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See detailThe Implementation of the Hotspot Approach in Italy. CONDISOBS Policy Paper No. 2
Vianelli, Lorenzo UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2022)

This policy paper is based on the findings of the H2020 project CONDISOBS, which was conducted by Lorenzo Vianelli at the University of Luxembourg, thanks to funding received from the European Union’s ... [more ▼]

This policy paper is based on the findings of the H2020 project CONDISOBS, which was conducted by Lorenzo Vianelli at the University of Luxembourg, thanks to funding received from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 838722. CONDISOBS explored the governance of the mobility of asylum seekers in the European Union through a multi-sited qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with state officials, representatives of international organisations and non-governmental organisations, lawyers, members of advocacy groups, social workers and activists. Interview material was integrated by an extensive review of academic literature, policy documents and institutional and non-governmental reports. Data was collected between October 2020 and June 2021. This policy paper is part of a series on the hotspot approach, which also includes a policy paper on the features of this mechanism in a broad sense and one on its implementation in Greece. All policy papers, as well as other research outputs, are freely accessible on the project website. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecial Issue on New Paradigms of Software Production and Deployment
Capozucca, Alfredo UL; Bruel, Jean-Michel; Mazzara, Manuel et al

in SN Computer Science (2022), 3(132),

Ediorial of the Special Issue on “New paradigms of software production and deployment”.

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See detailRe/constructing Computing Experiences. From "punch girls" in the 1940s to "computer boys" in the 1980s.
van Herck, Sytze UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Re/constructing computing experiences from “punch girls” to “computer boys” traces the life cycle of five computing devices between the 1940s and the 1980s, each representing a key development in the ... [more ▼]

Re/constructing computing experiences from “punch girls” to “computer boys” traces the life cycle of five computing devices between the 1940s and the 1980s, each representing a key development in the history of computing. The experimental media archaeology framework of Nutzerperspektiven critically evaluates the type of user sources re/construct. The object’s life cycle traces phases of design, production, sale, installation, application and use, and decommission or re-use. The lens of intersectionality with a focus on gender facilitates (visual) discourse analysis of advertisements to expose stereotypes. User experiences differ because inequalities in computing have at times resulted in occupational segregation, and working conditions varied across case studies. Computing experiences encompass the object, the environment, and application, and a user, serving as a structure for the case studies. The first case study discusses the accounting departments of Helena Rubinstein which used Remington Rand, and later Powers-Samas, punch card machinery since 1940. Miss Summerell led the Powers room in the London branch from 1955 onward. The second case study centers around a workflow Dr. E. Blatt created for the International Business Machines (IBM) System/360 announced in 1964 used in German clinical chemistry laboratories since 1969. The Digital Equipment Company’s client applications slides form the basis of the next case study and showed several uses of the Programmable Data Processor or PDP-11 in aerospace and commercial aircraft between 1970 and 1980. The final chapter compares two educational initiatives from the 1980s. By 1981 the BBC Microcomputer kickstarted the Computer Literacy project in the United Kingdom, first targeting adults but soon entering primary and secondary schools. Apple’s Kids Can’t Wait initiative in the United States equally introduced many children to computing. Methods from user experience (UX) design and experimental media archaeology supported the re/construction or reenactment of past human-computer interaction. As a study of material culture, the historical case studies were informed by museum objects paired with additional archival sources. The research added phases to the life cycle framework and paired a reflection on the provenance of material objects with a focus on human actors. The case studies in turn demonstrated how sources limited the type of user and computing experiences historians can re/construct. [less ▲]

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See detailLa plateforme de justice décentralisée Kleros
Becker, Katrin UL

Presentation (2022, January 13)

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See detailDecision-Making Processes and Certainties in Heritage Reconstructions Using the Example of Larochette Castle, Luxembourg
de Kramer, Marleen Christine UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

To reconstruct a historical building is to make countless decisions, weighing often conflicting sources, dealing with gaps in the data and adapting to new information. This thesis investigates how ... [more ▼]

To reconstruct a historical building is to make countless decisions, weighing often conflicting sources, dealing with gaps in the data and adapting to new information. This thesis investigates how individual aspects of a reconstruction can be classified by their degree of accuracy or the certainty that they are correct, how the public understands - and can be taught to understand - these distinctions, and how this system can be applied to existing reconstructions. [less ▲]

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See detailFocal adhesion kinase plays a dual role in TRAIL resistance and metastatic outgrowth of malignant melanoma
Del Mistro, Greta; Riemann, Shamala; Schindler, Sebastian et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2022)

Despite remarkable advances in therapeutic interventions, malignant melanoma (MM) remains a life-threating disease. Following high initial response rates to targeted kinase-inhibition metastases quickly ... [more ▼]

Despite remarkable advances in therapeutic interventions, malignant melanoma (MM) remains a life-threating disease. Following high initial response rates to targeted kinase-inhibition metastases quickly acquire resistance and present with enhanced tumor progression and invasion, demanding alternative treatment options. We show 2nd generation hexameric TRAIL-receptor-agonist IZI1551 (IZI) to effectively induce apoptosis in MM cells irrespective of the intrinsic BRAF/NRAS mutation status. Conditioning to the EC50 dose of IZI converted the phenotype of IZI-sensitive parental MM cells into a fast proliferating and invasive, IZI-resistant metastasis. Mechanistically, we identified focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to play a dual role in phenotype-switching. In the cytosol, activated FAK triggers survival pathways in a PI3K- and MAPK-dependent manner. In the nucleus, the FERM domain of FAK prevents activation of wtp53, as being expressed in the majority of MM, and consequently intrinsic apoptosis. Caspase-8-mediated cleavage of FAK as well as FAK knockdown, and pharmacological inhibition, respectively, reverted the metastatic phenotype-switch and restored IZI responsiveness. FAK inhibition also re-sensitized MM cells isolated from patient metastasis that had relapsed from targeted kinase inhibition to cell death, irrespective of the intrinsic BRAF/NRAS mutation status. Hence, FAK-inhibition alone or in combination with 2nd generation TRAIL-receptor agonists may be recommended for treatment of initially resistant and relapsed MM, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailIntersectional Inequalities in Science
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Larivière, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2022), 119(2), 2113067119

The US scientific workforce is primarily composed of White men. Studies have demonstrated the systemic barriers preventing women and other minoritized populations from gaining entry to science; few ... [more ▼]

The US scientific workforce is primarily composed of White men. Studies have demonstrated the systemic barriers preventing women and other minoritized populations from gaining entry to science; few, however, have taken an intersectional perspective and examined the consequences of these inequalities on scientific knowledge. We provide a large-scale bibliometric analysis of the relationship between intersectional identities, topics, and scientific impact. We find homophily between identities and topic, suggesting a relationship between diversity in the scientific workforce and expansion of the knowledge base. However, topic selection comes at a cost to minoritized individuals for whom we observe both between- and within-topic citation disadvantages. To enhance the robustness of science, research organizations should provide adequate resources to historically underfunded research areas while simultaneously providing access for minoritized individuals into high-prestige networks and topics. [less ▲]

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See detailCerebro: Static Subsuming Mutant Selection
Garg, Aayush UL; Ojdanic, Milos UL; Degiovanni, Renzo Gaston UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2022)

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See detailL'Europe sociale - mythe ou réalité? (L'Europe sociale - racines historiques, acteurs, modèle)
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2022, January 11)

L’Europe sociale – mythe ou réalié?(L?Europe sociale -racines historiques, acteurs, modèle) Introduction (précisions terminologiques, racines historiques, contexte) II. Chronologie et jalons des ... [more ▼]

L’Europe sociale – mythe ou réalié?(L?Europe sociale -racines historiques, acteurs, modèle) Introduction (précisions terminologiques, racines historiques, contexte) II. Chronologie et jalons des initiatives d’une Europe sociale III. Changement de perspective IV. Le socle européen des droits sociaux IV. Chantiers actuels [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Detective Work: Environmental Cheminformatics and the Exposome
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2022, January 10)

The multitude of chemicals to which we are exposed is ever increasing, with over 110 million chemicals in the largest open chemical databases, over 350,000 in global use inventories, and over 70,000 ... [more ▼]

The multitude of chemicals to which we are exposed is ever increasing, with over 110 million chemicals in the largest open chemical databases, over 350,000 in global use inventories, and over 70,000 estimated to be in household use alone. Detectable molecules in exposomics can be captured using non-target high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), but despite the size of the chemical space, scientists cannot yet identify most of the tens of thousands of features in each sample, leading to critical bottlenecks in identification and data interpretation. This talk will cover European and worldwide community initiatives and resources to help connect environmental expert knowledge and observations towards a better understanding of the exposome, including various open cheminformatics and computational mass spectrometry approaches such as the NORMAN Suspect List Exchange, MassBank, MetFrag and PubChemLite for Exposomics. [less ▲]

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See detailDairy Intake and Parkinson's Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study
Domenighetti, Cloé; Sugier, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ashok Kumar Sreelatha, Ashwin et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Abstract Background Previous prospective studies highlighted dairy intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in men. It is unclear whether this association is causal or explained ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Previous prospective studies highlighted dairy intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in men. It is unclear whether this association is causal or explained by reverse causation or confounding. Objective The aim is to examine the association between genetically predicted dairy intake and PD using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods We genotyped a well-established instrumental variable for dairy intake located in the lactase gene (rs4988235) within the Courage-PD consortium (23 studies; 9823 patients and 8376 controls of European ancestry). Results Based on a dominant model, there was an association between genetic predisposition toward higher dairy intake and PD (odds ratio [OR] per one serving per day = 1.70, 95 confidence interval = 1.12–2.60, P = 0.013) that was restricted to men (OR = 2.50 [1.37–4.56], P = 0.003; P-difference with women = 0.029). Conclusions Using MR, our findings provide further support for a causal relationship between dairy intake and higher PD risk, not biased by confounding or reverse causation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2022 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society [less ▲]

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See detailSexual Satisfaction and Sexual Behaviors During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Results From the International Sexual Health and Reproductive (I-SHARE) Health Survey in Luxembourg
Jobim Fischer, Vinicius UL; Gomez Bravo, Raquel UL; Einloft Brunnet, Alice et al

in BMC Public Health (2022)

Aim: To identify the impact of COVID-19 measures on sexual behaviors and sexual satisfaction in Luxembourg residents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of adults (> 18 years of age ... [more ▼]

Aim: To identify the impact of COVID-19 measures on sexual behaviors and sexual satisfaction in Luxembourg residents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of adults (> 18 years of age) residing in Luxembourg, while COVID-19 restrictions were in place. The survey was available in four languages (French, German, English and Portuguese). Survey questions focused on masturbation, cuddling, condom use, sex frequency, sexting, cybersex, watching porn, and sexual satisfaction. Results: 557 volunteers completed the survey (35.5% men, 64.3% women). Sexual problems increased during the COVID-19 measures while sexual satisfaction decreased compared to prior the COVID-19 measures (assessed retrospectively). Factors associated with increased odds of sexual satisfaction were: having a steady relationship before COVID-19 restrictions, engaging in sexting, reporting good mental health and not altering alcohol intake. Conclusions: The context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures implemented in Luxembourg affected sexual behaviors and sexual satisfaction. Sexual and reproductive health care centers and health professionals in general should take these results into consideration when providing care. Recommendations on the importance of sexual health for general wellbeing and behaviors associated with sexual satisfaction should be offered and possibilities to experience sexuality while reducing contamination risks be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDYT6 mutated THAP1 is a cell type dependent regulator of the SP1 family.
Cheng, Fubo; Zheng, Wenxu; Barbuti, Peter Antony et al

in Brain : a journal of neurology (2022), 145(11), 3968-3984

DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in the transcription factor THAP1. THAP1 knock-out or knock-in mouse models revealed complex gene expression changes, which are potentially responsible for the ... [more ▼]

DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in the transcription factor THAP1. THAP1 knock-out or knock-in mouse models revealed complex gene expression changes, which are potentially responsible for the pathogenesis of DYT6 dystonia. However, how THAP1 mutations lead to these gene expression alterations and whether the gene expression changes are also reflected in the brain of THAP1 patients are still unclear. In this study we used epigenetic and transcriptomic approaches combined with multiple model systems [THAP1 patients' frontal cortex, THAP1 patients' induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons, THAP1 heterozygous knock-out rat model, and THAP1 heterozygous knock-out SH-SY5Y cell lines] to uncover a novel function of THAP1 and the potential pathogenesis of DYT6 dystonia. We observed that THAP1 targeted only a minority of differentially expressed genes caused by its mutation. THAP1 mutations lead to dysregulation of genes mainly through regulation of SP1 family members, SP1 and SP4, in a cell type dependent manner. Comparing global differentially expressed genes detected in THAP1 patients' iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons and THAP1 heterozygous knock-out rat striatum, we observed many common dysregulated genes and 61 of them were involved in dystonic syndrome-related pathways, like synaptic transmission, nervous system development, and locomotor behaviour. Further behavioural and electrophysiological studies confirmed the involvement of these pathways in THAP1 knock-out rats. Taken together, our study characterized the function of THAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the pathogenesis of primary dystonia in humans and rats. As SP1 family members were dysregulated in some neurodegenerative diseases, our data may link THAP1 dystonia to multiple neurological diseases and may thus provide common treatment targets. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain matters – lex cryptographia and the displacement of legal symbolics and imaginaries
Becker, Katrin UL

in Law and Critique (2022)

This article focusses on the social and legal implications that blockchain technology brings about, not only due to its ideological framework, but also, and especially, due to the concept of law it ... [more ▼]

This article focusses on the social and legal implications that blockchain technology brings about, not only due to its ideological framework, but also, and especially, due to the concept of law it inaugurates. Thus, this article claims, that, by interlocking technological and legal structures, blockchain technology initiates a profound displacement of legal symbolics and imaginaries. It shows how blockchain law, by emancipating itself from three essential dimensions of law—language, territory, and the body—implies a profound disruption of how we perceive law and its legitimacy. Starting with an overview of the technological details of blockchain, the paper then addresses its ideological context and traces the underlying ideas, values and functions and their relation with—and impact on—the general perception of law and legal issues. By critically assessing the claim that blockchain will liberate the subject from any heteronymic constraints, this paper analyses to what extent this technology has social and legal implications that reach far beyond its virtual, purely blockchain-related scope of applications—and why this technology should matter to us all. [less ▲]

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See detailCalibration of the Latest Generation Superconducting Gravimeter iGrav-043 Using the Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter OSG-CT040 and the Comparisons of Their Characteristics at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics, Luxembourg
Elsaka, Basem; Francis, Olivier UL; Kusche, Jürgen

in Pure and Applied Geophysics (2022)

In December 2019, the latest generation transportable superconducting gravimeter (SG) iGrav-043 purchased by the University of Bonn was installed in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics ... [more ▼]

In December 2019, the latest generation transportable superconducting gravimeter (SG) iGrav-043 purchased by the University of Bonn was installed in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. In this paper, we estimate the calibration factor of the iGrav-043, which is essential for long-term gravity monitoring. We used simultaneously collected gravity data from the un-calibrated iGrav-043 and the calibrated Observatory superconducting gravimeter OSG-CT040 that operates continuously at WULG since 2002. The tidal analysis provides a simple way to transfer the calibration factor of one SG to the other. We then assess and compare tidal analyses, instrumental drifts and high frequency noises. After 20 years of continuous operation, the instrumental drift of the OSG-CT040 is almost zero. From 533 days of joint operation, we found that the instrumental drift of iGrav-043 exhibits a composite behavior: just after the setup and for two months a fast exponential decrease of 171 nm s−2, then a linear with a rate of 66 nm s−2 ± 10 nm s−2 per year. We suggest that a period of 3 months is sufficient for calibrating the iGrav. Accidental electrical power cuts triggered slight differences in the reaction and recovery of the OSG-CT040 and iGrav-043. However, it has been found that the long-term linear behavior of the drift was not affected. [less ▲]

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