PM (2021), On the Design of Sustainable Cities: Local Traffic Pollution and Urban Structure, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 106, March 2021, 102418.
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kyriakopoulou, Efthymia

in Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2021), 107

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their workplaces with private vehicles and exert a local pollution externality on the residents living along the urban transport networks. The spatial location of firms and residents endogenously results from the trade-off between the production and pollution externalities and the commuting costs. The analysis shows that in monocentric cities the benefits associated with a fall in per-vehicle pollution are absorbed by rents paid to absentee landlords. When a city includes business and residential districts as well as a district mixing both agents, a lower per-vehicle pollution enlarges the residential districts and shifts the business districts closer to the geographical center of the city. The paper finally studies the optimal city structure. The first-best policies that fully internalize the externalities still foster business agglomeration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntraoperative discrimination of native meningioma and dura mater by Raman spectroscopy
Jelke, Finn; Mirizzi, Giulia; Borgmann, Felix Kleine et al

in Scientific Reports (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (5 UL)
See detailMobilome-driven segregation of the resistome in biological wastewater treatment 2021.11.15.468621
de Nies, Laura UL; Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Kunath, Benoit Josef et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) are considered to be hotspots of evolution and subsequent spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) promote the mobilization ... [more ▼]

Biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) are considered to be hotspots of evolution and subsequent spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) promote the mobilization and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and are thereby critical mediators of AMR within the BWWTP microbial community. At present, it is unclear whether specific AMR categories are differentially disseminated via bacteriophages (phages) or plasmids. To understand the segregation of AMR in relation to MGEs, we analyzed meta-omic (metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic) data systematically collected over 1.5 years from a BWWTP. Our results showed a core group of fifteen AMR categories which were found across all timepoints. Some of these AMR categories were disseminated exclusively (bacitracin) or primarily (aminoglycoside, MLS, sulfonamide) via plasmids or phages (fosfomycin and peptide), whereas others were disseminated equally by both MGEs. Subsequent expression- and protein-level analyses further demonstrated that aminoglycoside, bacitracin and sulfonamide resistance genes were expressed more by plasmids, in contrast to fosfomycin and peptide AMR expression by phages, thereby validating our genomic findings. Longitudinal assessment further underlined these findings whereby the log2-fold changes of aminoglycoside, bacitracin and sulfonamide resistance genes were increased in plasmids, while fosfomycin and peptide resistance showed similar trends in phages. In the analyzed communities, the dominant taxon Candidatus Microthrix parvicella was a major contributor to several AMR categories whereby its plasmids primarily mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Importantly, we also found AMR associated with ESKAPEE pathogens within the BWWTP, for which MGEs also contributed differentially to the dissemination of ARGs. Collectively our findings pave the way towards understanding the segmentation of AMR within MGEs, thereby shedding new light on resistome populations and their mediators, essential elements that are of immediate relevance to human health.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSergey Kichko, Pierre M. Picard, (2021), Effect of conformism on firm selection, product quality and home bias, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 185, pp. 402-418.
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kichko, Sergey

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021), 185

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their workplaces with private vehicles and exert a local pollution externality on the residents living along the urban transport networks. The spatial location of firms and residents endogenously results from the trade-off between the production and pollution externalities and the commuting costs. The analysis shows that in monocentric cities the benefits associated with a fall in per-vehicle pollution are absorbed by rents paid to absentee landlords. When a city includes business and residential districts as well as a district mixing both agents, a lower per-vehicle pollution enlarges the residential districts and shifts the business districts closer to the geographical center of the city. The paper finally studies the optimal city structure. The first-best policies that fully internalize the externalities still foster business agglomeration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCoronavirus Disease and General Practitioners in Luxembourg: a pandemic experience. Recommandations for the FutureRE
Delphin Pena, Maryher Zar; Baumann, Michèle UL; Gomez Barvo, Raquel

in WOrld family doctors CAring for people (2021)

The COVID-19 is a pandemic with no precedents in the world. GPs are at the forefront of the first intervention. Therefore, a current evaluation of their experiences while performing their role is ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 is a pandemic with no precedents in the world. GPs are at the forefront of the first intervention. Therefore, a current evaluation of their experiences while performing their role is necessary to develop new strategies, prepare plans for future pandemics, and improve the care provided Our aims were investigated to; (i) Analyze challenges while performing their role in this context (ii) Identify problems, needs, and opportunities associated with their experiences and (iii) Determine their proposals for an improvement in the management of future pandemics. Methodology: From April 17, 2020, to August 18, 2020, a qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews among GPs in Luxembourg. A content thematic categorical analysis was performed. Verbatims were extracted and regrouped into categories and categories reformulated into items. A total of 60 items were classified into dimensions to cover the study aims. Results: 18 GPs have participated. They expressed difficulties in managing COVID19 related patients, guaranteeing continuity of care of non-COVID patients, implementing telehealth, managing their self-protection (physical and psychological), solving information gap problems, and deficient communication with authorities. Additionally, GPs proposed to involve more family medicine in the health care system and to improve its relationships with other healthcare organizations and professionals. Develop protocols and guidelines addressed to GPs. Professionalized communication, as well as improve the use of eHealth and virtual platforms. Conclusion: Our findings reinforce the importance of developing new strategies to empower family medicine in the healthcare system during and after the pandemic-period and improve coordination and communication with authorities and patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInstitutional characteristics of education systems and inequalities—Introduction II. International Journal of Comparative Sociology
Gross, Christiane; Zapfe, Laura; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2021), early online

The second special issue of International Journal of Comparative Sociology (IJCS) on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities includes three papers that ... [more ▼]

The second special issue of International Journal of Comparative Sociology (IJCS) on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities includes three papers that focus on stratification of the education system as key driver of educational inequalities, the role of digital inequalities in the school and beyond, as well as how students navigate through the institutional setting of the Taiwanese education system. While we already elaborated on the research program, conceptual framework, and methodological challenges in the first introduction (published in January 2021), we will deal with the current state-of-research in this second introduction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTorn between Two Lovers: German Policy on Economic and Monetary Union, the New Hanseatic League and Franco-German Bilateralism
Howarth, David UL; Schild, Joachim

in German Politics (2021)

German governments and European Union (EU) member states forming the New Hanseatic League (HL) have had very similar preferences on EU / Eurozone financial support mechanisms. We would expect German and ... [more ▼]

German governments and European Union (EU) member states forming the New Hanseatic League (HL) have had very similar preferences on EU / Eurozone financial support mechanisms. We would expect German and HL governments to be close allies on these matters. However, empirically, we detect differences. German governments have repeatedly resisted participating in HL joint positions on EU financial support mechanisms and accepted compromises with France. In order to explain this divergence we consider the relative explanatory merit of economic preferences, based on both material interests and economic ideas—here ordoliberalism—on the one hand, and norms of cooperation—here Franco-German ‘embedded bilateralism’—and geo-strategic interests on the other hand. We disentangle economic preference formation and the choice in favour of a political strategy to pursue these preferences. Economic preferences are one factor explaining the extent of concessions made by Germany to the HL countries and France. However, norms of cooperation and geostrategic interests explain the choice of German governments on how and with whom best to pursue their preferences. German governments have performed a balancing act between the HL and France, skewed towards the latter. The presence of economic crises increases the degree to which this balancing act is skewed towards France. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailDigitalisation du diagnostic pédagogique : De l’évolution à la révolution
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport national sur l’éducation au Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailDigitalisierung der pädagogischen Diagnostik: Von Evolution zu Revolution
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 UL)
See detailQuarantaine : caricatures du virus jamais devenues virales
Gabellini, Marco UL; Riesenhuber, Georg; Wolf, Veronika et al

Book published by myMorawa (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailÉducation physique inclusive – Les enseignant(e)s de l’enseignement fondamental luxembourgeois à la loupe
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET); Universität Luxemburg (Uni.lu); Service de Coordination de la Recherche et de l‘Innovation pédagogiques et technologiques (SCRIPT) (Eds.) Rapport nationale sur l'éducation Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 UL)
Full Text
See detailBewegungserziehung inklusiv. Luxemburger Grundschullehrkräfte im Fokus
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET); Universität Luxemburg (Uni.lu); Service de Coordination de la Recherche et de l‘Innovation pédagogiques et technologiques (SCRIPT) (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 UL)