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See detailTransforming secondary education in the Belgian–German borderlands (1918–1939)
Venken, Machteld UL

in History of Education (2021)

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach pupils to become citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after the First World ... [more ▼]

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach pupils to become citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after the First World War into lived social spaces. This article uses Arnold Van Gennep’s notion that a shift in social status possesses a spatiality and temporality of its own, in order to analyse how principals of secondary schools negotiated transformation in the Belgian–German borderlands. It asks whether and how they were called on to offer training that would make the borderlands more cohesive with the rest of Belgium in terms of the social origins of pupils and the content of study, and examines the extent to which they were historical actors with room for their own decision-making on creating and abolishing a liminal phase, thereby leading secondary education through its rites of passage. [less ▲]

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See detailPLASMA-INDUCED POLYMERIZATION OF LIQUID LAYERS FOR THE SYNTHESIS AND DEPOSITION OF INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORK FILMS
Niemczyk, Edyta Monika UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Plasma polymerization is an attractive and powerful tool for synthesizing functional polymeric thin films with highly cross-linked structures. So far, in plasma many non-negligible side reactions promote ... [more ▼]

Plasma polymerization is an attractive and powerful tool for synthesizing functional polymeric thin films with highly cross-linked structures. So far, in plasma many non-negligible side reactions promote the synthesis of polymers with a structure different from those obtained by conventional polymerization processes. Namely, the network architecture could be a consequence of the functional group's sacrifice on behalf of the cross-link’s formation. Remarkably, conducted at atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization is evidenced to promote the conventional polymerization pathway assuring good retention of functional groups from monomers in a vapor or liquid phase. Yet, sacrificed to the benefit of the functional groups - the cross-links, lack further contribution to the mechanical and chemical stability, limiting the long-term application. In other words, the current state of the atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization requires a balance between available functional groups and cross-links. Consequently, as an effective method for an adequate reinforcement of cross-linked structure, maintaining a high concentration of the functional groups arises the combination of two polymeric networks in Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPN). However, the formation of IPN architecture in the plasma process has yet to be reported. In this context, this thesis aimed to examine the deposition of the thin films with the IPN architecture, utilizing an atmospheric pressure continuous sinusoidal plasma in the synthesis pathway. The primary objective was to evaluate the formation of the IPN system in-situ, in a sequential manner from telechelic oligomers. The convenience of the one-pot, in-situ, IPN formation involves foremost an immediate network's interlocking already during synthesis, thus providing forced compatibilization and reducing possible phase separation. To facilitate direct network formation, thin films were prepared from telechelic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers with different reactive end-groups to assure two different polymerization pathways. The latter factor was just a prerequisite to enable an IPN synthesis in a non-interfering manner, whereas a shared PEG backbone was intended as a compatibilization factor between the networks. In particular, methyl methacrylate (MA) and benzoxazine (Bz) were studied as reactive end-groups. These two distinct functional groups allowed the formation of the first network by atmospheric pressure plasma-induced polymerization of the telechelic MA-PEG, followed by the second network formation by thermal curing of the telechelic Bz-PEG thermoset. The formation of the IPN systems in a non-interfering sequential manner was corroborated by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements and thermal analyses. Moreover, the negligible effect of the plasma exposure on the Bz chemical structure was assessed. The evaluation of the macroscopic and microscopic properties of the IPN systems were discussed, considering telechelic PEG oligomers with two different numbers of ethylene oxide units (n=1 or 8). Nano-scratch tests evidenced an apparent effect of the IPN formation and the Bz reinforcing role with up to a threefold increase of the mechanical load resistance compared with the MA-PEG thin film. Nano-viscoelastic analysis by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) confirmed the formation of the IPN structure and the absence of phase separation. In addition, loss tangent and Young modulus parameters indicated the formation of a stiffer IPN when the Bz-PEG with the lower number of ethylene oxide units was used. The well-known thermal properties of Bz thermosets were reflected in the IPN systems allowing the formation of PEG thin films with enhanced thermal stability, remarkably increased up to 100 °C. A systematic study was carried out to deepen the understanding of the IPN systems prepared by this novel approach, particularly the structure-to-property relationship. Thermal studies allowed to associate the increment of the ratio between ethylene oxide units and reactive end-groups in the IPN system as a hindering effect on Bz network formation. Otherwise, the synergism between the formation of the two networks was revealed by the IPN systems prepared with the Bz-PEG with the lower number of ethylene oxide units, reaching thermal stability beyond that of their single constituents. Comparative studies conducted by nanomechanical AFM mapping between IPN thin films consisting of the same molar fraction of Bz enabled to determine the influence of the concentration of ethylene oxide units on the viscoelastic properties of the thin films. With the ultimate goal of proposing an approach for the in-situ and simultaneous formation of IPNs by a plasma process, the plasma-induced ring-opening polymerization was considered an alternative to the thermal ring-opening polymerization mechanism. For this aim, model allyl substituted cyclic carbonates were investigated. Since the driving force behind ring-opening is the release of the cycle strain, the model molecules consisted of 6-membered and N-substituted 8-membered cyclic carbonates. While the allylic 6-membered cyclic carbonate was found to mainly polymerize by a free-radical mechanism through the double C=C bond, in the more reactive allylic N-substituted cyclic carbonate, a competition of two polymerization mechanisms occurred. Interestingly, ring-opening polymerization could be prioritized over the free-radical mechanism by actuating on plasma exposition parameters such as power and time. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective Elements of School-based Provision for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles: A European Delphi Study
Bailey, Richard; Glibo, Iva; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Health Behavior and Policy Review (2021), 8(6), 546-557

Objective: Schools can serve as settings for promoting their student health, although it is necessary to identify the key elements of provision to leverage change. This study’s objective was to develop a ... [more ▼]

Objective: Schools can serve as settings for promoting their student health, although it is necessary to identify the key elements of provision to leverage change. This study’s objective was to develop a Europe-based list of the elements of learning and health support systems judged by a group of experts to be most effective in influencing school student healthy lifestyles education. Methods: A 3-stage Delphi study involving a group of 18 Europe-based subject specialists was used to articulate shared expert opinions on the main research question: what are the most effective elements of learning and health support systems influencing school students’ healthy lifestyles education? Over 3 rounds of data-gathering, experts were asked to assess the effectiveness of 25 specific elements. Results: The 3 rounds resulted in the following ranked list: Physical Education (PE), Staff Professional Development, Healthy School Policies, Active Recess, Family & Community Engagement, Healthy Eating, Physical Activity in Classroom Lessons, and Active Transport. Conclusions: Cautious of overly generalizing from the results, we suggest the findings offer useful information for evidence-based programs, as well as future research that explores the necessary components of health promotion in schools. [less ▲]

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See detailSeebeck effect in nanomagnets
Fedorov, Dmitry UL; Gradhand, Martin; Tauber, Katarina et al

in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (2021), 34

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See detailBrief overview of Pillar One
Sinnig, Julia UL

Presentation (2021, December 02)

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See detailThe precautionary principle and the authorisation of Covid-19 vaccines under EU
Donati, Alessandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The decision of the EU Commission, based on positive advice from the European Medicines Agency, to grant conditional marketing authorisation to Covid-19 vaccines should be qualified as a precautionary ... [more ▼]

The decision of the EU Commission, based on positive advice from the European Medicines Agency, to grant conditional marketing authorisation to Covid-19 vaccines should be qualified as a precautionary measure. Under the established case law of the CJEU, the conditions for the application of this principle are met. Such conditions are the existence of a risk to the environment and public health and uncertainty. Given this qualification as a precautionary measure, whether the Commission had complied with the procedural obligations that surround the implementation of this principle under EU law was assessed. Some shortcomings are identified concerning the risk assessment conducted by the European Medicines Agency and the risk management carried out by the Commission. [less ▲]

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See detailConciliatory reasoning, self-defeat, and abstract argumentation
Knoks, Aleks UL

in Review of Symbolic Logic (2021), First View

According to conciliatory views on the significance of disagreement, it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case your epistemic peer’s take on it is different. These ... [more ▼]

According to conciliatory views on the significance of disagreement, it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case your epistemic peer’s take on it is different. These views are intuitively appealing, but they also face a powerful objection: in scenarios that involve disagreements over their own correctness, conciliatory views appear to self-defeat and, thereby, issue inconsistent recommendations. This paper provides a response to this objection. Drawing on the work from defeasible logics paradigm and abstract argumentation, it develops a formal model of conciliatory reasoning and explores its behavior in the troubling scenarios. The model suggests that the recommendations that conciliatory views issue in such scenarios are perfectly reasonable---even if outwardly they may look odd. [less ▲]

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See detailPan Am and Socialist Romania: Flying from New York to Bucharest in the 1970s
Stefan, Oana Adelina UL

Presentation (2021, December 02)

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See detailSupporting Grocery Shopping to Achieve a Healthy and Sustainable Diet – How Developing a Behavioural Theory Informs Dynamic Smartphone Applications
Blanke, Julia UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Health and sustainability are becoming increasingly important in current lifestyles. In this context healthy and sustainable grocery shopping is one key aspect to facilitate a balanced and environmentally ... [more ▼]

Health and sustainability are becoming increasingly important in current lifestyles. In this context healthy and sustainable grocery shopping is one key aspect to facilitate a balanced and environmentally friendly diet. Many people are interested in changing their habits to become healthier and to consider their impact on the environment through the choices they make. But many do not consider where a healthy and sustainable diet starts. In other words, people frequently have a vague idea that grocery shopping is an important aspect of a healthy and sustainable lifestyle, but they lack sufficient knowledge and action plans to act accordingly. Therefore, the observable behaviour in many cases shows what is called the intention-action/behaviour gap, the attitude-behaviour gap, or the knowing-doing gap (Ajzen, 2016; Grunert, 2011; Hoek, Pearson, James, Lawrence, & Friel, 2017; de Schutter, 2015; Bailey & Harper, 2015). To break this deadlock people, who are interested in such a lifestyle change, need the required information and support to create appropriate action plans to lead them through their grocery shopping without incurring excessive cognitive impact. The risk of such cognitive strain is that people give up easily on their good intentions and fall back into old unhealthy or environmentally impacting habits. Smartphones are ubiquitous and therefore could potentially solve many of these problems, but the design of suitable applications is mostly ad-hoc and not based on thorough modelling. On the other hand, existing behavioural models are considered to be too static and not up to the task of dynamically assessing and influencing behaviour as would be required by a smartphone-based intervention (Riley, et al., 2011; Spruijt-Metz & Nilsen, 2014). To address these problems this work proposes three major contributions: first, a novel comprehensive model of behaviour built on well-established theories used in psychology and the social science. The novelty is the consistent integration of well-proven pre-existing theories into one single comprehensive model that aims to capture the benefits and tries to overcome the limitations of each base theory. Based on this model, the second contribution of this work is the evaluation of motivation and intention to buy healthy and sustainable groceries. It has been found that health is more important than sustainability in this regard, and that health-related goals are easier to act on than sustainability related goals resulting in a bigger intention-action gap for sustainable grocery shopping. To address these issues, the third major contribution of this work is a model-derived design framework for smartphone-based interventions that provides comprehensive guidelines for developing applications to assess and support a specific behaviour, such as grocery shopping, while at the same time aiming at addressing a superordinate issue, such as health and sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe NIS2 Directive is on its way
Schmitz, Sandra UL

Presentation (2021, December 01)

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See detailHistoire de la construction européenne et mise en données du monde
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Stratégies et acteurs. Construire l’Europe au XXe siècle (2021)

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be tabulated – creates for the history of European integration. It uses cases of online digital libraries to show the consequences of digitization policy choices on the way historians can analyse these sources and, as a consequence, write history. We then explain the principle of ‘distant reading’, which stems from the work of the historian Franco Moretti, and try, with a few examples of research already carried out or to be carried out, to illustrate its possibilities for this historiographical school. All in all, we attempt to describe what it is to ‘write the history of European integration’ in the digital era. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre force et diplomatie spatiale : le missile russe Nudol s'invite à la table des négociations
Zarkan, Laetitia UL; Degrange, Valentin; Peter, Hugo

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailCoronavirus Pandemic Response and Voter Choice: Evidence from Serbia and Croatia
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Mochtak, Michal

in Communist and Post-Communist Studies (2021), 54(4), 197214

Does the public perception of governments’ coronavirus pandemic responses actually make a difference to their electoral fortunes? In this research note, we answer that question by presenting the ... [more ▼]

Does the public perception of governments’ coronavirus pandemic responses actually make a difference to their electoral fortunes? In this research note, we answer that question by presenting the preliminary results of a survey of more than 3,000 voters in Croatia and Serbia conducted on a dedicated mobile app and web platform directly preceding parliamentary elections that took place in these two countries during the summer of 2020. This survey was part of our larger project tracking political competition, public discourse, and conspiracy theories in Southeast Europe during the coronavirus pandemic. The preliminary findings presented in this research note demonstrate Croatian and Serbian voters were rationally retrospective and rewarded parties in power based on evaluations of their crisis management performance. We also find evidence of voters who have personally witnessed the health consequences of the coronavirus being more likely to support the parties in power. We believe this is evidence of the coronavirus pandemic increasing affected citizens’ expectations of and trust in national governments where those governments respond strongly to the pandemic’s first wave, as was the case in both Croatia and Serbia. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Based Multiplexing of Grant-Based and Grant-Free Heterogeneous Services with Short Packets
Tran, Duc Dung UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2021, December)

In this paper, we investigate the multiplexing of grant-based (GB) and grant-free (GF) device transmissions in an uplink heterogeneous network (HetNet), namely GB-GF HetNet, where the devices transmit ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the multiplexing of grant-based (GB) and grant-free (GF) device transmissions in an uplink heterogeneous network (HetNet), namely GB-GF HetNet, where the devices transmit their information using low-rate short data packets. Specifically, GB devices are granted unique time-slots for their transmissions. In contrast, GF devices can randomly select time-slots to transmit their messages utilizing the GF non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which has emerged as a promising enabler for massive access and reducing access latency. However, random access (RA) in the GF NOMA can cause collisions and severe interference, leading to system performance degradation. To overcome this issue, we propose a multiple access (MA) protocol based on reinforcement learning for effective RA slots allocation. The proposed learning method aims to guarantee that the GF devices do not cause any collisions to the GB devices and the number of GF devices choosing the same time-slot does not exceed a predetermined threshold to reduce the interference. In addition, based on the results of the RA slots allocation using the proposed method, we derive the approximate closed-form expressions of the average decoding error probability (ADEP) for all devices to characterize the system performance. Our results presented in terms of access efficiency (AE), collision probability (CP), and overall ADEP (OADEP), show that our proposed method can ensure a smooth operation of the GB and GF devices within the same network while significantly minimizing the collision and interference among the device transmissions in the GB-GF HetNet. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Assisted User Clustering in Cell-Free Massive MIMO-NOMA Networks
Le, Quang Nhat; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Dobre, Octavia A. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(12), 12872-12887

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC ... [more ▼]

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC certainly results in a suboptimal solution while an exhaustive search method comes at the cost of high complexity, especially for systems of medium-to-large size. To address this problem, we develop two efficient unsupervised machine learning based UC algorithms, namely k-means++ and improved k-means++, to effectively cluster users into disjoint clusters in cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CFmMIMO) system. Adopting full-pilot zero-forcing at access points (APs) to comprehensively assess the system performance, we formulate the sum SE optimization problem taking into account power constraints at APs, necessary conditions for implementing successive interference cancellation, and required SE constraints at user equipments. The formulated optimization problem is highly non-convex, and thus, it is difficult to obtain the global optimal solution. Therefore, we develop a simple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solution. In addition, the performance of collocated massive MIMO-NOMA (COmMIMO-NOMA) system is also characterized. Numerical results are provided to show the superior performance of the proposed UC algorithms compared to baseline schemes. The effectiveness of applying NOMA in CFmMIMO and COmMIMO systems is also validated. [less ▲]

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See detailLe silence est d'or
van Ruymbeke, Muriel UL

in van Wersch, Line; Fraiture, Pascale; Maggi, Christophe (Eds.) et al Cerner le passé. Mélanges en l'honneur de Patrick Hoffsummer (2021)

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See detailGender Differences and Extreme Events
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 UL)
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See detailUser Grouping for Non-Coherent DPSK Massive SIMO with Heterogeneous Propagation Conditions
Monzon Baeza, Victor UL; Garcia Armada, Ana

in 2021 Global Congress on Electrical Engineering (GC-ElecEng) (2021, December)

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See detailGender Differences and Extreme Events
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (2 UL)